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V^ / A CWOI PUBLICATION 



C^^en-iber 1984 
USA $4.00 Ciihada $4.50 






micro. 



The Tandy 1000 



An IBM-Compatible 
For Only $1,199 



Easydata: A Down-Home 
Data Base Manager 

Review: The VS-100 
Voice Synthesizer 

Using Your Printer 
With the Model 4 

Touchdown: The NFL 
Comes to Your Home 

Exploring Fractals 
With Your TRS-80 



the magazine for TRS-80* users 





sr au - 








IF THEY'VE 







M A COLOR COMPUT 
UU SAVE <20 




iiiilj! 




16K Extended 
BASIC 

I ^^^7 ^3136 



Reg. 159.95 



16K Standard 
BASIC 

9995 

Reg. 119.95 



USE VOUR 
CITILINE CREDIT 



Have a Colorful Christmas 

A perfect gift for the whole family 
that will keep on giving for years to 
come! The Color Computer 2 is 
ideal for anytxxJy who wants to 
enjoy games in a system that can 
be used for many other house- 
hold, business and educational 
tasks. It's great for beginners who 
want a computer to learn on — but 
won't limit them later on. And it's 
perfect for hobbyists who want a 
full-featured system with the op- 
portunity for advanced grsiphics 
and programming expansion. 



Ready to Use 

Just attach the Color Computer 2 
to any TV. Our "pop-in" Program 
Pak™ cartridges let you battle star- 
ships in outer space, run a maze, 
play baseball— and lots more. But 
playing games is only the begin- 
ning. You can set up a budget or 
monitor your investments. Your 
kids can learn math or typing, en- 
joy literary classics or make glori- 
ous computer "paintings" 

Want to Learn to Program? 

Our entertaining instruction manu- 
als will have you writing programs 
with color displays and sound in 
no time. Color BASIC'S simple 
commands let you quickly pro- 
duce drawings, diagrams and 
charts. Choose from eight brilliant 
colors, create musical tones, solve 
problems, analyze data and 
much more. 



Choose the Color Computer 
That's Right for You 

The 16K Color Computer 2 with 
the Standard Color BASIC lan- 
guage is perfect for beginning 
programmers. An entertaining 
185-page learning manual is in- 
cluded. Or pick the 16K Color 
Computer 2 with Extended Color 
BASIC for advanced programming 
capabilities. Create high-resolution 
color graphics using simple one- 
line commands. You can even 
choose the Standard version 
and upgrade to Extended 
BASIC later on. 

Expand Easily 

Your Color Computer 2 can grow 
with you, too. Add a pair of joy- 
sticks, a printer and a modem for 
telephone communications. Up- 
grade with more memory and up 
to four disk drives, too. 



W THEY'VE 



&:■■•: 



• «:#^«»^K^ -- 



-^y 



«■«■> ^ 



r'iiK* ■' 



!■ 1"l ■ 



■ ■ «'■ 




GIVE EM THE WORKS 
AND SAVE '117.70 




IJ'l 7 T T T T^ T T" T 
I r I I I I I I I 1 t 
/ / ; ( I I I I I 1 I 
[ I I I I I I I 





Complete System 

29995 

R«g. Separate Items 4t7.65 

AS LOW AS $27 PER MONTH 
WITH aTlLINE CREDIT 

Get Super Holiday Savings 
On This Versatile System! 

Save big when you get this per- 
fectly matched Standard Color 
Computer 2 system, with ad- 
vanced color graphics printer and 
cable, cassette recorder, joysticks 
and educational programs! 

Get Beautiful Color 
Printouts in Seconds 

The ultra-compact CGP-115 Color 
Graphics Printer lets you create a 
variety of graphic designs from 
charts to computer-generated 
"doodles." The CGP-115 uses 
easily replacable ink cartridges to 



print in brilliant red, blue, green 
and black on 4'/^" wide paper. 
Drawing and plotting are simplified 
with CGP-115's built-in commands. 

Save Programs and Data 
on Cassette Tape 

The CCR-82 recorder is especially 
designed for loading and record- 
ing programs and data. The 
CCR-82 features a volume con- 
trol with a pre-set marker that 
makes it easy to find the 
right setting, time after time. 

Increase Your Children's 
Vocabulary Skills 

You also get our popular Vocabu- 
lary Tutor programs on cassette 
tape— the fun way to learn new 
words. Kids in grades 3-5 can 
match words with their definitions 
and place the words in appropri- 
ate sentences. 



L 



System incluctes 26-3134/1182/1209/30?0/2568/2&69/300a 



Come in Today! 

Take advantage of either of these 
super holiday offers at your local 
Radio Shack. A Color Computer 2 
is one present that will pay off 
in the future—for everyone in 
the family! 

Radio /haeH 

The Technology Store 

I Haw IMS Computer Catalog. Sand me a tree copy. I 

Mail To Hadio ShacK. DepI 8S-A-407 I 

300 One Tandy Center, Fori Worm. Texas 76102 1 

NAME I 



COMPANY. 
ADDRESS. 

CITY 

STATE 



TtLEPMONE 

Prices apply al Radio Shack Compuiar Centers 
and participating Radio Shack stores and deal- 
ers, OHer good Tram 10/15/84 through 12/31/64. 



oos/ws 





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PTC 



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^o^P^eie set, 

order caU (^^''^^U^^' 

^*^*'"''""''\. ..stems >"c. _^ 






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^^^., 



tju^vZ--- — ■ — 



53223 



-2^1 



TRSOOS 



IS a 



regis' 



Aeredtr3<i««;!i 



oUVie 



"Vandy 



corporation 



Foi ¥ou^ TRS-80 



<& 




Cfd i^ 600% Sp&ed /foc^ecbSe • 
OyERORiyE 



For TRSDOS 6 



LS'UtiUty Disk 



The OVERDRIVE utility from LSI gives you that extra burst of 
speed from your 128K Model 4 or 4P. OVERDRIVE 
dynamJcally buffers tracks on up to two disk drives in your 
system using your alternate memory This can add up to as 
much as a several hundred percent speed Increase in disk 
I/O. Also. OVERDRIVE places all the system overlay 
modules {1-5 and 9-1 2) in alternate memory for almost instant 
access. All this is done in just 32K of your alternate memory, 
so you can still use the system Spooler or memDISK if you 
desire Note: TRSDOS 06.02 00 is required and is NOT 
included. S99- 

•Actual ipteo inceBse aependent on opf'«1i"g coneJilions 



The LS- Utility Disk is a collection of the most popular filters 
and utilities produced for LDOS 5-1. nov^ available for 
TRSDOS 6 This package includes KSMPLUS, MAXLATE. 
CALC, READ40. TYPEIN and more. KSMPLUS alone is 
w/orth the price of this package With KSMPLUS you can re- 
define your Key Stroke Macros "on the fly", define the 
function and shifted function keys, and much more. TYPEIN 
allovi's many programs that won't normally accept JCL to be 
run automatically. Note: The LS-Utility Disk is NOT the same 
as Radio Shack's 6.2 Utilities. This is a totally new and 
different product. $49. 




LS'The Basic Answer 

LS-TBA IS a text pre-processor that 
translates structured BASIC "source" 
into interpreter executable programs. 
Supports long variable names and 
named references/procedures, along 
with conditional translation. $79. 

LS-BSORT/MOD324 

LS-BSORT/MOD324 is an advanced 
machine language sort for M4 BASIC. 

Multiple key/tag arrays. 1 or 2 dimen- 
sion, string or numeric arrays. 
MOD324 does most of the restructur- 
ing to allow M3 BASIC programs to be 
run under M4 BASIC. $49. 



LS'FEDII 

LS-FED tl is an all-purpose File/Disk 
editor. Bytes may be modified in either 
ASCII or HEX. Location may be done 
via search string, load address or 
record number. Shows disassembly 
of/CMD files. $49. 



LS'FM 

LS-File Manager will handle all those 
COPY, MOVE. PURGE or BACKUP 
jobs with ease. Faster and more 
versatile than BACKUP or PURGE. FM 
can also produce a "script" for later 
execution through JCL. $49. 

LS'HOST/TERM 

LS-HOST/TERM is a complete Mod 4 

communications system. Includes 
ADDS25 terminal emulator, XMODEM 
file transfer utility for error-free 
transfer, HOST program with pass- 
word protection and much, much 
more. Ideal for use with XENIX, $199. 



LS'LED 

LS-LED is the LSI full-screen text 
EDitor. Uses all LDOS special features 
(KSM, filters/drivers. , . ,) Excellent for 
editing KSM and JCL source files, T6 
version includes "block write to disk" 
and insert file at cursor". $49. 



■Anle or ta.l lor o^i FREE CATALOG 



LS'QFB/Comp 

LS-QFB/Comp consists of two 
utilities. QFB performs a *fast' mirror- 
image backup of a disk, formatting the 
destination disk in the process Comp 
will compare any two disks or files, 
with differences to display or 
printer. $49. 



/mie P/iect(^f space 
LS'DiskDISK 



DiskDISK allows the partition- 
ing of large volume drives into 
smaller logical volumes which 
■"look" just like additional flop- 
py drives Add up to 254 addi- 
tional directory entries per 
DiskDISK file. Also, super effi- 
cient storage mode available. 
This should be considered a 
must for hard disk or other 
"large" drive users. $99. 



Pnces and specifications subiecl to change without notice For information (414) 355-5454 



-j^i 



/sfsTEMs TOLL FREE ORDERLINE (800) 248-3535 

^OOo-= 8970 North 55th Street / P.O. Box 23956 / Milwaukee, Wl 53223 



SHIPPING & 

HANDLING 

NOT INCLUDED 



NEW PRICES ... 

LOWER THAN EVER ! 



LNW'STEAU COMPUTER $ioss 
COMPUTERS 

LNWeO MOD 296»OCPM Ii095 

PMC8016KTRSeOCLONE 450 

SYSCOMfBELTRON64K APPLE 475 

SANYOMBC550160KDR 735 

SANYO MBC5552160KDRVS. 99S 

SANYO MBC555 2 320K DRVS- 1200 

IBM 64K, 2 DRV, COLOR BD 2475 

NECPC-8201 450 

TANDY 2000 2210 

EXPANSIONS 

LNW SYSTEM EXPANSION «29 

HOMES IM2 32K FOR TRS 80 MODI 129 

MDX-6 MOD 3 & 4 UPGRADE 230 

HOLMES VID 80+CPM 2.2 350 

DOUBLE DENSITY ADAPTER M 

LN DOUBLER 5/8 4 DOS+ 3.5 199 

HOLMES DOUBLER 5/8 125 

PRINTERS 

GORILLA BANANNA S1«9 

PROWRITER PAR 339 

PROWRITERSER 499 

PROWRITER 15" PAR 570 

PROWRITER 1 5" SER 670 

F-10 40 GPS PAR/SER 999 

F-10 55 OPS PAR/SER 1299 

F-10 TRACTOR FEED 195 

EPSON RX 80 290 

EPSON RX 80 FT 399 

EPSON FX 80 4«0 

EPSON FX 100 675 

OKI DATA 82A 289 

OKI DATA 83A 500 

OKI DATA 84P 795 

OKIDATA92P 399 

OKIDATA93P 675 

STAR GEMINI 10X 2^ 

STAR GEMINI 15X 415 

STAR DELTA 10 465 

STAR DELTA 15 550 

SILVER REED 500 17 OPS D.WH 369 

SILVER REED 550 20 CPS DWH 469 

SIEMENS PT88 INK JET 690 

TOSHIBA 1 350 LETTER QUALITY 1270 

JUKI 6100 439 

CRT MONITORS 

AMDEK 300 GREEN $139 

AMDEK 300 AMBER 159 

AMDEK COLOR II RGB 429 

AMDEK COLOR I RGB 289 

TAXAN KG12N GREEN 129 

TAXAN KG12NUY AMBER 139 

TAXAN RGB VISION I 289 

TAXAN RGB VISION III 470 

TAXAN APPLE CARD 99 

GORILLA GREEN/AMBER 95 



MODEMS 

SIGNALMAN MARK VII 300 BD 99 

SIGNALMAN MARK XII 1 200 BD 279 

NOVATION J-CAT 300 BD 1 04 

NOVATION SMART CAT 1 200 BD 41 5 

HAYES SMART MODEM 300 BD 205 

HAYES SMART MODEM 1 200 BD 465 



COMMUNICATIONS SPECIAL 

MTERM SMART TERMINAL PROGRAM 

AND VOLKSMODEM 300 BD MODEM $99 



DISK DRIVES 

TANDON 100-1 40 TRK S/S $189 

TANDON 100-1 BARE 149 

TANDON 100-2 40 TRK D/S 255 

TANDON 100-2 BARE 210 

TANDON 100-4 80 TRK D/S 350 

TANDON 100-4 BARE 299 

TEAC FD55A 40TRK S/S 200 

TEAC FD55A BARE 1S5 

TEAC FD55B 40 TRK D/S 235 

TEAC FD55B BARE 180 

TEAC FD55F 80 TRK D/S 260 

TEAC FD55F BARE 210 

SPECIAL 

TEAC 54A SAME SPECS AS FD55A $150 

Tan(Jon55-15540TR S99 

chinon40trs/s $129 

matshushita4otrd;s im 

TRS 80 SOFTWARE 

LAZYWRITER MOD I $149 

ELECTRIC WEBSTER MOD I & 3 119 

DOS-t- 3 5 MOD 14 3 99 

MULTIDOS 1.6 79 

SUPER UTILITY 3.0 65 

OMNITERM 1 6 78 

OMNITERM 1 6 MOD IV 78 

NEWSCRIPT 7.6 114 

TALLYMASTER 69 



ACCOUNTING SPECIAL 

GENERAL LEDGER, ACCOUNTS REG . 
ACCOUNTS PAYABLE. CHECK REGISTER 
INTEGRATED SYSTEM ONLY $299 



24 HOUR TOLL FREE ORDERS 

VISA/MASTER CHARGE ONLY: 

(800) 633-2252 EXT 720 

ALL QUESTIONS: (313) 538-1112 

MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX- 
SHIPPING CALL FOR CHARGES PRICES ARE 
DISCOUNTED FOR CASH AND MONEY ORDER 
(NON CERTIFIED CHECKS ALL 2 WEEKS TO 
CLEAR! MASTER CARD AND VISA ADD 3% NO 
COD. NO NET TERMS 



X/F^PACOMPUTER OUTLET 

W ^mV^I ^^ l6727Panon Deuo-t •^462:9 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 

Erto Maloney 

MANAGING EDITOR lEDITORIALI 

Peter E. McKie 

MANAGING EDITOR (PRODUCTION] 

Deborah M, Sargent 

REVIEW EDITOR 

Ryan Davis- Wright 

COPY EDITORS 

Roben MUchell (New Prixluitsl 

Penelope Hamblin 

ASSISTANT EDITOR 

Catherine Gear\' 

TECHNICAL EDITORS 

Uradford N, Dixon 

Mare-Anni- Jar\Ha 

Keith Johnson (Load 801 

Beverly Woodbury 

EDIT0H1AI. ADMINISTRATION 

Carole Mae loci 

EDITORL\L ASSISTANT 

Justiria Alsfeld 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Hardin Urothers 

David EnKelhardt 

John B. liarreil Ml 

TiTrv Ki-pner 
Thninas L. Quindry 

EDITORIAL DIRECTOR 

CWCP PUBLICATIONS 

Jeffrey D. DeTray 

EDITORIAL OPERATIONS MANAGER 
John C. Burnett 



ADVERTISING SALES 

SALES MANAGER 

William Smith 

SALES REPRESENTATIVES 

Rkhard J. Alden 

Michael Wozmak 

I 800-441 4403 

WEST COAST OFFICE 

1 060 Marsh Koad 

Menlo Park, CA 94025 

415-328-3470 

SALES MANAGEK 

Giorgio Saluii 

SALES REPRESENTATIVES 

Allison Walsh 

Karen Lrlendrc 




Cover pbotograpb by Edward Jndlce 



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Enlire contents copyright 1984 by CW Communications; 
PBtert>orougrt Inc No pari of ttiis putHicalion ma^ be repfinl- 
•a, o: reproduced by any means, without pnorwntten permis- 
sion from tne puOlistiet. All pfoo'ams are puOlisfieO loi per- 
sonal use onTy. All rights reserved 



4 • SO Micro, December 1984 



December 1984 




micro 




,.,,,,.■'■■1 





On the Cover 



35. Making Conversation: The VS-100 by Gary A. Ludwick 
This low-priced voice synlhesizer is a sound investment. 

44. The Tandy 1000: A True-Blue Compatible 

by Eric Maloncij 
Send in the clones, 

54. The 80 Micro Gift Guide 

An arrav of holiday gift items for the computerist. 

72. Little Wonder by Alan Cirkovic 

A nihy data base manager. (Models 1. Ill, and 4; I-oad 80) 

86. Belles Lcttres by Joseph Gaudreaii 

Custom dot -matrix printstyles. (Models ! and 111; Load 80) 

103. Touchdownl by Wayne Blair 

Tackle this l(X)lball strategy game. (Model lU: Ixiad 80) 

1 14. Fractals: New Dimensions in Geometry 

by Michiel van cie Panne 

Graphics with a difference. (Models 1 and III: Load 80) 



Features 



1 18. Print Statements by David A. Williams 

Printer powers you never knew you had. (Model 4) 

120. A Chill Wind Blows by Don DeJamette 

Calculate wind chill. (Models 1. III. and 4; Load 80) 

190. 1984 Load 80 Index 

1 96. 1 984 Review Index 

198. 1984 ArUcle Index 



Departments 


6. 


Load 80 Directory 


122. 


Project 80 


8. 


Side Tracks 




by Roger C. Alford 




by Eric Moloney 


136. 


BBS Express 


12. 


Input 




by J. Stewart Schneider 


16. 


Feedback Loop 




and Charles E. Bowen 




by Terry Kepner 


144. 


Basic Takes 


21. 


Pulse Train 




by Richard Ramella 


29. 


Reader Exchange 


148. 


Pa scalcula tions 


33. 


Debug 




by Bruce Powel Douglass 


35. 


Reviews 


152. 


Tidbit *16 




VS'lOO Voice Synthesizer 


156. 


The Next Step 




Turbo Pascal 




by Hardin Brothers 




Aztec C80 Compiler 


162. 


2000 Plus 




MultiMate 




by John R Harrell III 




Back-1 rack 




' 




Warriors and WarJocfcs 


176. 


New Products 


101. 


Tidbit *15 


208. 


Ask Tandy 



fviqi-He 



80 Micro. December 1984 • 5 




Load 80 gathers together se- 
lected programs from this Is- 
sue of 80 Micro and puts 
them on a magnetic medium for your 
convenience. It Is available on tape or 
disk, and runs on the Models 1. HI, and 4. 

Load 80 programs are ready to run. 
and can save you hours of time typing 
in ajid debugging listings. Load 80 also 
gives you access to Assembly-language 
programs if you don't have an editor/as- 
sembler. And, It helps you build a sub- 
stantial software library. 

Using Load 80 is simple. If you own a 
tape system, you load the Load 80 tape 
as per the Instructions provided. If you 
own a Model I or III disk system, you 
boot the Load 80 disk and transfer the 
files to a TRSDOS system disk accord- 
ing to simple on-screen directions. If 
you own a Model 4, you must convert 
the programs from Model III TRSDOS to 
Model 4 disk using the Model 4 CONV 
command. 

Not all programs will run on your sys- 
tem. Some Model III programs, for In- 
stance, will run on the Model 4 in the 
Model m mode, but not in the Model 4 
mode. You should check the key box 
that accompanies the article to find out 
what system configuration Individual 
programs require. 

This page contains a list of this 
month's Load 80 programs. If you have 
any questions about them, call Keith 
Johnson at 603-924-947 1 . 

Yearly subscriptions to Load 80 are 
$199.97 for disk, or $99.97 for cassette. 
Individual loaders are available on disk 
for $21.97 or on cassette for $1 1.47, in- 
cluding postage. Direct subscription 
problems or orders for Load 80 to Lori 
Eaton, do 80 Micro. 80 Pine St.. Peter- 
borough. NH 03458. 



Directory 



Basydata 

ArUcle: Little Wonder (p. 72) 
System: Models I. RI. and 4. 32K RAM 
Language: Disk Basic 

A 200-record data base manager that 
resides in RAM. Features fast access to infor- 
mation and scrolling through data base. 
Cassette filespec: B 
Disk fllespec: EASYDATA/BAS 



Cnstfun Character Sets 

Article: Belles Lettres (p. 86) 
System: Models I and HI. 48K RAM 
Language: Assembly/Disk Basic 

Create and print out your own character sets 
on your dot-malrlx printer in standard or 
enlarged fonts. 

Cassette flle^jec: C. ALTCHA. D. ALTERN 
Disk fUe^iec: STAND ARD/BAS. STAND/SRC 
(source code). DOUBLE/BAS. DOUBLE/SRC 
(source code). Requires Apparat editor/as- 
sembler. 

ToQcbdown 

Article: Touchdown (p. 103) 
System: Model JO. 16K RAM 
Language: Cassette Basic 

A realtime two-player football simulaUon. 
Winning requires careful strategy and the 
right breaks. 
Cassette fllespec: E 
Disk fUcsptx. FOOTBALUBAS 

Fractals 

Article: Fractals: New Dimensions 

In Geometry (p. 1 14) 
System: Modeb 1 and III. 16K RAM Cassette. 
32K RAM Disk 
Language: Basic 

Apply the geometric theory of fractals to 
create new and unique graphics. 
Cassette fllespec: F 
Disk n]eq>ec: FRACTALS/BAS 

ChlUy 

Article: A Chlil Wind Blows (p. 120) 
System: Models I, Ul. and 4. 16K RAM 
Cassette. 32K RAM Disk 
Language: Ba^c 

Calculate wind chill factors based on 
temperature and wind speed. 
Cassette flle^jec: G 
Disk fllespec: CHILL Y/BAS 

Message Board 

Article: BBS Express (p. 136) 
System: Model HI, 48K RAM. 2 drives 
Language: Assembly/Disk Basic 

These program modules create a message In- 
dex and read the BBS message board. 
Cassette fllespec: LISTl. H 
Disk fllespec: LISTl/SRC (source code), LIST2; 
BAS. Requires Radio Shack Editor/Assembler. 

Plxela 

Article: Basic Takes (p. 144) 

System: Models I and ffl. 16K RAM Cassette. 

32K RAM Disk 

Language: Basic 

This flve-part menu-driven program includes 
demonstrations, a graph program, and a game. 
Cassette nie^>ec: I 
Disk Qlespec: PIXELS/BAS 

SetKey 

Article: The Next Step (p. 156) 
System: Model 4. 64K RAM 
Language: Assembly 

SetKeys lets you set the Model 4 function keys 
and reassign them at will. 
Disk fllespec: SETKEY/SRC (source code). Re- 
quires EDAS editor/assembler. 



PRODUCTION DIRECTOR 
Nancy Salmon 

ASSISTANT PRODUCTION 

MANAGER/MANUFACTURING 

Susan Groos 

TYPESETTING MANAGER 

Dennis Chrislcnsen 

F[LM PRODUCTION MANAGER 

RobPn M. Vllkncuvc 

PHOTOGRAPHY MANAGER 

Nathaniel Haynes 



CREATIVE DIRECTOR 
Chrtsline Destrempea 

DESIGN MANAGER 
Joyce Plllarella 

DESIGNERS 
Beth Krommes 
Nicholas Diaz 



VICE PRESIDENT/GENERAL MANAGER 

Debra Wclherbee 

VICE PRESIDENT/FINANCE 

Roger Murphy 

ASSISTANT GENERAL MANAGER 

Matt Smith 

ASSISTANT TO VP/FINANCE 

Dominique Smith 

DIRECTOR OF MARKETING AND SALES 

David St-hlMler 

DIRECTOR OF ADVERTISING 

Stephen Twombly 

MARKETING MANAGER 

Pamela Esly 

DIRECTOR OF CIRCULATION 

William P. Howard 

ASSISTANT CIRCULATION MANAGER 

Frank Smith 

DIRECT AND NEWSSTAND SALES MANAGER 

Raino Wlrelii 

1 -800-343-0728 

DIRECTOR OF CREDIT SALES 

AND COLLECTION 

William M. Boyer 

DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC RELATIONS 

James Leonard 

PUBLLSH ER/P RESIDENT 
Wayne Green 



Cower idioto(rmph by Edwud Jndlcc 



aO HI. ro n 1 mmibn « llw IV, CeiiTiraurikTUMB.In. (I.Kip Ihf 
world ■ LarRnt puMHIv-r M ^-nrnpulrr-rctalcd lrilHJfH>JI"4( Thf RTiBip 
publnhn Sa mmpwlrr puTtllrachHtik In ly rna)ul diufunra Ninr million 
pn^k rrad nfw- nr Tnnrr nl Ihr Rmips publK-AUon' rarh monlh Hrm 
hrm <rf Ihr ^(roup Inchidr Ararmliia ■ Ci.niptllP'li-oilil/A'gttnlna. Au3 
tpBtU 1 AiiMralla I -iwnpuirru V Id AUilralmn MI|-'Q CwntHtiei Ho^it 
UFV. Ausl'ohai\ Pt' M'ufid arid ritre\'tor.e^ hranJ b l^ilu.Vfu'^ And M\- 
croMundD, I hLnn 4 { ftjnu fufnpulTliwId. [>nmarh b (urrifruli'i- 
uwld/EhinmuF-li uid Hk roVerdfn FLnlanrt • Wliru F'lUn^i- a i.r Wufldr 
If\1armalinur C(7b^FHA[iplci Mrld Off' imH>. (rfTmjn> a t>>"l^lf'- 
ua-t>r, «lrr«Urti;»ifefli*JI PC *>tl. So^iLiarF IUu-*( t W &t 
Han/S,rmlita' Ci^»n|lii/P' fbisl'iiTft *nrt <->JmFTi(Klctfr Wuyoairt*- \tM\\ ^ 
LomtAiirrijmrllt lloUa. Jjp4in (iimpulr>ii.ofld JcJ^Jiwl and /Vrsit C^im 
Vi'uriii. hb^kr. I Compttlf^uMWtd^intv mnd t rxripu^ ijniL' ^rlhrr- 
Iv^da CV,' Pmriuji^nA HI. rannta. SirvlLy i C'irfnpuHTi*of Id Vorgr 
ind Ulkmfhifa. -Saudi ArsblB iSaiuk L'ompmriworitl. Slni^apiKr B Ji\r 
Asian df^uMilFrti^irld Spun '4 i"^ifnpuimi.>j' IdSsfKtna And 
4ftrra5:»frrTiM. Si-TdcnfcC<impulfrS[i.*.dm HlArrufXHiim dnd U'n 
tiFnubuor Ihr LTK > C'lmpuEPr Hanogrmml And LVfnpuffr F^dlnrfU 
Kumpt [hr L' S tTrtrnpTJifmn'kl HttT t oCiy InCId*' In^Wofld Hoc 
WuttiL UU-'O Aftirtprimrbt PI Wurld. Mun 73 HaQCUrnf And t¥i Ub-ro 



Piobitnt *llt' Sut/sciiptlons: Sand ■ description of th* pro& 
lem tnc) your currant anOlor most recant adtUeas to: BO Ulcro, 
Sul»crlptlo(i [>epaftment, P.O Bra Ml, Farmlrigdale, NY 
11737. 

PnM»in> Willi Load 90 Orculalkyi. Address corrsspondBnce 10 
Lorl Eaton, BO Pine St., PMsrtxxougti. NH 0345B. 
ProWems w)lh Adviilivt. Send ■ doacrlptlon ol Ih« problem 
end your currant addrsss to: SO Woo. Rt. 101 i. Elm SIrael. 
Pfltartxvougti. NH 03456. ATTN.: Rita B. RIvard. Cuslomw Sw 
vtca Manaoer. II urganl, call 1 .80044 1 4403. 
Ctitnga ol Additst. Sarv] old ialjel Or copy o> old address and 
new address to. SO Micro, P.O. Box 961, Familnedala, NY 
11737. Please give eight moka advance notice. 
Ulcwtilm. TNi putilJcatlon la avallsC)!* In mlcrolorm troTi 
University Microfilms International. Dnitad Stales addrsss' 300 
North Zsati Road. Depl. P.R., Ann Arbor, Ml 46106. Forelon ad- 
dress ISBedfordnow. Oept.P.R.. Lorxton. WC1R4EJ, 
England. 

D»tl»fs- Contact RaIno WIraln. Retail Sales Manaoer, W Micro, 
PliW St , Petartjoroogh. NM 0345B. (800) 3430726. 



6 • SO Micro, December 1984 



Please send me the Infocnm interactive stories listed bebw. 
(I understand that all prices are effective as of September 1. 1984.) 
:_. Sampler (^ $7.95 •• C. DE.VDLINE ■■@&49.95 

ZORK' 1 (see note)' □ The WITNESS"® $39.95 

L ZORK II (^$44.95 D ST.\RCROSS'@S49.95 

U ZORKIIlfe S14.95 D PL.\NETFALL''@S39.95 

C ENCH.^NTER^®S39.95 ::: SUSPENDED" @S49.95 

SORCERER'-® S44.95 Z] INFIDEL"-® >44.95 



•ZORK I bs ivulabk cuhBitily ihrou^ Radio Shidi dealm. 
"Sunplrr sviiLihbc only for Model III 

Please check one: I ! TRS-HO Model I 



: ; TRS-8() Model III 



My age range (Please clieck the correct box): 

Under 6 _6-U 12-17 ; llH-24 : 25-35 I ; 36-49 I 150 

Please indicate the payment meth<Kl you chose. 

Make chet'k pa^-able to Infoconi, Inc. (Please do n ot send cash.) 

Check : Money Order Z2 MasterCard 
Zl Visa — .American Express 



Hip. l)iiic(Mo. 4 Y<-«l 



































C»rd Numhor 

• Total for games ordered: 

• Add $2.()0 for postage and handling for each game: _ 

• For New York residents only, include sales tax: 

• Total enclosed: 












































Nanw 


































Addrr«( 




























Cily 




















SUle 


ap 










1 


1 













Coumr\, il noi U S. 

Mail to: Infocom, Inc.. CS6237. Farmingdale, N\' 11735 




sol 



12 PROBLEMS 
WITH THIS COUPON. 



BE FOREW.ARNED! Just because 
we've made Infocom's 
interactive fiction soft- 

ware compatible with 

I -Zr yourTRS-80 Model I or 
Model 111 computer doesn't mean 
your problems are over. 

In fact, they're really just begin- 
ning. Because no other computer 
software ,^_^ 
challenges, ;■ ^f^-^ 
stimulates. '^^^^ g^Trrr^ 
provokes 
and involves your iniagiiialion with 
quite the power- or the force - 
of interactive fiction. Once you've 
-^ • " ■ experienced it, you're 
^^ going to be hooked. 





HERE'S WHERE YOUR PROBLEMS 
REALLY BEGIN. The Infocom 
FOUR-IN-ONE sampler, excerpts 
from four of 
Infocom's clas- 
sic stories plus 
a tutorial on 
how to get involved. The ZORK' 
trilog\'. Infocom's best-selling odys- 
sey of treasure, challenge and high 
adventure in the exotic and ench;:inted 
world of the Underground 
Kingdom. ENCHANTER, 
the inception of a spellbind- 
ing series in the Zorkian 
tradition. SORCERER.' in wliich 
you'll gain the [jower and cunning of 
a true sorcerer. Or else. 
- «|H The WITNESS.' a 
^ ^ hard-boiled whodunit 
^^J thriller of the thirties. 
j^H deadline; a fast' 





UiVj paced mvsten' with time as 
[Tn the enemy. PLANETFALL: 
I ' I the spectacular comedy of 
Lrr-J the last frontier. 
STARCROSS.' our astounding science 
fiction mind-bender. SUSPENDED.' 
the crvogenic nightmare on the edge 
of the far future. INFIDEL." high 
adventure among the pyramids. 

EVERYONE SHOULD H.AVE SUCH 
PROBLEMS. So fiU out the coupon 
and mail it right now. It's 
going to lead to problems - 
we can't deny it. Ah. but 
think of the fun. 

HIPOCOIA 

/I )KK i> yi re^^teitcl tradenurk ol Inl<icuin, Int. 
nEAriUNR.The ftlTNF.SS. STARCROSS, SfSPENDEn. 
PI.ANKTKALL. ENCHANTER, INFIDEL and SORCERER 
arc IradeiTurks ol Iniutuni, Im. 

.-284 




SIDE TRACKS / by Eric Maloney 



MS-DOS for the Masses 



I came away from our preview of the 
Model 1000 in Fort Worth wiih 
mixed feelings. My first reaction was, 
"So what?" Let's face it — the Model 
1000 is, pure and simple, an IBM 
clone, and as a piece of hardware it's 
hard to get too excited about. 

Bui then there's that price tag — 
$1,199 for I28K, a drive. MS-DOS, 
GW-Basic, and a host of pons for joy- 
sticks, a primer, a tele%Tsion set, a light 
pen, and a stereo. Add a second drive 
and a monitor, and the price is still on- 
ly $1,658.90. Remember that the Mod- 
el 4 went for $1,999 not too long ago. 

This means that for the first time, 
the MS-DOS market has opened up to 
embrace the home user, the tinkerer, 
the casual programmer, and the hob- 
byist. The traditional Tandy customer 
can now test the MS-DOS waters with- 
out empt>ing his bank account. 

Signs are that Tandy recognizes this 
potential customer base. First, it's of- 
fering a stripped-down version of the 
1000, much as it has with its Color 
Computers and Model I/III/4 line. 
This lets the user start smalt and ex- 
pand as his budget permits. 

And second, the list of software 
Tandy will release along with the 
machine includes a number of educa- 
tion and entertainment packages. 

The machine will, of course, Eittract 
businessmen as well. But these p)eople 
will have more in common with the 
Model 4 user than the IBM PC user. 
They'll be interested in learning not 
only how to use their Model 1000, but 
how it works and how they can in- 
crease its capabilities. 

One of the most interesting aspects 
of the Model 1000 is its potential to re- 
vitalize the TRS-80 third-party sup- 
port industry, for several reasons. 

To begin with, manufacturers of 
TRS-80 products will suddenly have a 
whole new group of buyers. The 1000 
owner will have a host of needs to fill. 




including software, peripherals, and 
expansion boards. 

And second, the 1000 should appeal 
to PC manufacturers looking for new 
markets. They can sell their IBM 
products to the 1000 owner with little 
or no modification. Most important, 
for the first time they'll have easy ac- 
cess to the TRS-80 owner. No longer 
will they be forced to sell their goods in 
Radio Shack stores or through Ex- 
press Order. They can offer Model 
1000 products in regular retail com- 
puter stores along with their other 
IBM and MS-DOS merchandise. 

Price, expandability, third-party 
support. These three ingredients could 
make the Model 1000 Tandy's biggest 
success yet. It may not be the most 
thrilling piece of hardware, but it's the 
machine Tandy needed to produce 
and Tandy customers should be glad 
to see. It's a hearty return to the 
mainstream of microcomputing. 

Bui What About tbe 4? 

Meanwhile, many Model 4/4P 
owners will be wondering if this means 
the end of their machine. 

Tandy executives seem convinced 
that the Model 4/4P still has a market. 
In theory, the 4/4P will appeal to 
those who need an all-in-one system 



that handles simple word processing, 
data management, and number-crunch- 
ing. The Model 1000, presumably, will 
be for users who need MS-DOS appli- 
cations, IBM compatibility, or color 
graphics. 

This doesn't seem like a realistic ap- 
praisal. The 1000, after all, can do 
anything the 4/4P can, and more. 
Why buy an 8-bit computer with a 
proprietary operating system when 
you can get an IBM-compatible sys- 
tem for a comparable price? 

The 4/4P has a future only if ihe 
price continues to drop and Tandy can 
define a market that is clearly distinct 
from that of the 1000. The former is a 
possibility; the latter, however, is not. 

The bottom line is that the 1000 is 
the heir-apparent to the 4/4P's cus- 
tomer base. The 4/4P has suffered 
precisely because it's not an IBM. If it 
can't compete with the IBM, it won't 
compete with the Model 1000. 

The Future 

Before Tandy introduced the Model 
2000 last November, the company 
didn't seem to have any overall direc- 
tion for its computers. At the top of 
the heap was the 68000-based Model 
16. In the middle was the Z80-based 
Model 4. And at the low end was the 
6809-based Color Computer. 

A year later, it's clear that Tandy in- 
tends to fill its three major niches with 
MS-DOS computers. Fort Worth has 
now taken care of the high-end and 
middle-level markets. It's reasonable 
to expect that, in lime, the company 
will round out the line with a low-end 
IBM compatible. 

The idea of a complete family of 
IBM-compatible MS-IX)S machines 
is interesting. If Tandy can pull it off, 
it'll be the first microcomputer manu- 
facturer to do so, and will have a 
chance to significantly improve its po- 
sition in the mass-micro market. ■ 



8 • SO Micro. December 1984 



lotun5a 




Pretorian 



i^iCS 



icstaillig'iiai 

( I r* I M n r n tj .7 t c» i 

iiii Itr^ 



celC\c 

Playbill 










IMCISIB TEAMM 

^K? '-ay ir 

ROMAN r^ ^ ^^7 0ini gubes 

nifT:\ /I1(T\ /Cl ^BiJliilli Small Boldface 
m\ hKlU\ l.i.^M Small Bold Italics 




i 'P '1- ' 1 li-~ 'U 'ir 1 


; .D 1 ,r 1 1 I ,C Lh 1 ,S 1, 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



These were printed by DOTWRITER on an Epson MX-BO. 



See Wliat You Can Do Witli 
DOTWRITER 4.0! 

Now available for the Model 4, too! 



DOTWRITER lets you create 
spectacular, eye-catching 
letterheads, catalogs, invita- 
tions, or even books. It is just what 

you need to turn your dot-matrix print- 
er into a versatile typesetting ma- 
chine. And it's available ior the Model 
4 (yes. in native mode) as well as for 
the Models I and III, 

Wliat Is DOTWRITER? 

DOTWRITER uses the "bit-im- 
age graphics" of your printer to 
produce the kinds of stunning re- 
sults shoiwn inside the box. It is a 

full-function text printing program, so 
you can inter-mix different character 
sets, do centering, paragraphs, pagi- 
nation, magnification, draw horizon- 
tal and vertical lines, reversals [white 
on black), and even print right-justi- 
fied proportional text. 

DOTWRITER includes the printing 
program, complete documentation, 
and fourteen useful sets of typefaces 
(60 to 90 characters in each set). We will 
also give you the 105-page Letterset 
Reference Catalog free with your 
order. 

To use DOTWRITER, just write your 
text with any popular TRS-80 Word 
Processor, add the necessary format- 




ting commands, and DOTWRITER will 
do the rest. 

25 more disks are availoble 
separately. Each 
has 3-12 complete 
typefaces (60-95 j, 
characters in 
each set). 
These disks cost 
less than S25 each, 
and may be pur- 
chased at any time. 

If you want lo create your own 
logos, modify our typefaces, or even 
design entirely new typefaces, then 
you will also want to order the "Letter- 
set Design System' (LDS). We offer LDS 
at half-price when you order it along 
with DOTWRITER. LDS operates in 
Model III mode on the Model 4. 

Versions are available for Epson MX -80 
with Graftrox, MX-lOO with Graf trax -Plus, 
RX-80. FX-80, C. ITOH 8510; 1550, Microline 
84''92/93; Radio Shack s DMP series 200- 
2100, CGP.220 & Gemini lOX. 15X. Please 
specify printer and computer! 

Our print samples were don© on an Ep- 
son. Sizes vary on other printers. Some of 
the samples ::hown here are taken from the 
additional Letterset disks. 

Two disk drives and at least 48K of mem- 
ory or© required. LDS is not available in 
native Model 4 mode. 



Send for free print samples! 

We've only shown you a few of the 180 
DOTWRITER fonts. If you want the best 
in graphics printing, we suggest you 
order DOTWRITER today, toll-free. 

Please specify printer and computer 
when ordering. 



DOTWRITER 

(Models I, III) $79.95 

DOTWRITER (Model 4) 99.95 
Letteiset Design SYstem 39.95 
Special: DOTWRITER 

and LDS 99.95 

Additional Letteiset 

disks (4-12 per disk) 

17.95 and 24.95 
Letteiset Reieience 

Catalog 10.00 



ORDER NOW, TOLL-FREE 
(800) 824-7888. oper. 422 

Dept C, Box 560, No Hollywood, CA 91603 
|81B| 764-3131 Inlonnillon ind Simc-Dsr Procestlng 

rERMS UlSA MC, checks COO Pte^se add S3 00 shipping 
inUS or Canada. S15 00 overseas saieslaxinCa 
Most ordere Mled witUn one day 




The Premier Word Processor for 
Your TRS-80 Model I, III, or 4 




We are proud to offer you 
the one Word Processor 
that will satisfy all your 
writing needs: ALLWRITE. /( sets 
new standards for text editing and 
printing, and will give new life to 
your TRS-80. Let us tell you why. . . 
In an attempt to push the public 
into expensive 16-bi1 computers, many 
manufacturers have been saying that 
the TRS-80 is obsolete. The truth is that 
the soltware, not the hardware, makes 
the difierence. And the best word proc- 
essor of all is now available only on 
the humble TRS-80, not on those ex- 
pensive 16-bit machines! 

ALLWRITE is based on the proven 
methods that made NEWSCRIPT the 
most popular independently produced 
TRS.80 word processor, but it also has 
the speed and new features our cus- 
tomers have asked us for. ALLWRITE 
will save you time and let you produce 
the highest -quality, most professional - 
looking letters, term papers, and re- 
ports available on a micro-computer. 

Allwrite Can Save You Time! 

Reads a 25,000 character file 1 10 
printed pages) from disk in SIX SEC- 
ONDS... does a global search-and- 
replace m FOUR SECONDS . . . outruns 
even the fastest popular micro-piinter. 



ALLWRITE*S Screen 

Handling Makes Word 

Processing Easier 

Than Ever 

Change text width at any time; 
wide lines shift left and right as you 
type. ALLWRITE preserves double- 
blanks between sentences, uses the 
entire screen for text, and displays a 
complete Status Screen at the touch of 
a key. Scroll by line, partial screen, full 
screen, to lop or end of file, or to any 
marked point. Move cursor by charac- 
ter, word, tab, line, or screen. 

You can set and change on-screen 
labs and store them on disk. The print - 
time tabbing features are incredibly 
versatile: they allow left, right, and 
centered tabs, and even line up your 
decimal points. 

ALLWRITE shows you where you 
forgot to turn off underlin- 
ing, boldface, italics, or 
double-width. Special on- 
screen Preview feature 
shows page breaks and 
page layouts . . . including 
underlining and boldface 
. . . without annoying blink- 
ing or screen flicker. In 
"Summary" mode, ALL- 
WRITE quickly flags for- 
matting errors without 



These wore pilnffd by ALI.WBITF.; 
shown 20% actual size 

wasting time printing all the text. 
These standard features make docu- 
ment preparation taster and easier 
than ever! 

State-Of-The-Art 
File Handling 

There is no upper-limit on docu- 
ment size with ALLWRITE, because it 
chains files hackwaids as well as for- 
wards, even across diskettes. Switch 
from one chained file to another in less 
than six seconds by pressing two keys. 
Select portions of other files for inclu- 
sion at print time... great for stock 
paragraphs. 

ALLWRITE salvages text from bad 
disksl If a sector goes bad, you won't 
lose the entire file, because it will skip 
bad sectors, read the rest of the file. 



n 



TAKES FULL ADVANTAGE OF YOUR 
MODEL 4. 

The model 4 version of ALLWRITE uses 
the entire 80-by-24 screen. On a 64K ma- 
chine, you can edit over 34,000 charac- 
ters of text. On a 126K machine, you can edit 
THREE FILES AT THE SAME TIME! The 
second and third tiles can be over 32.600 char- 
acters each, for a total of almost 100,000 
characters of text in memory. 



and then show you where the lost text 
belongs. This advanced error recovery 
turns a disaster into a feeling of pro- 
found relief. 

User-Definable Soft Keys 
Reduce Typing Time 

You can store 22 phrases or com- 
mands at a time into "soft-keys," then 
press just two keys to retrieve them. 
This makes frequently-used phrases 
and formattiny controls a snap to use. 
You can store these definitions on disk 
and build a library of hundreds of pre- 
programmed keys to tit every one of 
youi applications. 

Our specially-designed templates 
fit right on your keyboard to let you see 
your settings at all times. Each tem- 
plate is also a Reference ("Cue") Card, 
so it is always right in front of you 
when you need it. without using up 
valuable screen space. 

ALLWRITE is Easy To Learn 

ALLWRITE's commands and con- 
trol keys are easy to remember be- 
cause they use the first letters of 
common English words: 'CE' stands for 
'Center.' 'Search' and 'Replace' do just 
that, and so forth. The on-line HELP 
menu offers over fifty screens of topics, 

NEWSCRIPTs documentation was 
acclaimed in every review, and 
ALLWRITE's 350-page book is even bet- 
ter. Portions of it are designed for be- 
ginners, with every feature clearly 
explained in step-by-step tutorial 
style. Since you won't always be a be- 
ginner, other parts of the book offer ad- 
vanced topics. There is a cross, 
reference summary chapter, a 14-page 
comprehensive index, and a detailed 
Table of Contents. We've been devel- 
oping computer programs and man- 
uals for over 20 years, and understand 
the importance of good documentation. 

To make installation easy, we in- 
clude Tmy DOSPLUS tor the Models I 
and III, and special, pre-tailored ver- 
sions of both TRSDOS 6.2 and DOS- 
PLUS IV for the Model 4. all at no extra 
charge. The Model I and III versions 
work equally well with all major 
DOS's. 

PROSOFT'SOn-GoIng 
Customer Support 

Perhaps the best reason of all for 
having ALLWRITE is the continuing 
support we offer you: friendly, expert, 
direct support that is unsurpassed in 
the micro-computer industry. There is 
no time limit to our support: if you are 
our customer and you need help, just 
call or write. We give free updates for 
90 days, and charge little oi nothing 
for minor updates thereafter. 



Customer Comments 

"This is the best software package 1 
have ever received . . .superb, easy to 
use, fast, and has more features than 
the business word-processor at the 
officer iE.R.L.) 

"ALLWRITE is a professional system 
that sets a new standard in word pro- 
cessing. It's powerful and easy to leam 
and use." 

80 MICRO. Nov.. 1984 

"Your company and products have 
to be one of the strongest factors I can 
think of for keeping me with the 
TRS-BOr (J.R.H.) 

"NEWSCRIPT is the Cadillac of word 
processors. ALLWRITE is the Mercedes 
BenzH" (B.E.) 

"...a very readable manual^ (D.S.) 



BENEFITS OF OWNING 

* * ALLWRITE * * 



// Word Processing is important to 
you, PROSOFT's ALLWRITE is the best 
choice you can make. The clean, pro- 
fessional appearance it adds to your 
letters and reports will make an excel- 
lent impression on people. We will be 
happy to send you free print samples 
so that you can see for yourself how 
good ALLWRITE will make you look. 

You probably know that quality 
word processors for CP/M and the IBM- 
PC sell for S300-500. and they don't 
have ALLWRITE's capabilities or speed 
...or PROSOFT's proven, on going 
support. Now, for a fraction of the cost 
of a new computer, you can have the 
most complete word processor of all. 
And you won't have the headaches of 
starting all over again with a new, 
different computer. 



Note to college students: with its 
Footnote, Table of Contents and Index 
features. ALLWRITE is ideal for your 
reports and Term papers. 



HUNDREDS OF USEFUL 
CAPABILITIES 

ALLWRITE comes with just about 
every useful word processing feature 
...standard. Here are some high- 
lights: excellent righl-juslilied pro- 
portional printing on most printers 
having that ability, powerful Form Let- 
ter and Mailing Label pieparation; In- 
stant counts of words, characters. 
lines, changes; block Move, Copy, De- 
lete, Putfile, Getfile, and List: delete 
by character, word, line, sentence, 
paragraph, or block: insert and one- 
key insert: great RS-232 printer sup- 
port; accepts all 256 ASCII codes irom 
keyboard: intermix pitches on same 
line iprinter-dependent): 1.5 line spac- 
ing. 6, 7 8, 12 lines per inch (printer- 
dependent): does multiple-columns on 
all printers: perfect alignment of hang- 
ing indents; variables, logic state- 
ments, conditional printing; wildcard 
Directories; integrated with Electric 
Webster and DOTWRITER tor Models I. 
Ill, and 4 (these are sold separately): 
"Legal " line numbering; paragraph, 
list, and figure numbering; supports 
most popular printers (all "printer driv- 
ers" included); compatible with high- 
memory drivers: fully explains all 
DOS and ALLWRITE error messages; 
wildcard search -replace; labs, search- 
replace, other settings remembered 
across files; word reversal; up to nine 
levels of boldface: flexible page titles; 
footnotes at bottom of page or end of 
document; Table of Contents and In- 
dex generation; and PROSOFT's un- 
matched text formatting and printing 
capabilities. 



Attention NEWSCRIPT Owners 

You can trade in your copy of NEW- 
SCRIPT at very substantial savings. 
Please call our technical line for 

details. ,, » -» . 

How To Order 

You can order by phone or mail. For 
quickest delivery, call our Technical 
Support line. Please specify your TRS- 
80 model {I. HI, or 4, 48K, at least two 
disk drives), and your printer(s). Our 
price includes normal shipping in the 
U.S. and Canada. The sooner you or- 
der, the sooner you will begin to bene- 
fit irom the ALLWRITE! Word Processor, 

Holiday Special 

'249.95 $195.00 



ORDER NOW, TOLL-FREE 

(800) 824-7888, oper. 422 








® 



Box 560, No. Hollywood, CA 91603 
(818) 764-3131 for Technical Information and Same-Day Processing. 

Terms; VISA. MasterCard, checks. C.O.D. 
California residents please add sales tax. 
Most orders filled within one day. ^20 



INPUT 



Management Decisions 

John B. HarreU III, in 2000 Plus 
(August 1984, p. 177), omits several 
worthy points when he compares Pro- 
file to dBase II. For example, Harrell 
fails to mention Profile's ability to 
span disk drives: up to eight, com- 
pared to dBase II's one. 

Profile can sort and index any of its 
segments. Profile also offers more 
space wth 999 fields and 4,608 charac- 
ters as opposed to dBase II's 32 fields 
and 1,000 characters. In addition to 
creating multiple screens and reports, 
Profile builds one data entry screen 
and one report format automatically. 

In light of these omissions, I'm forced 
to conclude that Harrell didn't use the 
version of Profile developed for the 
Model 2000. 

H. Christopher Ayers 
Seattle, WA 

john B. Harrell III unfairly com- 
pares dBase II with Profile. His basis 
for comparison is lopsided as the two 
products are meant for two different 
machines: dBase is for the Model 
2000, while Profile is for the Model 
III. Had Harrell compared dBase II 
with FilePro 16, designed specifically 
for the Model 2000, he'd realize that 
FilePro far exceeds the capabilities of 
dBase II. 

John J. Esak 

Vice President 

The Small Computer Company 

New York, NY 

SuperScripsit Debated 

I disagree with Terry Kepner's re- 
view of SuperScripsit for the Model 4 
(August 1984, p. 184). While Super- 
Scripsit for the Models I and III is a 
fine piece of software, the Model 4 
version is unsatisfactory. 

The most obvious bug is that the 
keyboard/keyboard buffer doesn't 
keep pace with the touch typist; it 
drops characters during word wraps 
and at the end of the line. A second 




problem is the trashing of long files 
during scrolling and disk access. This 
bug alone renders the program useless. 

John L. Ragle 
Amherst, MA 

Kepner's review of the Model 4 Su- 
perScripsit Dictionary is shortsighted. 

The MEMDISK feature on the 
Models 4 and 4P lets you gain a 57K 
useable disk drive in RAM. You can 
then copy documents from a data disk 
to MEMDISK, remove the data disk, 
and insert the SuperScripsit Dictio- 
nary. When you're finished checking 
your documents, simply copy them 
back to the data disk. As a Model 4P 
user, I find MEMDISK invaluable. 

A. Ackart 
Ventura, CA 

After reading Terry Kepner's re- 
view of SuperScripsit, I feel compelled 
to comment. First, Kepner's state- 
ments regarding the reset button are 
inaccurate. If a file is closed with con- 
troI/Q (exit document), it can be reac- 
cessed, even if a subsequent exit was 
by means of the reset button. 

Also, you can preserve a document 
under a different name with a one- 
drive system, although it's more diffi- 
cult. The control/R recalls the copied 
text under the new name after you 
block and copy the original document. 



The biggest problem with this is the 
lack of available disk space as the same 
disk must accommodate the original, 
the copy, and the new document. 

When used with an appropriate print- 
er, SuperScripsit provides features lack- 
ing in most word processors: micro jus- 
tification, proportional spacing, double 
underlining, and true boldface. 

Robert B. Onnsby 
Newhall, CA 

A reviewer's criticisms should be re- 
alistic and appropriate. Kepner, in his 
review, doesn't exhibit either of these 
qualities. 

Kepner doesn't address the differ- 
ences between SuperScripsit for the 
Models III and 4, nor does he discuss 
the Model 4 features that can't be used 
with SuperScripsit. In addition, it's un- 
realistic to expect SuperScripsit to work 
with full efficiency in one drive. 

Kenneth W. Collins 
Falls Church, VA 

I didn't experience difficulty with 
the keystroke, nor did I notice prob- 
lems during scrolling or disk access- 
ing. As TRSDOS 6.x is a very reliable 
DOS, I'd suspect power-line problems 
before blaming SuperScripsit. I don 't 
think it 's unfair to expect SuperScrip- 
sit to work on a one-drive system; oth- 
er, more powerful word processors 
manage with one disk drive. 

It's true that certain Model 4 fea- 
tures aren't compatible with Super- 
Scripsit. For example, the Model 4 
print spooling and keyboard filters 
don't work because SuperScripsit 
makes system calls that circumvent 
those features of TRSDOS 6.X. Fur- 
thermore, TRSDOS 6.x doesn't hon- 
or the TRSDOS Himem pointer. 

Unfortunately, the extended memo- 
ry provided by MEMDISK doesn't 
satisfy the 174K required by the Super- 
Scripsit Dictionary. 

Terry Kepner 
Peterborough, NH 



12 • SO Micro, December 1984 



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• leaves over 40K ol memory (ree 

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• easy line editor won't let you enter Incorrect syntax 

- remembers file name of source and object code: eliminates accidental overwrite 

■ dynafiuc renumber: no mure no room between linr!<" 

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• GET command gels files from disk with lightening speed; handles big Hies so fast 
yoiv'll think they're small 

• doesn't hog memory lots of room (or source code 

■ eaa/ block move A duplication 

"pages " the screen backward A forward lor easy ediUitg 

■ reads and writes Tiles in ASCII. EDTASM, and Zeus compressed lormal 

■ Model 4 version supports 80x24 lines 

ZEUS for Model I. III. 4. or MAX-80 $79.95 

BASIC PROGRAMMING IS EASIER 
AND MORE FUN WITH EBASIC 

Extend voui capabilities when programming in BASIC by using EBASIC. It works with 
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■ Graphics commands lei you set and erase lines, boxes, cubes, andclrclcs Also handy 
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■ Special commands ritend power of POKE, CLS, PRINT, INPUT, CALL. SOUND, and 
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■ LABEL command lets you lat>el program lines 

• New Array commands let you quickly alter string and numeric arrays 

EBASIC for Model I or III SPECIAL PRICE $29.95 

A SUPERB DEBUGGING TOOL 
FOR BASIC PROGRAMMERS - BOSS 

Let BOSS riDd your error fast k traces the pri^tam (low tjy single stepping through 
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BOSS for Model I or III. Upe or disk $19.95 



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AlphaBit Communications, Inc. 



Christmas 
thy computet 
Shalt receive a 
VOICE of its own. 





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79-04 Jamaica Ave., Woodhaven, NY 11421 





GIVE YOUR COMPUTER A 

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As Well as a Mind 

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VS100 

69 




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addS5 95 

Text to Speech software: 

• Talker 1.4 S1995 

• Talker 2 $29 95 



An Impressive List of Features: 



I Unlimited vocabulary, 

I Automatic inllection 

I Proven VOTRAX technology 

I We use the famous VOTRAX SCO! phoneme synlhesizer. 

4 programable Ditch level 
I Built in audio amplifier with volume control 
I You can add voice to any basic program in minutes 
I Super efficient, one single line in Basic will produce a full 

sentence' 
I Works with any speaker (or add S5.95 tor handsome 

speaker module) 



I Price breakthrough same performance as units costing 

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I Voice editor will help you create unlimited number of words 

sound ettecis, etc 
I Hundreds of applications— now cost effective in education, 

robotics, speech therapy, monitoring, games, aid to 

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I Fully assembled and tested 
I Ready to plug m and talk 
I Plugs into 50 pin LO bus on Model 3 
I As usual Ouf 15-day money back guarantee protects you 



Text to Speech Software for the VS-100 



TALKER 1.4 

i/ Unlimited vocabulary translation of 

English text to speech 
*/ Very easy to use: In BAStC simply type PRINT""I talk" 
^ Reads numbers up to 999 trillion 
»/ Reads many abbreviations correctly 

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»/ Very fast machine language program is only 4.5K long 
*^ Loads in high memory 

Only $1 9.95. Specify disk or tape 



TALKER 2.0 

v^ Same features as TALKER 1.4 plus: 
v^ Automatic keyboard echo option 
v^ Automatic video display echo option 
v^ Punctuation pronunciation if desired 
*^ And many control codes for increased versatility 
>/ Self relocatable program is only b'AK long 
v^ New BASIC command: PRINT! prints and talks. 
$29.95. On disk only 





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79-04 Jamaica Ave.. Woodhaven. NY 11421 ^" (718) 296S916 



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Hour*: 9-5 EsUmm Standard Tlm» 



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Add Sales Tax Overseas. FPO 
APO Add 10°'c Dealer Discounts 
Available COD aOd S3 00 ertra 



FEEDBACK LOOP / by Terry Kepner 



Send any questions or problems 
dealing with any area of TRS-80 mi- 
crocomputing to Feedback Loop, 80 
Micro, 80 Pine St.. Peterborough, NH 
03458. 

QbHow do I LPRINT a program 
■ thai uses the Set statement to 
show, for example, curves plotting 
stock market prices? 1 have a 48K, 
two-disk-drive Model I and an Epson 
FX-80 printer . The Epson doesn' t 
recognize characters like CHRJ(132) 
as TRS-80 graphics blocks. (Harold 
Lange, Miami, FL) 

All take it that you find it too 
■ limiting to dump graphics by 
screen. If length is the problem, you 
can chain several screen dumps to 
make a longer paper dump. As for 
width, you have an 80-column printer, 
so you can modify a screen dump pro- 
gram to print only 80 video spaces. Set 
graphics blocks in the first 80 spaces of 
the screen, then dump them to the 
printer. Now set your second line of 
graphics in the first 80 video spaces, 
and repeat until you've finished. You 
could set this up as an automatic sub- 
routine for plotting; determine what 
blocks to set in the top line of your 
graph, print it, go to the next line, etc. 
Meanwhile, does anyone have a 
routine that lets you use the Set com- 
mand with LPRINT (preferably mod- 
ified to allow more than just 128 
blocks horizontally)? 

Qi I'm thinking of buying a 
■ Holmes Engineering VID-80 
board for my Model III, but only if it 
will give me an 80-column display in 
SuperScripsit and more memory. I 
gather SuperScripsit won't run in the 
80-column mode because the VID-80 
uses a different area in RAM for the 
video driver. Is that right? 

Also, I make extensive use of Super- 
Scripsit's Compress routine, but I fmd 
it doesn't work if 1 use the same file 
name for the compressed file and if 




the initial file is much more than 
8-lOK. Similarly, 1 find Electric Web- 
ster locks up if a SuperScripsit file is 
much more than 12-14K. (Bob Mun- 
zenrider, Middletown, PA) 

AaYou're right about the VID- 
■ 80 board being incompatible 
with SuperScripsit. And you don't get 
the extra 16K of RAM; this extra 
memory is bank-switched to replace 
the ROMs when you want a true 64K 
RAM computer, such as with CP/M. 
SuperScripsit loads above the ROM, 
so it ignores the extra RAM. 

The Compress routine is designed 
to work only with separate file names 
for old and new files. As for Electric 
Webster, you'll have to contact the 
manufacturer about the problem. 

QhDo you know of any books 
■ that teach beginning Pascal, 
Cobol, or other languages? Also, I'd 
like to know if I should get a CP/M 
2.2 board, a CP/M-86 128K RAM 
16-bit upgrade, or a CP/M transfer 
program for my CP/M needs. 
(Michael Shimoide, Kingsburg, CA) 

A B Your best bet is to check 
■ your local library for books on 
computer languages; you can also 
check magazine back issues for soft- 
ware reviews of language packages 
{they usually have book recommenda- 
tions). 



At the moment, you can't get a pro- 
gram for transferring CP/M pro- 
grams to TRSDOS format. For ma- 
chine-language programs you'd have 
to rewrite the keyboard, video, and 
disk input/output routines to match 
your DOS. Basic programs would 
translate rather easily, except for cer- 
tain commands not supported by 
TRS-80 Basic that are used in CP/M 
Basic. If you want to upgrade your 
Model III, there are several adapter 
boards on the market. I prefer the 
Holmes Engineering board. 

Qal'm having problems with 
■ wafers for the Exatron Stringy 
Floppy system. Some older wafers 
(purchased two or more years ago) will 
no longer certify with @NEW and I 
can't add programs to older wafers 
that still have space available. Some 
newer wafers (mostly those with blue 
drive wheels) will @SAVE programs 
OK, but won't accept data from data 
I/O programs or Scripsit . Newer 
wafers, and all wafers from A & J 
Micro Drive under the Entrepo label, 
have worked perfectly. 

On another subject, how can I get 
my Model I Level II to stop after every 
page when I print so I can feed a new 
sheet into my printer? (Charles Steele, 
La Jolla, CA) 

A^The problem with the oldest 
■ tapes is probably age. Wafer 
tapes, like cassette tapes, are just a 
polymer base with a thin coaling of 
iron oxide pariicles. As the tape gets 
older, the iron oxide begins to wear, 
crack, and even peel off. This affects 
the tape's ability to store data. The 
wafer tape drive head also needs occa- 
sional cleaning (cotton swabs and al- 
cohol) and demagnetizing to restore it 
to top performance. First clean the 
wafer drive, then take one of the older 
tapes and bulk erase it with a powerful 
magnet. If you still can't get a pro- 
gram to certify on that tape, it's dead. 
As for the data- versus-pro gram prob- 



16 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



Newclock-80 $69.95 

The righttimeatthe right price! Keepthetimeanddatewith quartz accuracy, 
even when your computer is oif. The backup lithium battery iincluded) will last 
forover 2 years Software on tape or disk please specify Use'TIMESET'once 
to set the clock. Use "SETCLK" to set your computer's internal dock (at power 
up) or use "TSTRING" so that the 'TIMES" function reads the Newclock, 

Conneclion ModeM plugs into ine keyboard or exoansion interlace WodeMII plugsmtoine 
50-Din I/O Ous Comoalible with all ooeiating svslerns 




ON E/l 



Printswitch $59.00 

Do you have 2 printers? Get a Printswitch. Stop plugging and unplugging 
those printer cables. With the Pnntswitch.you can have 2 printers connected to 
your computer and you can select either one althe flick of a switch. Works with 
any printer plotter, or device that uses the parallel printer port Simply plug the 
14 inch Printswitch cable mlo your computer, and plug your existing printer 
cables into the Printswitch This is the mcestumton the market Superior quality 
board with gold plated edge connectors l^or Models l.lll, 4 and 4P 




Alpha Joystick $27.95 

When it's time for fun, don't be without your Alpha Joystick. Do you know 
thai most action games are Joystick compatible? Slop pounding on your 
keyboard and enioy real arcade control. The joystick can also be used with 
BASIC programs, simply do J= IN PfOl to read the loyslick position (8 directions 
and tire button) Model l plugs mto keyboard or expansion interface Model III 
4and4P plugs into 50-pin I/O bus. The Alpha Joyslick comes fully assembled 
and tested ready to plug m and enjoy, (Specify Model I, or Model III 4) 




lnterfacer-80 $159.00 

Low cost input and output device. The outputs consist of 8 relays iraled 2 
Amp @l25Vt. easily controlled usmg ■'OUT' commands l^or example. OUT 0.0 
turns all the relays off Eight LED's show the stales of the relays, TheS Inputs 
are optically isolated, so it's safe and easv to connect external devices 
(switches, sensors, thermostats, etc) Simple'lNP" commands read the inputs. 

Connection Mod I 40 pm bus Mod HI 4 4P requires SO-pin i/O bus conveflef ($39 95) plugs 
into 50-oin l.'O bus Comes comolete wiih power supp'y cable and detailed manual 
(Up to 8 inter*acefs can be connected lo vour TRS-80 using our Y- catDiesi, 

Analog-80 $139,00 

8 channel 8 bit Analog to Digital converter. Your TRS 80 can read voltages 
temperatures, pressures, light levels, etc •Input range lo 5 1 Volts. 
• Resolution; 20mV. • Conversion time: 1 20 microseconds In BASIC you can 
take up to 100 readings per second. • Port address: selectable, UploBAnalog- 
80s can be connected lo your TRS-80 for a total of 64 channels' 

Conneclron Model I 40pinl'ObLj? ModellH -1 4P reouires SD-pm bus adapter ($39 95) 
Comes complete with power suppiv cable and manual 





Special Cables 

Disk drive extender cable (8")...C160:S9.95 

Y-CabielorModlbus(40pin)- •X2-40 S29 •X3-40.S44 •X4 S59 •X5.$74 
Y-Cablelor Mod3 & 4 bus(50-pin) •X2-50 .$34 •X3-50 S4Q •X4-50.S64 
Disk drive cable |34 pm). •2-drive, C162:$32 •4-drive .C163:S45 
Extension cable. 4 toot: • "^or printer and drive (34-pini .C1B5:S22 

• For Mod I bus (40-pin) ., CI 67:524 • ^^or Mod 3 & 4 bus(5Q-pinV C169:$28 

Keyboard to E/l (40-pin, 8'T C161:$21 it this is contusing send for our Cable "^lyer 

Ouf cables are made with hiqh quality gold plated connectors to ensure utmost reliability 



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We know that ordering by mail can sometimes 
be a hassle, but with Alpha you are (ully 
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1 ) Our 1 5 day money back guarantee protects 
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2) All our products are tested on a TRS-80 and 
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ALPHA 



79-04 Jamaica Ave. Woodhaven. NY 11421 ►^ " f718} 296'5916 



Toll Fr00 Ordmr Una 
800-221-0916 

Ordmn Only. NY 4 Into e»ll 

1718) 296-5916. 

Houn: 9-5 Em9t»m Standmra TImm 



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APO AM JO^Deaier Discounts 
Avai3t>ie COD »aaS300eiVa- 



FEEDBACK LOOP 



lem, I can't tell why one works and the 
other doesn't. 

AH of the LLIST fonnatting pro- 
grams I can find are for disk systems. 
Can anyone help? 

QbI replaced my Model III with 
■a dual-drive Model 4 back in 
July 1983. Whenever I use LeScript or 
Model 4 Basic 1.00.00, the system 
freezes or reboots as frequently as 
every 10 minutes for no apparent rea- 
son. This never happens when I'm 
working in the Model III mode. (Steve 
Weeber, Fremont, MI} 

A ■LeScript wasn't designed to 
■operate in the Model 4 TRS- 
DOS 6.X.X environment. That's why 
you get the consistent reboots. In the 
Modd III mode, all the peripheral ad- 
dresses are the same as for a Model III 
computer, so the program behaves 
property. You need to patch LeScr^jt 
before it will operate rdiably under 
TRSDOS 6.X.X. 

From your description, I'd suspect 
that your version of Bask: has a bug. 
Every copy of Model 4 Basic I've seen 
so far performs without reboots. Con- 
tact your k)cal Radio Shack and see if 
an updated version is available. By the 
way, TRSDOS 6.2 is now available; 
contact your local store for details on 
upgrading. It offers much faster disk 
I/O and several other improvements. 

QbHow can the LNW Team 
■computer be compatible with 
the TRS-80 Models I, III, and 4 and 
still be able to address 160K of 
memory? (Rick Chandler, Brent- 
wood, TN) 

A Hit's aO handled by the DOS. 
■ It isn't diffKuh to get the Z80 
microprocessor to address more than 
64K — you just use memory bank- 
switching techniques and good pro- 
gram overhead management. As long 
as you don't mess up the kiw memory 
peripheral input/output addresses, 
you can maintain compatibility with 
all the standard DOSes. The only dif- 
ficulties are with certain machine-lan- 
guage programs that contain aD-intcr- 
nal peripheral control. They won't 
address the extra memory. 

Qgl'm kx>king for an accounts 
■ receivable program (balance 
forward type) for my dual-disk Model 



ni. It should handle 1,500 accounts 
with an average of five entries per 
month. I'd also like to find a program 
for bowling league scores; it must han- 
dle handkiaps and be easy to use. 
(Chris Sdgler, APO NY) 

AB I can fiTKl only one source for 
■ such a program: Data Auto 
Services, 2145 N.W. 10th St., Gaines- 
ville, FL 32601, 904-372-3267. The 
program requires a 5-megabyte hard 
disk and retails for $750. Considering 
the number of accounts, no matter 
what computer system you use, you'll 
need a hard disk to track everything. 

I found two bowling programs: 
Bowling League Secretary, disk- 
based, retails for $50 (O-K Audio, 543 
Cedarwood Court, Mkldletown, OH 
45042, 513-423-0321) and Bowlstal 
1.5, Model I disk-based, retails for 
$69.95 (Datascore, P.O. Box 995, 
Sharon, PA 16146, 412-346-3069). 

QbIs LeScript compatible with 
■ printer drivers such as Pro- 
soft's Dotwriter, or Pioneer Soft- 
ware's SCRIPTR, or any other 
driver that provides a wider choice of 
type fonts on the C.Itoh 8510 printer 
with a Model 4? A representative of 
Anitek says LeScript wasn't intended 
to be compatible with any other soft- 
ware. This seems to contradict Le- 
Script 's documentation, which indi- 
cates the program is compatible with 
Electric Webster. (William Davis Jr.. 
WeUsboro, PA) 

AhI believe LeScript includes the 
■ drivers for most printers on 
the market as part of the program 
package. As a result, it wasn't de- 
signed to integrate with third-party 
printer drivos like the ones you men- 
tion. Its integration with Electric 
Webster was a deliberate design func- 
tion, and you'll find that other spelling 
checkers, whik they can process Le- 
Scrqjt files, won't integrate directly 
with LeScript. Docs anyone know of a 
C.Itoh 8510 driver for LeScript? 

QhI own a Zenith Data Systems 
■Z-100 minicomputer. I oper- 
ate a Z-DOS/MS-DOS 8- and 16-bit 
system. My Basic is Microsoft's 
Z-Basic Rev. 1.0. Win TRS-Basic run 
(Ml my machine so I can use programs 
published in 80 Microl (Warren C. 
Hendrickson Jr., Summerfield, FL) 



AbAs I recall, Z-DOS is like 
■ CP/M, and has a standard 
Microsoft Basic. If that's the case, 
practically all Bask: pro-ams for the 
Models I/III/4 and 11/12/16 wiU 
work on your computer. You can also 
use them in the MS-DOS Bask envi- 
ronment. However, Z-DOS and MS- 
DOS Basic don't support some 
TRS-80 Basic commands like CMD 
"0" (string-array sort), and programs 
that use TRS-80 graphics commands 
won't work without alterations. You 
would have to adj usl machine-lan- 
guage programs to allow for different 
video, keyboard, and disk I/O rou- 
tines. 

I suggest that you try out some pro- 
grams from back issues of 80 hficro to 
see if they're compatible with your 
system. 

QH Here's an answer to Otto 
■Weills' questron (June 1984, p. 
16) about backing up a data disk; I use 
this method with Profile III Plus. Be- 
gin the back-up with your system disk 
in drive zero and a formatted disk in 
drive 1. Before you answer the query, 
"Disk contains data; are you sure you 
want to back up?", take the system 
disk out of drive zero and replace it 
with the formatted disk. Then answer 
yes to the query. Answer no to the 
prompt, "Do you wish to reformat?". 
The computer executes the back-up. 

I'd also like to pass along some in- 
fonnation about using Profile III Phis 
with floppy disks. When you run a 
Profile-generated program, you don't 
have to have a separate system disk for 
each data disk as long as the fields, 
math formulas, and user menus are 
the same. Create the control files 
Master/KEY, Master/DAT. Master/ 
DA2, and Master/DA3 and give your 
data files a common title such as Col- 
lectO. You have to teH the program 
that you want to put all DATS (data) 
in drive 1 . The drive 1 directory should 
look like this: 

COLLECrO/DAT 
COLLECTO/DA/2 
COLLECTO/DA/3 

WhenevCT you add records, give drive 
1 as your destination drive. {Henrietta 
Cements, Griffin. GA) 

AgFor a similar back-up tech- 
■ nique, see the September 1984 
Reader Exchange (p. 29). Thanks for 
the advice. 



IB • SO Micro. t)ecemt)9r 1984 



FEEDBACK LOOP 



QbI purchased the utility Trans- 
■ fer to help me convert some 
Basic programs to run on an MS-DOS 
machine. The portions of the utility 
that deal with MS-DOS-format disks 
don't seem to work. My Model III has 
two internal drives that have given me 
no problem under TRSDOS 1 . 3 . 1 had 
the speed of drive 1 adjusted but that 
didn't help. I bought a third drive and 
I'm still getting nowhere with the utili- 
ty. Every time I try to use drive 1 or 2 
as an MS-DOS drive I get a disk I/O 
error message. I took the utility to a 
Radio Shack and it worked fine on a 
Model 4 in Model III mode. 

I bought the computer from VR- 
Data in 1981 and they installed the 
original drives. Is the floppy controller 
board OK? It works fine under TRS- 
DOS. I'm at my wit's end. (Jerry Son- 
nenberg, Melbourne, FL) 

AhI suspect the problem is with 
■the controller board. Transfer 
was designed to operate using the Ra- 
dio Shack controller board, and does 
function properly, as it works on a 
Model 4 in Model III mode. The Mod- 
el 4 and Model III handle disk I/O in 
essentially the same way; I think the 
problem lies in the different parts used 
in the Radio Shack and VR-Data con- 
trollers. MS-DOS requires a slightly 
different data storage method on the 
disk (TRSDOS uses 256-byte sectors, 
while MS-DOS uses 512). This is ap- 
parently just enough difference to 
push the VR-Data board beyond its 
abilities, giving the error messages. 

I suggest you arrange with a friend 
to use a standard (all Radio Shack) 
Model III when you want to transfer a 
program from a TRSDOS-format to 
an MS-DOS-format disk. Does any- 
one else have any ideas? 

Qgl want to add disk drives to 
■ my Model III, and I have a 
number of questions. Do slimline, 
half-height drives have any significant 
disadvantages compared to full-height 
drives? I'd rather put four drives in the 
machine than have two internal and 
two external. Is heat a problem? 

It appears from the technical manu- 
al that the Model III can use double- 
sided drives without any modifica- 
tions, but I've seen no references to 
them. Is there something undesirable 
about them? The technical manual 
also indicates that all drive motors 



turn on when you access any drive; 
doesn't that wear the drive motors and 
require a much larger power supply? 

I've seen some ads for 80-track and 
80/80-track drives. Is this a case of 
trying to squeeze too much onto a 
disk, causing frequent errors and 
alignment problems? 

I've noticed that Micro Data Sup- 
plies advertises the Diskit III upgrade 
without drives for $219 while Displayed 
Video's price is $349. The products 
seem similar; why the $130 difference? 
(William H. Lewis, Lansing, MI) 

A B Slimline drives, as far as I 
■ know, have no mechanical dis- 
advantages; besides taking up less 
space, they have fewer circuit chips 
and require less power. Four of them 
in a cabinet could lead to a heat prob- 
lem, so you should add a vent fan to 
your computer; just tack it on top. 
Make sure the power supply you buy is 
powerful enough for all four drives as 
well as the rest of the computer. 

The use of double-sided drives is a 
function of the DOS; you can easily 
access them through LDOS, MULTI- 
DOS, DOSPLUS, NEWDOS, and 
other operating systems. TRSDOS 1.3 
isn't designed to use double-sided 
drives and would require extensive 
patching. A disadvantage to double- 
sided drives is that you usually can't 
swap disks with systems using single- 
sided drives. That's one reason you 
don't hear more about double-sided 
drives. 

Yes, the drive-select and motor-on 
signals are separate and that does put 

strain on the power supply. 80-track 
drives are as reliable in operation as 40- 
track drives, although they're more 
sensitive to alignment problems. 

As for the two upgrade kits, I don't 
know why their prices differ. 

Q|I recently bought a Model 4 
■and I'm busy converting my 
Model I programs. Most CMD games 
run fine under TRSDOS 1.3 in Model 
III mode, but instead of getting graph- 
ics blocks I sometimes get a character 
that looks like an oversized A. The 
Model 4 manual (p. A-59) designates 
this character as code 255 of the alter- 
nate character set. How can I display 
the regular graphics character? 

A more general question: I've read 
about CMOS chips and a CMOS ver- 
sion of the Z80A. These chips appar- 



ently save energy and create less heat 
than regular chips. Would converting 
my Model 4 processor and memory to 
CMOS increase my system's longevity 
by reducing operating heat? Would 
there be any negative side effects be- 
yond voiding the Radio Shack warran- 
ty? (Gary W. Shanqfelt, Abilene, TX) 

AH First, you have to determine 
■ what the normal graphics code 
is supposed to be. According to the 
manual, character 255 isn't even a 
graphics character, it's a space-com- 
pression code. The character must be 
191 (255 is exactly 64 above it, and 
there are only 64 graphics characters). 
It would seem that bit 7 is being set 
when it isn't supposed to be set, or 
that the Model 4 is interpreting in- 
structions from the program as orders 
to set that bit. Only the programmers 
know for sure if the problem is their 
program or the hardware. Does any- 
one have a solution? 

Alas, you can't just plug in CMOS 
chips. In most cases, the pin-ouls of 
the CMOS chips have been rear- 
ranged, usually because the +16 volt 
line has been eliminated . Plugging 
these chips into the old sockets with 
that line active will destroy them . 
You'd have to get chip pin-out dia- 
grams for all the chips you intend to 
replace, compare them for compatibil- 
ity, and take the appropriate action 
(cutting traces or adding jumpers). 
One disadvantage of CMOS chips is 
that they're slower than their standard 
counterparts. 

Qal'm quite pleased with Radio 
■ Shack's Model 4 hi-res graph- 
ics board, but 1 find I can't print 
screens with my Epson MX-80 printer 
(with Graftrax). I have no trouble get- 
ting the graphics to print with a Radio 
Shack dot-matrix printer. (John T. 
Martina, Lancaster, PA) 

AH What computer are you using? 
■ If it's a Radio Shack, then of 
course it won't work on your Epson; 
the methods of printing dot graphics 
are different. What you need is a 
driver program for the Epson. Does 
anyone know of such a program? ■ 

Terry Kepner is a freelance writer 
and programmer. He writes monthly 
columns for Portable 100 Magazine 
and 80 Micro. He's been writing about 
microcomputers since 1979. 



80 Micro, December1984 • 19 



PLUG IN TO SAVINGS 
WITH POWERSOFT 




SPECIAL VALUES TO LIGHT UP YOUR CHRISTMAS! 

Great for gifts. Perfect for you. But order today! 

These one-time holiday prices expire December 31, 1984. 

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-^ lirr^^r^ Now you can buy this two-year 1st Place Winner at Super Christmas savings! It's a must have program for disk 

<b - I J.. n:, ,. ... , lit., J.1...I.. 1^. ..... •>.,.£ ^1.., ..... .r. n..t ■O'i on tAi^r„ tn, kllnrj I 'III ..nrf.nn (n. tkn 



w w 



drives. Give us a call for details. Or see tfie 5 star review m Oct '83 80 Micro (or Mod l.'lll version: lor the 
Model 4, see the Sept. '84 issue Price includes complete manijal, binder and MASTER disk. (Backup not included) 






PowerDOT II 

HI-RES printer graphics! The titling gift for your bit-image printer— Epson, Prowriter, Tandy or Okiflata 92 93. 

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^T^- J ^^'^ ^°^^ seasonal variety with our tasi and easy screen graphic generator. It can merge screens with your own 
HH programs (See June '82 issue 80 Micro tor review, i 



$49 95 



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PowerMAIL Plus— I/Ill. 11/12. or Model 4 S99 95 

PowerMAlL Plus with TextMerge— l/lli. 11/12. or Model 4 $129.95 

The most powerful, easy-to-use maildata system you can buy' A Christmas bargain that even converts data 

from 7 other popular mailing systems, saving untold hours of re-entering, (Call to be sure we can convert you.) 

(See May '84 80 Micro 4 star reviewj ___^ 



ST80- 



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Remember, these special Christmas values are available throuah December 31, 1984 only. 
Orders at these sale prices cannot be accepted after that date. So call or mail in your order 
today. (Be sure to specify computer and/or printer.) 

Shipping. handling: $3 (U.S. and Canada); SIO (for airmail service on foreign orders). For C.O.D 
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This legend returns to the marketplace with many new features ard enhancements at a new lower price ST80-III 
handles bauds up to 9600, auto-answerauto-dial, uses most popular modems, has upload download, and will 
configure for most host systems. Contains X10-H0ST (for calling and using system from afar), and PMS (a 
secure Personal Message System) so people can leave messages, etc., but not get into your computer. Many 

more features! 

Model 4 ToolBelt Utilities S39.95 

This holiday special supports all versions of TRSOOS 6.x, including the new TRSDOS 6.2. (See the 4 star review 

in May '84 80 Micro ) 

LDOS ToolBoi Utilities S39.95 

At this sale price, anyone can learn why Sept, 83 SO Micro'% 4 star review says that these programs "perfect 

this use of LDOS." 

BACKREST 1.3 with RESTORE tor Hard Drives (LDOS or TRSOOS 6) $79.95 

If you spend lots of time doing backups, you'll love BACKREST It can backup a five-meg drive in about 15 

minutes, including files larger than a floppy Will work with other drives 

IMPAKT! tor BASIC for TRSOOS 2.3, TRSDOS 1 3 or LDOS (Mod I or IM| S29 95 
A time-saving, money-saving choice, IMPAKT features searchreplace, remove REMS (spaces, colons), com- 
press, decompress, renumber, join lines, move lines, copy lines, decode packed strings, rescue and much 
more' Programs run on unmodified BASIC 

Slocliing Stutter Book Values 

Inside Super Utility Plus 3.0/3/2 For beginners and experts alike. S15.Q0 

Super Utility Plus 3 2 Tech Manual For experts only S12.50 

TRSDOS 6 Programmers Guide Required reading tor Model 4 programmers $19 00 



B 



20 • so Micro, December 1984 



Sae Lis! of Advenisers an Page 192 



PULSE TRAIN 



Tandy Battles the 
Bottom-Line Blues 



Tandyland 



Tandy's mid-August an- 
nouncement of its first 
quarterly decline in sales 
in six years sparked an in- 
depth analysis of the com- 
pany in the New York 
Times. The paper reported 
that computer sales, which 
account for a third of 
Tandy's $2.7 billion annu- 
al revenue, had slipped 
and that Tandy needed a 
new product or a shift in 
marketing strategy to take 
up the slack. 

This uneven perfor- 
mance isn't new to the 
Fort Worth-based firm: 
During the 1970s, Radio 
Shack was the front- 
rurmer in citizens band radio sales, but 
when that market collapsed in 1977 
Radio Shack was caught flat-footed 
and in search of a product to keep 
sales figures on track. 

Enter the home computer. In 1979, 
Radio Shack computers and software 
accounted for 9.5 percent of the com- 
pany's total factory shipments. By 
1983, micro sales led factory ship- 
ments with 34.6 percent of total sales 
(see the Figure). Within this same time 
period, home computer sales contrib- 
uted to Tandy's 35 percent annual 
growth in profits. 

But Radio Shack is feeling the ef- 
fects of the current softening in the 
personal computer market. Acknowl- 
edging his company's recent lackluster 
performance in a tough market, Tan- 
dy chief executive officer John Roach 
told the Times, "There are undoubt- 
edly some things that we could have 
done smarter." In fact, Tandy must 
take a strong sales and marketing ini- 
tiative to regain its early leadership po- 
sition in microcomputer sales. And it 
may be doing just that with the 



edited by Bradford N. Dixon 



T«i«|'« fciHinf ^ '»4m* Ni 



C ■ radiMA«[ki* UlkiM 4 9 K 

ElaeVwxo par\» H 2 X % 



Figure. Faciory shipments of Radio Shack products in 1979 and 1983. 



Model 1000 (see related stories, pp. 6 
and 44). 

The headline on an Aug. 16, 1984, 

news release from Tandy was upbeat: 
"Tandy Corporation reports 22nd 
consecutive year of increased armual 
earnings per share." The good news 
for shareholders was an increase in the 
fiscal 1984 net income per share to 
$2.75, up from $2.67 in fiscal 1983. 

Other fmancial news from the Tan- 
dy Towers was also optimistic, despite 
some unimpressive numbers. An 11 
percent rise in sales during fiscal 1984 
translated into a net income gain of 
only 1 percent. In hard figures, sales 
for 1984 totaled $2.74 billion versus 
$2.48 billion in 1983. 

Though fourth-quarter 1983 sales 
were up 2 percent, net income for the 
period fell from last year's $74.5 mil- 
lion to $58.4 million. 



Update 



Free software, just $14.95. There 

seems to be some confusion about the 
price of Radio Shack's new PC Maker 



program, a disk formatter 
that lets the Tandy 2000 
write IBM PC-readable 
disks (see the September 
1984 Pulse Train, p. 22). 
In its press release intro- 
ducing PC Maker, Radio 
Shack says the program is 
free to registered MS-DOS 
owners using the 20(X). 
However, the price index 
at some Radio Shack 
Computer Centers lists the 
product at $14.95. Tandy 
20(X) owners should be 
aware that as far as Fort 
Worth is concerned, PC 
Maker is free. 

Meanwhile, whatever 
its price, the program 
seems bound to disappoint 
some users. John Harrell, 
who writes 80 Micro's 
2000 Plus column, reports that PC 
Maker formats only single-sided, 
single-density disks. The ponability to 
and from the PC is there, but the 
limited storage capability is a serious 
drawback. 

Back in Mareh 1984, Intel Corp. con- 
tracted with Advanced Micro Devices 
(AMD) of Sunnyvale, CA, to manu- 
facture Intel's 80186 microprocessor, 
the brains of Tandy's Model 2000. 
Now Intel and AMD have strength- 
ened their alliance wdth a second li- 
censing agreement that has AMD 
manufacturing Intel's 80286, the cen- 
tral chip in IBM's new multiuser 
micro. 

AMD expects to have the 80286 in 
full-volume production by the second 
quarter of 1985. It will be interesting 
to watch whether the number of 80186 
units shipped suffers as AMD takes on 
the 80286. If AMD fails to meet its 
fourth-quarter 80186 production 
quota, some might wonder if IBM, 
which holds 20 percent of Intel's 
stock, had anything to do with it. 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 21 



PULSE TRAIN 



Muiufacturer 

Commodore 

Sinclair 

Atari 

Tandy 

Coleco 

Others 



Market Share 

42 percent 
18 [jercent 
12 percent 
8 percent 

4 percent 
16 percent 



Table I. Kstimaied worldwide market share 
for computers costing under $1,000. 



MicroTrends 



In the past few months, print-media 

industry watchers have said the day of 
reckoning is at hand for the niicro- 
computer industry and that the shake- 
out of the micro market has begun. 

To check the doomsayers' predic- 
tions, the market research firm Data- 
quest estimated worldwide market pene- 
tration of the top micro manufacturers. 
Dataquest listed only one manufacturer 
in its top five firms in the under-$l ,000 
price range and in the $!,000-$10,000 
market. IBM? Apple? Nope, it's good 
old Tandy Corp. 

in terms of worldwide market 
share, Dataquest estimates Tandy 
holds 8 percent of the under-$l,000 
market (see Table 1). in the 
$I,000-$10,000 market, Tandy gar- 
nered 4 percent of the estimated world 
market in 1984 (see Table 2). These 
figures put Tandy in fourth place in 
both markets. The under-$l,000 mar- 
ket is headed for big changes in com- 
ing months, due to price cuts for the 
Apple He, iBM PCjr, and Tandy's 
Models 4 and 4P. 

The shakeout may be on, but Data- 
quest forecasts that 14.1 million com- 
puters priced at $10,000 or less will be 
shipped worldwide in 1984. That's up 
58 percent over last year. 

As far as multiuser micro systems go, 

the industry may finally be catching 
up to Tandy. An article in the Aug. 6, 
1984, Wa/I Street Journal supports tht 
assertion Tandy made two years ago: 
that multiuser systems would soon be 
a major force in the microcomputer 
marketplace. Lower costs are generat- 
ing more interest in multiuser micros 
among buyers of low-end business 
systems. 

Infocorp, a Cupertino, CA, market 
research firm, predicts sales of multi- 
user systems will increase 36 percent a 
year through 1988 and reach a sales 



plateau of 1 .8 million systems per 
year. 

Tandy may have been a little ahead 
of its time in introducing a multiuser 
system two years ago. Garland Asher, 
Tandy's director of financial plan- 
ning, recalls, "It [the introduction] 
was a non-event, but volume this year 
is twice last year's. Now we think we 
were 18 months too early." 

Typical of most newer multiuser 
micros. Radio Shack's Model 16B 
costs $10,489 and includes hard disk 
storage, two terminals, and a printer. 
Such a system is a far cry from the not- 
so-distant past when businesses had to 
buy $50,000 IBM computers and 
spend another $50,000 for special soft- 
ware. 

"Homeless computers for computer- 
less homes" is the slogan of an upstart 
company in Mississauga, Ontario, 
called International Computer Or- 
phanage (ICO). The doors of the or- 
phanage officially opened on Aug. 15, 
1984, and the company is now hard at 
work placing unwanted and unused 
computers. 

According to ICO president Brian 
Keenan, 3 million home and business 
computers were sold in North Ameri- 
ca in 1983, but an estimated 600,000 
of them now spend their days un- 
plugged and unused. He expects that 
number to rise to over 2 million ne- 
glected computers within a few years. 

Keenan feels his agency is just 
what's needed to turn these shelf-top 
loiterers into productive members of 
society. "People have always been 
hesitant to buy new computers be- 
cause of the expense involved and the 
constant technological changes, and 
used computers have been a giant 
headache for both buyers and sellers," 
he says. "Adoption is an easy and af- 
fordable way to bring orphan comput- 
ers into your home or business." 

Perhaps the concept of fmding new 
homes for old or neglected computers 
is noble, but aren't they on the shelf in 
the first place because they're too 
cheaply made to fix and they're no 
longer powerful enough to do what a 
new machine can do at a better price? 
Nonetheless, readers sympathetic to 
the plight of homeless computers can 
get information about computer 
adoption from the International Com- 
puter Orphanage, 6711 Mississauga 
Road, Suite 103, Mississauga, Ontario 
L5N 9Z9, Canada. 



Manufacturer 


Market Share 


IBM 


24 percent 


Apple 


18 percent 


NEC 


5 percent 


Tandy 


4 percent 


Acorn 


3 percent 


Others 


46 percent 


Table 2. Estimated world-wide market share 


for computers costing SI,000-SIO,000. 



New Threads 



A new wardrobe, a remodeled house, 

and a 4P. This year, for the fu^t time, 
McCaU's magazine included computer 
equipment in the prize list for its Read- 
er of the Year contest, and the equip- 
ment was all from Tandy. Keeping the 
Model 4P company were a DWP-210 
printer, Scripsit, PFS:File, and the 
game 13 Ghosts. 

The winner, Diana Hindt, an oil- 
field equipment salesperson from Ka- 
ty, TX, said she'd use her new com- 
puter to write letters, keep the family 
budget, track food prices, and teach 
programming to her children. 

As home computer users move toward 

more serious and varied applications, 
software distributors will have to be- 
come more sophisticated marketers. 
Instead of simply supplying games, by 
1987 vendors wall become educators 
and demonstrators of nonentertain- 
ment software, according to The Story 
Angler, a periodical service provided 
by Link, a subsidiary of International 
Data Corporation. 

Link's report noted that the dis- 
tinction between entertainment and 
educational software, now blurred in 
programs like educational games, will 
become clearer. The report also fore- 
sees increased integration between 
home business and home productivity 
packages in products ranging from 
personal fmance modules to auto- 
mated home control. 

Although the report didn't mention 
software support, it stands to reason 
that the level of service will also have 
to rise as software becomes more so- 
phisticated. 

It seems hard to believe, but while ma- 
jor players in the portable computer 
market are falling by the wayside (i.e., 
Xerox and Convergent Technologies), 
industry analysts continue to remain 



22 • SO Micro, December 1984 



TRS-80 MODEL 4 

Word Processing Program 




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Built-in FORM LETTER and MAIL-MERGE capabilities 
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D LeScript also available to run on TRS-80 MODEL I, MODEL 

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n CP/M and TRS-80 MODEL II versions now available (only 

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LI MODEL 2/12/16 Versions now available for TRS-DOS 2.0, 

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Send to ANITEK • PO Box 361136 • Melbourne. FL 32936 



PULSE TRAIN 



optimistic about lapsize sales expec- 
tations. 

Portable Computing Devices: The 
Coming Generation, a market analysis 
by Creative Strategies International, 
San Jose, CA, details the vendors to 
watch, the markets to sell, and the pre- 
requisites for success in selling hand- 
held, lapsize, and transportable com- 
puters through 1989. Some trends 
outlined in the report are surprising, 
while others merely state the obvious. 
"From 1983-1989. the $2,500- 
$4,999 price segment will show the 
most rapid growth in terms of num- 
bers shipped." This may come as a 
surprise to manufacturers of the $3,000 
Grid Compass. The Grid hasn't done 
very well this year, and other industry 
aniysts feel that consumers can't jus- 
tify spending $3,000 or more for a 
computer you can hold in your lap. 
Perhaps the computer conscience will 
change over the next five years. 

"As lapsize computers gain greater 
memory capability, graphics, printers, 
and IBM-PC compatibility, consum- 
ers will turn away from the heavier 
transportable computers in favor of 
the advantages of lapsize computers." 
You don't need CSI's report to learn 
that; IBM compatibility is generally 
regarded as a must for future comput- 
er generations. 

For more information about the re- 
port, write to Creative Strategies In- 
ternational at 4340 Stevens Creek 
Blvd., Suite 275, San Jose CA 95129. 

If the courts were to invalidate soft- 
ware licensing agreements, the soft- 
ware industry would lose 30-65 per- 
cent of its revenue over the next four 
years. That's according to Maureen 
Fleming, editor of Download, a news- 
letter published by International Re- 
search Development Inc. of Norwalk, 
CT. The drop in sales dollars would 
result not from illegally copied soft- 
ware, but from legitimate multiple us- 
es of a single copy under guidelines set 
by the Copyright Act of 1978. 

Fleming says that if publishers li- 
censed encyclopedias the way software 
is licensed, you'd have to buy a set of 
encyclopedias for each member of 
your household. While the debate 
over software licensing rages on, 
Fleming's predictions about software 
revenues remain hypothetical: So far, 
no irate software buyer has challenged 
I a licensing agreement in court. ■ 







Photo. CompuServe's Columbus, OH, mission control. 



What Is 
CompuServe? 



Infomiatioii processing and telecom- 
munications are buzzwords of the 
hour, and the CompuServe Informa- 
tion Service (CIS) is right in the mid- 
dle of it all. You can hardly open a 
micro magazine without seeing men- 
tion of this on-line computer center. 
So what is CompuServe and and why 
is everybody talking about it? 

CIS began in 1969 as a computer 
time-sharing service that provided 
thousands of subscribers access to a 
mainframe computer at a fraction of 
the cost of owning one. Since then, 
CIS has expanded its offerings to 
keep up with the growth in the micro 
industry and now serves more than 
100,000 subscribers. 

The Columbus, OH, company pro- 
vides telecommunications network- 
ing services, electronic mail systems 
(e-mail), and consumer and business 
videotex services. The company's 
mainframes are located in two build- 
ings in Columbus (see the Photo). 
Subscribers can access CIS via the 
CompuServe Network Service, a 
telephone system that lets users ac- 
cess the mainframe with a local 
phone call in more than 300 U.S. 
cities and over 42 countries 
worldwide. 



Though CompuServe remains an 
important influence on business ap- 
plications in the area of information 
management and videotex service, its 
Consumer Information Service is 
what most micro owners use. Armed 
with a personal computer, a terminal 
package, and a modem, any home 
computerist can tap the extensive on- 
line data base. 

Features often used by nonbusi- 
ness computerists include the citizens 
band simulator, e-mail, a national 
bulletin board, interactive games, an 
on-line encyclopedia, travel and 
leisure resources, national news 
wires, and electronic magazines. CIS 
also provides programmers main- 
frame memory and storage space for 
projects of their own. 

Many users like CompuServe's 
special-interest groups (SIGs), which 
provide a forum for information and 
discussion about their micros. SIGs 
with an emphasis on Radio Shack 
computers include MNET-80, the 
Model 100 SIG, and the TRS-80 
Professional SIG. These SIGs spon- 
sor exchanges with Tandy brass, who 
field questions from SIG members. 

Trial subscriptions to Compu- 
Serve often come with terminal pro- 
grams and modems. For more infor- 
mation, caU CIS at 614457-8600 or 
write to them at 5000 Arlington Cen- 
tre Blvd., P.O. Box 20212, Colum- 
bus, OH 43220. ■ 



24 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



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MODEL I 
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{rarything you n»«d (o convtrt your TRS-80 Modal 
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AND PROTECT 




ROLLTOP 100 
Disk File uodai 'rtioo 

Twice the capacity (WO - S'/<" 
Disks) of the leading "tlip top" 
file But it takes no more desk 
space! An outstanding design 
that combines contemporary 
styling with the elegance of a 
rolltop enclosure and a textured 
buff plastic body. It includes 10 
diskette dividers and anti-skid 

fee $36.00 

Locking Model >tRT100LS46 00 



DOTWRITER 3.0 
Lsts you create words and drawings 
quickly and easily, right on tfia 
acrwmn of your TRS-80. 
■DOTWRITER ' uaas high -resolution 
'dot graphics to craale Imncy 
latlanats 



DOTWRITER 



SS9 95 



DATAGRAPH 

Tranaforma your VISI-CALC^" tiles in- 
to high-reaolutiop custom graphs on 
your TRS-80 computer and 
graphics printer Super 3rd genera- 
tion printer graphics program 
DATAGRAPH SM l-^ 



ULTRA TERM 
Version 2 

Supports borth manual and auto dial 
modems. Exclusive Ultra Term direct 
diak tile transfer mode, allows unat- 
tended operation at the receiving 
computer Una printer support with 
a 1k print buffer Halt i full duplex 
support Universal ASCII format file 
transfer with a 33K buffer arid a full 
featured host program .S49 95 



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VERSABUSINESS SERIES 

The Most Powerful Business 
Software Eve>! 
Model f. HI & IV 
Each Versabusiness module can be 
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ly or can be linked in any combina- 
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VERSaReCEIVABLES , S84 95 

A complete menu-driven accounts 
receivalbe. invoicing and monthly state- 
ment generating system Keeps track of 
all information relating to who owes you 
or your company money and can provide 
automatic billing for past due accounts. 
VERSAPAYABLES iB4 95 

Designed to deep track o' current and 
aged payables, keeping you in touch 
with all the Information regarding how 
much money your company owes and to 
whom 

VERSAPAYROLL S84 9S 

Powerful and sophisticated yet easy to 
use! Complete employee records are 
maintained and all necessarry payroll 
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VERSAINVENTORY $84 95 

Just what you need to maintain complete 
control of your inventory system Gives 
you instant access to data on any item 
Keeps track of all information related to 
what Items are In stock, ate. 

VeRSALeDGER 11 S)29 95 

This complete accounting system grows 
with your business Can function as a 
simple personal checkbook register, a 
small business bookkeeping system or a 
large corporate genreal ledger system! 




ELECTRIC WEBSTER 

w/correcting leature $119 00 

Hyphenation leature S 39 00 

Grammatical leature S 39.00 

COMPLETE SYSTEM 
All tour programs StB9 00 

Cadillac of Spelling Checkers 
SO Micro 9/82 
Available on Model I. Ill & IV 



ELECTRIC PENCIL 
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To Our Friends. 

Thank you for making MICRO DA TA SUPPLIES one of the fastest growing computer dealers 
in the US We pledge to continue offering the most complete selection of computers, 
peripherals, software and supplies at discount prices ■ to help you save more . . and to serve 
you better. €uaa^K:^XU- 

Rl/ss Knofs • President 




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THE HOME ACCOUNTANT 

The #7 b«s( selling program for 
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Model 3. handles up to 99 accounts, 
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net worth statements, income 
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provides all the power you'll need 
(by Continental Software, requires 
Model 3. 2 drives: 48K) . .J62.95 



NEWDOS/80 
Version II 

MOD I or III $n9.95 



Le( your TRS-SO'" Test Itself With 

THE FLOPPY DOCTOR & 

MEMORY DIAGNOSTIC 

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For MODEL I $24.00 

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THE WAIT IS OVER 

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BOOKS 

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TRS-BO DISK J»9-95 

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READER EXCHANGE 



Part of the Game 

Bomber ("Bombs Away!,*' August 
1984, p. 74) is, in my opinion, one of 
the finest games ever to hit the pages 
of 80 Micro. However, the chopper 
sound wouldn't work on my Model 
III. With a few minor changes, I've 
rectified the problem. Don't delete 
lines 9690-9710; instead, add: 

09705 IN A.(OECH) 
13655 DI 

Change the following lines: 

03020 IN A,({EOH) 
03030 IN A,(OECH) 

and delete 03040 and 03050. If you 
prefer the nifty Model III rockeiship 
character to the left bracket for the 
program's rockets, change the 91s to 
255s in lines 4740, 5700. 5860, and 
7300. 

Sanford F. Kaplan 

4390 Silsby Road 

University Heights. OH 441 18 

Assembly Line 

A word of thanks to Douglas Payne 
for his EDTASM4 program (August 
1984, p. 43). I've made a small change 
to prevent accidentally loading ED- 
TASM instead of EDTASM4, which 
can happen if you're used to loading 
the Model 111 program, and which 
scrambles the computer's memory, 
forcing a reset. To modify the pro- 
gram, change line 860 to read: 

00860 EADCB: DEFM 'EDTASM/CMD. 
PASSWORD 

Then use TRSDOS 6.X.X's ATTRIB 
command to assign "Password" to 
EDTASM/CMD after you've con- 
verted it to Model 4 format. With the 
change in place, you get an illegal at- 
tempt error instead of a scrambled 
memory. 

Sid Wiliiamson 

432 Berford Si. 

Wiarton. Ont., Canada NOH 27V 



f f\^ 




" '1 — —■ 




' 








J ! 




1 





Leisurely Scroll 

If you have the graphics board for 
the Tandy ^XX), scrolling is unaccepl- 
ably slow when you program in Basic. 
To solve the problem, you can tap the 
F12 key when you boot up the system, 
which tricks the computer into think- 
ing you don't have the graphics board 
installed. However, when you use 
graphics, the computer switches back 
to the graphics screen in Basic. If this 
happens, you can use a short Basic 
program (see the Program Listing) to 
switch the computer to the text mode. 
I've found it useful to save the pro- 
gram as Texl.BAS; whenever 1 pro- 
gram in Basic I type in BASIC TEXT. 
This automatically puts the computer 
in Basic with a fast scroll. 

Scolt Trent 
n017W. CopelandAve. 
Hales Comers, WI 53130 



b 


REH 


Copyright 19H4 


Scott 


R. 


Trent 


7 


REM 










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TEXT 


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2a 


DATA 


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DATA 


LHB4, tHBB 


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98 


NE!CT 


LOCATION 








IBB 


CALL 


TEXT 








iia 


COLOR 2 








12B 


NEW 










Program Listing. Fast scroll for the Model 


2000 in Bask. 









Speech! Speech! 

Model 4 owners can use Theodore 
M. Diament's Model III speech syn- 
thesizer by making two changes to the 
Program Listing ("Sound Software," 
October 1984, p. 100). Since the 4's 
cassette port differs from that of the 
Model III, you should change lines 
580 and 590 to: 

00580 DEFW OOOOH 

00590 RRA 

With these changes in place, the pro- 
gram examines only the cassette input 
bit and ignores all other bits at the 
cassette port. 

Mark D. Goodwin 
HCR 79, Box 103 
Orland. ME 04472 

Help File 

I own a DAK/Olivetti PR-2300 
printer and I need a driver for printing 
graphics. I'm using the Tandy 2000 
with Practical Peripherals' IBM PC 
driver— it loads and runs, but nothing 
happens. Apparently it's not written 
in MS-DOS 2.0, the operating system 
I'm using. I'm also looking for a patch 
to WordStar that enables the print 
commands to the PR-2300. 

Jim Blyler 
1554 Kildare Way 
Pinole, CA 94564 

I use my Model III for simulation 
programs thai use the RND random 
number function. The TRSDOS Disk 
System Owner's Manual st^es that 
the seed for this function isn't accessi- 
ble to the user, meaning it's not possi- 
ble to duplicate a sequence of pseudo- 
random numbers. To circumvent this, 
I've tried several techniques, including 
storing a series of random numbers in 
a sequential file. Does anyone know of 
a POKE address that I can use to re- 
seed the random number generator? 

Bob Baninger 
6614 Vollmer Lane 
Godfrey, IL 62035 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 29 

Scanned by Ira Goldklang - www.trs-80.Gom 



READER EXCHANGE 



I have the Radio Shack high-resolu- 
tion graphics board on my 48K Model 
ill. I'm looking for program.s, sub- 
routines, arcade games, etc. that use 
hi-res graphics. 

Rick A . Harris 

3213 Shelter Co\e A ve. 

Davis, CA 95616 

Can anyone help me Find a driver 
program for a Spinwriler 5520 KSR 
printer interfaced with a 48K Model I 
through the RS-232C port? The Spin- 
writer is a rare machine among micro 
users in this country. 

Dr. Maxwell J. Curler 

39 Gunnershurv A ve. 

Ealing. W5 3XD 

London, England 

Can anyone tell me where to get 
software for the Radio Shack digitiz- 
er? I'm particularly interested in cal- 
culating areas and storing the results. 

Chuck Reed 

P.O. Bo.x 1682 

Rock Springs, WY 82901 



Can SuperScripsit be zapped (using 
NEWDOS80/VZ Superzap) to elimi- 
nate the feature that limits document 
size to about 137 grans? I want to take 
advantage of my Model III double- 
sided drives. Also, is there a way to 
transfer Model 111 SuperScripsit files 
to Model 4 SuperScripsit? 

/. Robert Menzies 

7176 N. 4th St. 

Coeurd'Alene, ID 83814 

I'd like to buy the following out-of- 
print back issues of 80 Micro: Veb- 
mary 1980, April 1980, July 1980. 
February 1981, and April 1981. 

T. K. Nilsson 

27 Doveton Ave. 

Doveton 3177, Victoria 

Australia 

Does anybody have patches to Pro- 
file lll-t- and/or SuperScripsit so 
they'll run under NEWDOS80 2.0 or 
LDOS5.13? 

Patrick Potin 

4 Ave. lierbillon 

94160 Si. Mande France 



I have a Model 11/16 and would like 
to contact anybody who has devel- 
oped computer-assisted design soft- 
ware that I could use. 

Gary J. Evans 

I Rambler Lane 

Slough, Berks SL3 7RR, England 

Error Trap 

In "Drawing Boards" (July 1984, 
p. 65), the command for returning to 
DOS is incorrect. Type in EN; don't 
press the enter key as indicated in the 
article. 

—Eds. 

An omission from my .sidebar about 
formatting a Model 4 hard disk (Au- 
gust 1984, p. 27) prevents the tech- 
nique from working properiy. In the 
second step, after you press the break 
key and the nve-Hne patch goes to 
disk, type in from the DOS level: 

PATCH INITHOVJCI USINC, INfTHDI 

and then continue lo follow the print- 
ed instructions. By the way, this 



WILL YOU BUY COMPATIBLE? 



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TRANSFORM YOUR VISICALC "OR MULTIPLAN "FILES INTO HIGH-RESOLUTION 
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"I am amazed at the broad spectrum of 
technical articles you publish, for both 
novice and advanced programmers . . ." 




If you're still wondering which magazine you should 
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80 Micro is the magazine for every TRS 80 user from 
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READER EXCHANGE 



procedure works only with the S-mega- 
byte Tandy drive. The coding is differ- 
ent for the 1 5-meg drive and for other 
brands. Readers can contact us about 
using the method on other hard-drive 
systems. 

Dennis Brent 

Powersoft 

11500 Stemmons Freeway 

Suite 125 

Dallas, rX 75229 

80 Micro's New Products section 
for September 1984 (p. 188) referred 
to our new math learning program as 
Arith-Magic, which is an older prod- 
uct still on the market. The new pro- 
gram is Arith-Magic U. 

Janet Regnell 

Quality Educational Designs Inc. 

P.O. Box 12486 

Portland, OR 97212 

User's Groups 

TRS-80 Users Group of Central C\ 
P.O. Box 1575 



Hartford, CT 06144 
Contact: Armand Korzenik 

TRS-80 International Users Group 

(Model 11/12/16) 

8437 Belleview 

Kansas City, MO 64114 

Contact: Robert Sokol 

Oklahoma Educational Computer 

User's Program 

Mathematics Dept. 

University of Oklahoma 

Norman, OK 73019 

Contact: Dr. Richard V. Andree 

New Bulletin Board Systems 

Megobyte T.C. Bulletin Board 

Willits, CA 

707^59-6928 

Sysop; Daniel Stasinski 

300 baud 

Data Exchange 
Fargo, ND 
701-281-0716 



Sysops: Lincoln and 
Paulette Armstrong 

The Gold Country Exchange 

Grass Valley, CA 

916-272-3129 

Sysops: Matt Baker and Ron Qayton 



DEBUG 



I let a bug slip into my sales report 
generator ("For Sales," August 
1984, p. 142). Readers should change 
line 1100 to read: 

1100 PRINT "OK-iiINPUTOKSr IF OK$ = 
"NC'THEN Z = Z-F(n:W=W-E(I):E(I) = 
E(I-1):F(I) = F(1)-F(I-I):Y(I)-Y(I)-Y 
(I-1):I = I-] 

This steps back the amounts in your 
sales and commission columns when 
you answer no to the "Is data OK?" 
prompt. 

Glen E. Sparks 

6186 Custer 

S. Rockwood, MI 48179 



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calculates the moving expense deduction 
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FOR RETURN PREPARATION 

SUPERTAX PRINTS THE INCOME TAX 
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computer paper lor use with transparencies 
Any item of input can be changed in seconds 
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TRS-80 Apple 11 - , IBM-PC Kaypro anO Sanyo are 
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SUPERTAX also includes 
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Output from the depreciation program is 
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N«W-PREPARER'S EDITION: Includes 
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REVIEWS 



Making Conversation: 
The VS- 100 



by Gary A. Ludwick 



edited by Ryan Davis- Wright 



If you're an avid reader 
of 80 Micro, chances 
are you've seen an ad for 
a $69.95 voice synthes- 
izer from Alpha Prod- 
ucts. You might have 
wondered just how good 
it could be for such a low 
price. Well, the VS-100 
does everything that Al- 
pha claims it does, and 
does it surprisingly well. 
While it has some short- 
comings, the VS-100 
does an admirable job of 
synthesizing human 
speech. 

The VS-100 is a com- 
pact 3- by 5-inch circuit 
card that plugs into 
either the Model I expansion port or 
the Model Ill's 50-pin I/O bus. To 
install it, you simply plug it in and 
attach the volume control knob. 
Power is supplied by a regulated 
transformer wall plug that goes to 
the nearest 1 10 volt outlet. 

The only other step is to connect 
a speaker. Since the VS-100 contains 
its own amplifier, any small speaker 
will do. But for only $5.95, Alpha 
Products will supply you with one. 
This well-designed little speaker 
comes with the correct miniplug for 
the circuit board and it's all you 
really need. 

The VS-100 is built around the 
Votrax SC-OI phoneme synthesizer. 
A phoneme is a basic unit of speech, 
a sound like "th" or "ch" or "ee." 
The English language has about 64 
such units and the Votrax can speak 
them all. 

Fortunately, you don't have to 
know anything about phonemes or 
thcu coraputCY codes vo make the 
VS-100 work. The Talker 2.0 soft- 
ware takes care of that. 




The real impact of the VS-100 
comes with its pairing to the Talker 
2.0. While the hardware is afforda- 
ble by almost everbody, the software 
makes it usable for even a beginner. 

Before you start to make it speak, 
you need to understand that the 
Talker is designed primarily to work 
with Basic programs. It works under 
all DOSes and some machine-lan- 
guage programs, but if you're looking 
forward to a talking word processor, 
you might be disappointed. 

How It Works 

Talker comes with a wide range of 
choices and parameters for setting 
up the VS-100 (see Table 1 for a 
command synopsis). You can com- 
mand Talker to automatically speak 
each word entered from the key- 
board (keyboard echo) or each word 
that appears on the video screen 
(video echo). It can pronounce each 
letter or punctuation mark, and you 
can select the pitch of the voice and 
the speed of the delivery. 

Also, you can set aside a speech 



buffer that will feed the 
phoneme codes to the 
VS-100 as fast as it can 
receive them without 
slowing down the com- 
puter functions. Up to 
lOK is reservable for this 
purpose, which works 
out to about 20 minutes 
of speech. 

All of the control 
codes are sent to Talker 
when it is loaded from 
DOS Ready. For in- 
stance, "TALKER15/ 
VW//BY//r' would 
load Talker into highest 
available memory, set 
aside a 4K buffer 
( 1 5 X 256 bytes), suppress 
duplicate blanks to speed 
up speech delivery, and 
set the pitch to 1 , a male 
voice. Every control code can also be 
embedded in your Basic program to 
change parameters or inflection when- 
ever desired. 

After you've loaded Talker, set the 
initial parameters, and entered Basic, 
you're now ready to make it speak. If 
you're writing a program, and the 
keyboard or video echo option is on, 
every word that you type will be 
spoken. Or, loading an existing pro- 
gram into Basic (with the video echo 
on) makes every word that appears on 
screen spoken automatically. This is a 
mixed blessing, however. 

The main problem, of course, is 
that most people read faster than the 
VS-100 can talk. And with the speech 
buffer, the computer will keep on 
going while the VS-100 lags a screen 
or two behind. This can drive you 
crazy in short order. 

If you want to cancel this, pressing 
the shift and space keys together will 
clear the buffer and bring the VS-100 
to where you are curremly oti screen. 
After five minutes trying to auto- 
matically use speech in a text adventure 



80 Micro. December 1984 • ^ 



REVIEWS 



game, I realized that the constant elec- 
tronic chatter of the video echo option 
might be the easiest, but not the most 
satisfying, way to make the VS-100 
work. 

Converting an Existing Progjram 

One other feature of Talker imple- 
ments two Basic commands: Print* 
and Print!. Change any Basic print 
statement to Print* and the line within 
quotes that follows will be qwken, but 
not printed on the screen. Use Print! 
and the line will be spoken and 
printed. 

The secret to effective computer- 
generated speech lies in the judicious 
use of these two statements. You have 
to know when to make the computer 
talk and when to let the user read the 
screen. It takes some trial and error to 
achieve the best mix of talking and si- 
lence, but you win quickly learn that 
computers (like humans) are more in- 
teresting when they occasionally keep 
quiet. 

For those with a good word proces- 
sor, the task is even simpler. Just load 
in your Basic program as a text Hie 
and use a global Fmd and Replace 
command to locate each print state- 
ment in your program. If it looks like 
something you want spoken, hit the 
replace key to change the statement to 
Print* or Print!. 



VS-100 

Voice Synthesizer and 

Talker 2.0 Software 

Alpha Products 
79-04 Jamaica Ave. 
Woodhavn, NY 11421 
718-296-5916 
Models 1, m, 4P, 
and Color Computer 
VS-100 $69.95 
TAer 2.0 disk $29.95 
Talcer 1.4 (not reviewed) 
cassette and disk $19.95 



Easy to use? 


•••*• 


Good docs? 


••••ir 


Bug free? 


••••i:r 


Does the job? 


••••• 



Writing Your Own Talking Program 

In addition, the Talker offers a con- 
venient editor and speech/text gener- 
ator. It allows you to create your own 
spoken phrases as subroutines. 

Hgurc 1 is what you see on the 
VSEDIT screen. What is at the top is 
not garbage, but really the phoneme 
construction of the phrase, "A big 
hello to 80 Micro readers." At the bot- 
tom of the screen are the commands 
that allow you to manipulate and fuie- 
tune the phrase. Each of the periods 
represents an inflection or pitch code, 
and each of the PA groupings repre- 
sents pauses of various lengths. 

Because the VS-100 is not 100 per- 
cent pCTfect in its pronunciation, you 
win always have some tweaking to do 
in your sentence construction. For ex- 
ample, it can't distinguish between 
read (present tense) and read (past 
tense). To pronounce it correctly in the 
past tense, it must be typed in pho- 
netically: "I have red this book." 
Reading would have to be spelled reed- 
ing, and so on. You must be conscious 
of the way words are spoken, as op- 
posed to the way they are spelled. 

With VSEDIT, you can type in a 
phrase, listen to it spoken, and then 
fine-tune the pronunciation and the 
inflection. If you've written a ques- 
tion, you wouki want to make the in- 
flection rise at the end of the sentence 
for a more realistk-sounding phrase. 

When you have the text/speech just 
the way you want it, it can be saved to 
disk as a line-numbered subroutine. 
Then reference those lines in your pro- 
gram each time you want the machine 
to talk. When these subroutines are 
merged back into your finished pro- 
gram, they even come complete with 
the return statement built in. 

Good but Not Perfect 

Before the quibbling be^ns, I must 
note that the package of the VS-100 
and Talker 2.0 is an excellent bargain. 



KL 


Keyboard echo by letter 


KW 


Keyboard echo by word 


KN 


Keyboard echo off 


VL 


Video echo by letter 


VW 


Video echo by word 


VN 


Video echo off 


DP 


DeLvery proportional 


Dx 


"x" is A (fastest) to N (slowest) 


SY 


SpeU on 


SN 


Spell off 


PN 


Punctuation ignored 


PY 


Punctuation said 


MY 


Math operands said 


MN 


Math operands not said 


BN 


All spaces are pauses 


BY 


DupLcate blanlis ignored. 




single blanks shortened 


n/ 


Lowest pitch (male) 


/I/ 


Regular pitch 


/v 


Higher pitch 


/4/ 


Hi^est [Mtch (female) 


OY 


Quiet on 


QN 


Quiet off 


Table I. Talker 2.0 command synopsis. 



But there are some things that it just 
won't do. Because many machine-lan- 
guage programs use their own key- 
board and video drivers, the echo op- 
tion sometimes doesn't function. That 
leaves word processors like Scripsit 
and Lazywriter speechless. 

You may also have some problems 
with Basic programs that use high 
memory for their own purposes. The 
manual (36 pages on the VS-ICX) and 
12 pages on the Talker 2.0) gives you 
some suggestions for handling this, 
but doesn't go into det^. 

According to Alpha Products, you 
first load your high-memory program 
into Basic, come out to DOS Ready 
with a CMD"S to load Talker, then 
go back to Basic with a Basic * com- 
mand (the Bask * command returns 
you to your location in Basic without 
resetting anything). Since Talker is 
self-relocatable, it will take the highest 
memory still remaining. 



.UH2 .UH3 .PAl 


.B 


I G .PAl 


.H 


EH .L .PAl 


.L .01 .UI 


.PAl 


.T .lU .U 


.PAl 


.A2 .A2 .Y 


.T .Y .PAl 


.M 


.AH .El .PAl 


.K 


.R .Ol .Ul 


.PAl R E 


.D 


.ER .Z PAl 


PAO 




Arrows — move cursor 




I — insert words 


R- 


-remove word 


A — add phoneme 




D — delete phoneme 


C- 


-change phoneme 


<ENTER>— say all 




S — say word 


K- 


-clear all 


shift [—inflection 




' — save subroutine 


7_ 


recall from DISK 




'Igure I 


The Taiker 2.0 VSEDIT 


screen 





36 • SO Micro, December 1984 



SYSTEM 
DIAGNOSTIC 

U yuLit Loiiipult^r working corrtrctlv" 
Are you sure? f-irid out for curiam with 
Sysi*^m Didgti05lic, which has complt^te 
dia<;na!itic tests for fvery component ot 
VouiTRS-80~ Model 1. 3 or 4 

• ROM: checksum rests 

•RAM: thrfe tests including every lo- 
cation and data value 

•Video Display: character generator. 
video RAM. videu signal 

• Keyboard: fvery key contact tested 
•Line Printer: character tests with 

ad)usttihU* plaien length 

• Cassette Recorder read, write, 
verify data 

•Disk Drives: disk controller, dnve 
select, track seek, read sectors, format- 
ting, read/ write/ verify daia with ot 
without erasmg. disk drive timer, disk 
head cleaner Single or double density. 
l-W tracks 

• RS-232-C Interface: connector 
faull, data transmission, framing, data 
loop, baud rate generflt6r 

Individual or continuous testing mode, 
reports optionally written to line printer. 
Separate versions for Models 1. A. and 4 
(Cassette and ROM tests not included in 
Model 4 version.) 
System Diagnostic $99.95 



SMALL BUSINESS 

MANAGEMENT 

SYSTEM 

A complete system for using your 
computer to manage a small business 

•Order Entry: enter orders, print in- 
voices, change past invoices Use pre- 
printed forms or plain paper 

• Bookkeeping: complete general ledg- 
er by user-defined categones Pnnl monthly 
or year-to-date summaries and ledgers. 

•Accounts Receivable: show balan- 
ces due from unpaid invoices at any time 

•Accounts Payable: show amounts 
you owe for unpaid hills m any category 

•Inventory: complete summary of 
products sold by pan number and prices 
charged Limited to I, (100 H-character 
pan numbers i2,(K)() for MS-DOS) 

•Installation package tailors the 
programs to your business 

Requires a minimum of two floppy 
disk dnves or hard disk. 80-column prin- 
ter Available for TRS-HO" Models I. III. 
4, 2. 12, 16 (TRSDOS). or 20O0, 
IBM- PC. and most CP/M computers 

Need more Information? Ask for 
our detailed description of this program 
with sample forms and reports 
AH versions $250.00 



TYPITALL The most powerful TRS-80 Word Processor 

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processors don't have them f-ollowing IS a list 'Reenter the program with all text 

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Income is classified m up to A'i cate- 
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I he program computes monthly and 
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Model 1/3/4 disk version . . . $59.95 
Model 1/3/4 cassette 

version ... $29.95 

Model 2/12/16 version $69.95 

MS-DOS or CP/M version . . . $69.95 



SMALL BUSINESS 
ACCOUNTING 

Based on Dome Bookkeeping Record 
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Complete ledgers are maintained for 
both income and expenses The pro- 
gram computes monthly, through last 
month, and year to date summaries 

The payroll section (not included in 
cassette version) contains provision for 
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Model 1/3/4 disk version . . . $59.95 
Model 1/3/4 cassette version $29.95 

Model 2/12/16 version $69.95 

MS-DOS or CP/M version . . . $69.95 



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A comprehensive machine language 
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REVIEWS 



But it doesn't always work. Some- 
times there is no speech {with Video 
Echo engaged), or only part of the 
screen display is spoken. And some- 
times the whole program crashes. 

The experts at Alpha Products 
could probably tell me what was 
wrong, but technical support is only 
available by mail. 

Conclusions 

AU things considered, the VS-100 
and Talker 2.0 are a major accom- 
pLshment for such a low price. No one 
who heard my computer talk could re- 
sist typing in their own phrases and 
messages. That is how we found that 
several popular off-coior phrases and 
words had been bleeped out by the 
software designers. 

While the manual is well done, I 
wish it had gone into more detail 
about integrating Talker with some 
high-memory programs. 

The speech is usually very clear and 
distinct with a bit of an accent. But the 
clarity of speech is directly propor- 
tional to the amount of fine tuning 
you do within your programs. In the 
automatic screen or keyboard echo 
mode, a 10-15 percent mispronuncia- 
tion rate seems to be about par. 

The VS-100 and software are a fas- 
cinating system with experimental and 
practical applications just now being 
explored. While it may not be a neces- 
sity, it would be hard to find more \al- 
ue and fun for SI06. ■ 



Pascal in the Fast Lane 

by Alan Neibauer 

The Turbo Pascal compiler Ls a steal 
at $49.95, It compiles source code 
extremely fast (well-deserving of its 
Turbo name) and has extensions and 
refinements to Pascal that make it a 
complete software development tt)ol. 
t:ven with the refinements, the syntax 
adheres closely to standard Pascal, so 
programmers will have no trouble us- 
ing it. 

Unfortunately, Turbo can only be 
used by CP'M and MS-DOS users, 
not TRSDOS diehards. Formats arc 
available for the Model 2000. Model 
III owners with CP/M cards installed, 
and Model 4 users with either Radio 
Shack's or Monte/uma Micro's 
CP/M. 



No one who heard my 

computer talk could resist 

typing in their own 

messages. 



Turbo Language 

Turbo supports almost all the Jen- 
sen and Wirih standards, including 
pointers and variant records. I've used 
it to run a number of programs from 
standard Pascal texts with no editing 
necessary. The only items not included 
in the language are: 

• Dispose. Use Mark and Release in- 
stead. 

• Packed Variables. Turbo uses 
packing automatically whenever pos- 
sible. The reserved word packed will 
be accepted by the compiler, but with 
no effect. 

• Page Procedure. 

• Procedural Parameters. Proce- 
dures and parameters cannot be passed 
as parameters. 

• Gel and Put. All I/O functions can 
be handled with extended Read and 
Write procedures. According to Bor- 
land, this speeds up I/O and reduces 
overhead. 



Turbo Pascal 



***** 



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408-438-8400 (lerhnical 

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The extensions to standard Pascal 
are what make Turbo outstanding. In 
fact, most UCSD programs will run 
under Turbo with little or no editing. 

A complete set of dynamic .strings is 
available and you can assign, con- 
catenate, and test them with the nor- 
mal relational operators. You can 
identify a variable as of type stringfn), 
with n being the maximum string 
length. String arrays, both single and 
multidimensional, are possible through 
T>pe or Record. 

In addition, string procedures in- 
clude Delete (removes a substring), In- 
sert (adds a substring), STR (con\er- 
sion from integer or real to string), 
and VAL (converts from string to 
either tvpe integer or real). 

Siring functions include Copy (re- 
turns a substring). CONCAT (com- 
bines strings and substrings). Length 
(like the Basic LEN), and POS (similar 
to instring). 

Turbo also provides full file-han- 
dling facilities including Seek to allow 
random access. You can treat external 
devices like text files and access them 
through the preassigned files CON:, 
TRM:, KBD:, LST:, AUX:, and USR:. 
Outputting to the line printer, for ex- 
ample, is as simple ai including the 
LST: external device name in the write 
procedure: Write (LST:, "Turbo 
Pascal"). 

No special files need to be assigned, 
and the EOF. FILEPOS, and Filcsize 
functions are also included. 

When set for your terminal, Turbo 
offers a number of screen function pro- 
cedures, such as high and low \ideo, 
GOTOXY. CLREOL, and CLRSCR. 
For direct memory manipulation. 
Move performs a mass copy of a spec- 
ified number of bytes, and FILL- 
CHAR fills any range of memory with 
a specific value. Random number gen- 
eration is also supported through Ran- 
domize, Random, and Random(l). 

For the more adventurous pro- 
grammer. Turbo provides absolute 
address variables. Chain and Execute 
commands. Include files, and in-Lne 
machine code. Procedures and func- 
tions are given to direct Iv access 
CP/M or MS-DOS BDOS and BIOS 
functions and to write your own I/O 
drivers. 

Compiler Directives 

Many of Turbo's features are con- 
trolled by compiler directives that you 



38 • 80 Micro. December 1984 



REVIEWS 



can set. Each directive has a default 
value and can be ignored by the inex- 
perienced programmer. 

Changing a default value involves 
including a dollar sign and the direc- 
tive somewhere in the source code. 
This makes it easy to change system 
parameters for optimized code. A 
summary of the directives is given in 
Fig. 2. 

The Turbo Menu 

Turbo is menu-driven and includes 
its own WordStar-like editor. Menu 
options comprise the following: edit, 
work file, main file, compile, run, exe- 
cute, save, directory, k>gged disk, com- 
piler options, and quit. Selecting the 
edit menu option will ask you for the 
name of the work file then place you in 
the editor. If the work file is on disk, 
the code will be loaded and displayed. 
The work file contains the current 
source code. You use a main file only 
when working with programs using 
the $1 compiler directive to include 
files. You can load both the work and 
main files through the menu options. 
You compile the current work file 
with the C option. You can run the 
work file by either compiling it first 
and giving the R command, or select- 
ing R initially. If a compiled program 
is not already in memory, the current 
work file will first be compiled, then 
executed. 

Other programs on your disk can be 
run from within Turbo through the X 
option. Save, DIR, and Logged Disk 
will write your code to disk, display 
the disk directory, and change to an- 
other disk drive. 

You use the compiler Options com- 
mand to select the type of compiled 
code desired. Normally, code is com- 
piled to memory and can be run only 
from within Turbo itself. This pro- 
vides maximum efficiency while writ- 
ing and debugging a program. Through 
the compiler options, however, you 
can instruct Turbo to save the compiled 
p-code to disk, making it an execut- 
able .COM file from the operating 
system, or use it to create chain files. 

Unfortunately, chaining files is one 
of Turbo's awkward features. To 
chain or execute files, you must assign 
code, data, and stack space. If not 
done properiy, chaining will result in 
an out-of-memory error message. 
While this is explained in the manual, 
the instructions are not sufficient to 



prevent you from trial-and-«rTor ex- 
perimentation. 

The Turbo Editor 

The buiit-in Turbo editor obeys al- 
most all of WordStar's command key- 
strokes. Some minor improvements 
have been incorporated to increase its 
efficiency as a source code editor. A 
single word can be marked as a block 
(control-K, control-T) and a line re- 
store command (control-Q, control-L) 
has been added to restore an edited 
line to its original contents as long as 
the cursor has not left the line. While 
no fixed tabs are pro\ided, an auto-in- 
dentation feature will automatically 
indent the start of each line to the 
starting position of the line above. 
This makes the indentation common 
in Pascal programs much simpler. 

Operation 

The compiler is where Turbo earns 
its name. Over 2,000 lines of p-code 
can be compiled per minute when it's 
compiling to memory. And it only 
takes a few seconds longer when com- 
piling to disk. After years of teaching 
UCSD Pascal, Fortran, and Cobol on 
a variety of machines, I was amazed at 
how fast it was. 

When the compiler encounters an 
error, the error number (or full mes- 
sage if you loaded the message file) 
will appear. While the messages are 



B When active, standard input and out- 
put files are :CON. 

C When active, coniroi-C and coniroi-S 
arc obeyed during console I/O. 
I When active, all I/O operations are 
checked for error. When foLowed by a 
file name, instructs the compiler to in- 
clude a file during compilalion. 
R When nonactivc, array indexing is not 
checked. 

V When active, type checking is per- 
formed. 

U When nonactive, conlrol-C will not 
interrupt program execution. 
X When active, code generation of ar- 
rays is optimized. 

A For CP/M only, when aaive nonre- 
cursive code is generated. 
W For CP/M only, controls level of 
nesting allowed on "with" statements. 
Default is two. 

K For MS-[X>S only, when active stack 
space is checked for adequate room. 

Figure 2. Compiler directives (de/aull seitingsf. 



clear and concise, they are also more 
fully explained in the manual. For the 
exact source line error, ESC will 
display it and put you in the edit 
mode. Correct the error and repeat the 
process. 

Several Pascal compilers have this 
feature and it can be a mixed blessing. 
First, you have no idea how many er- 
rors there are until they are all correct- 
ed. Second, some programmers ap- 
preciate receiving a program listing 
with all of their error fiags and warn- 
ings. The list can then be examined 
away from the computer. 

Turbo's method would be useless if 
it took a long time to compile the pro- 
grams. You really don't want to wait 
30 minutes for it to find an error. But 
Turbo is almost as fast as interpretive 
Basic's error checking. 

Also, a minor error in the declara- 
tion section may cause any number of 
errors later in the code. By fixing the 
early error, you can sometimes clear 
up later ones. This is true of other lan- 
guages besides Pascal. 

Turbo Programs 

Along with Turbo.COM. the distri- 
bution disk includes a number of aux- 
iliary programs. The error message 
file, TURBOMSG.OVR, is pure 
ASCII, and can be edited or translated 
into other languages with the editor or 
any word processor. TLIST.COM, a 
source code listing program, will print 
your code with line numbers and key 
words underlined. Since the source 
files are also ASCII, the system Con- 
trol-P, Type or Print could also be 
used for printing your code. 

To install Turbo for specific ter- 
minals, you use TINST.COM and 
T1NST.DAT. A wide number of ter- 
minals are available from a TINST. 
You can change the editor commands 
with TINST, redefining the arrow or 
function keys for often used key- 
strokes. 

Other files include Turbo.OVR, 
needed to run Pascal .COM files un- 
der CP/M-80; Error.DOK, which 
comprises some useful notes from the 
folks at Borland; and a spreadsheet 
program written entirely in Turbo 
Pascal. For a good lesson in Pascal 
programming techniques, examine 
this, run it, and then compile it. It's 
nothing fancy but it's a good demon- 
stration. 



&) Micro. December 1984 • 39 



REVIEWS 



The Manual 

The 250-page bound manual pro- 
vides a good explanation of most as- 
pects of Turbo, except for the lack of 
coverage of chaining files. While it will 
not serve as a Pascal text editor (nor 
should it), the manual covers all the 
bases of Pascal, including more ad- 
vanced topics regarding CP/M and 
MS-DOS implementations. 

Conchision 

I've used Turbo on three different 
computers: a Model III, and 8- and 
16-bit Zeniths. It performed flawless- 
ly. As a programming teacher, 1 have 
to judge software critically (especially 
language compilers). I want my stu- 
dents to spend their time learning pro- 
gramming, not the intricacies of a par- 
ticular compiler. 

Turbo is easy to use and an absolute 
marvel at compiling code. It is a fme 
programming and educational tool, 
and a good bargain to boot. 1 recom- 
mend it for both the beginning and ad- 
vanced Pascal prograiTimer. ■ 

C Sophistication 
From Manx 

by John B. HanreD m 

I've had a lot of experience with dif- 
ferent C compilers, but the Aztec 
C80 Compiler and Professional De- 
velopment System is the best I've seen. 
It's a full implementation of C in its 
purest form. It faithfully supports the 
standards set forth for C and so pro- 
duces easily portable code. If you're 
interested in an excellent program- 
ming language and a powerful tool for 
software development, the Aztec C80 
system is an obvious choice. 

What's Inside 

The software package contains 
three disks and the documentation. 
The disks (all two-sided flippy disks) 
contain the compiler software and the 
additional features of the develop- 
ment system. They all come in double- 
density TRSDOS 6.X-format (or 
whatever is applicable for your sys- 
tem), but don't provide an operating 
system itself. Figure 3 lists the disk 
files and gives a brief description of 
each. 

The major system components are 
the C80 compiler, relocatable assem- 
bler (AS), linkage editor (LN), object 



file librarian (LIBUTIL). DOS loader 
format generator (CV), and text editor 
(VED). The disk also contains several 
libraries of object modules that gener- 
ate code in different ways and other 
features, including a powerful pro- 
gram text editor (Z). 

Perhaps the most important part of 
the Aztec system is the tutorial included 
in the documentation— it's a must for 
learning the system, since the going 
can get a bit rough. For instance, while 
Aztec provides examples on how to 
configure your working disks, I had to 
spend an appreciable amount of time 
just building and laying them out. The 
software doesn't make it easy for a 
first-time user and I felt it was unnec- 
essarily complicated. 

Furthermore, Aztec distributes 
many of its standard header files in ar- 
chive files you can't easily access. And 
you need these header files to access 
many of the system's functions. I 
spent a considerable amount of time 



reading the manual before I discov- 
ered the write-up on ARCV, the ar- 
chive manager. 

The Text Editor 

Manx provides two vehicles for text 
editing: VED and Z. While VED is 
very fast, it's limited to the cursory 
functions of moving through the file, 
searching, and entering text. Z, on the 
other hand, provides all the features 
you need in a text editor. 

I appreciated VED's simplicity. It 
provides the basic functions needed to 
enter a program and change it, while 
being easy to use. To top it off, you get 
VED's complete source code in an ar- 
chive file; industrious programmers 
can easily change it to suit their tastes. 

If you aren't satisfied with the limi- 
tations of VED, the Z editor should 
take care of your needs. This is a pro- 
gram text editor patterned after the 
Berkeley Unix editor VI. Having the 
capabilities of a full Unix text editor 

f ontinuetl tm ft ifiS 





FBfs tn Slandanl SyMrm 


File Nunc 


Descriptioti 


C80/CMD 


Aztec C compiler 


AS/CMD 


8080 relocating asscmbler 


LN/CMD 


Linkage editor 


CV/CMD 


TRSDOS load image generator 


LiBUTII./CMD 


Object file bbrarian 


ARCV/CMD 


Source archive unpackrr 


VED/CMD 


VED text editor 


VED/ARC 


VED source file archive 


C/LIB 


Library ofnon-noaiing point functions 


M/LIB 


Library of floating point functions (Model 4 only) 


T/LIB 


Tiny library 


R/LIB. R/CMD 


Fast linking library and loader 


MR/LIB, MR/CMD 


Fast linking library and loader (floating point) 


HEADER/ARC 


Source archive of header files 


EXAMPL/C 


Sample C program 


Z/CMD 


Full-screen editor (similar to Unix VI editor) 


OVBGN/O. 


Overlay suppon functions 


OVLOADHR/O 






Files in the Pro Exlcnston 


tie Name 


Description 


LIBCSRC/ARC 


Source archive for C functions 


LIBASRC/ARC 


Source archive for assembler funaions 


TRS4SRC/ARC 


Source archive for Model 4 functions 


TRS3SRC ARC 


Source archive for Modd MI functions 


MATHSRC/ARC 


Source archive for math functions 


TINVSRC/ARC 


Source archive for tiny functions 


OVLY/ARC 


Source archive for overlay and fast linker 


HX/ARC 






Figure 3. Aziev C80 disk files. 



♦0 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



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And Much More... 



JMG 

$ 84.50 
S 99.50 
S145.50 
$ 74.50 
S 49.50 
S118.50 
S 38.50 
S 24.50 
S 34.50 
S 59.50) 
S 34.50 
S129.50 
S 29,50 
S 14.50 
S 19.50 
S 34.50 



WRITE FOR OUR 
FREE CATALOG! 



TO ORDER: 



JMG's New GAMES TOP TEN 



MODEL 4 and SUCH 

While every Model III program we sell works 
on the Model 4 in "III mode", we also se 
many programs specifically (or the Model 
4 mode. Here is a sample: 



DOSPLUS IVa w/MZAL 


. $129.50 


CP/M 2.2. (Montezuma) 


$154.50 


LESCRIPT Model 4 


S 99.50 


6.0 PLUS Enhancement 


i 39.50 


MODEL 4 TOOLBELT 


. S 39.50 


PROCREATE (EDAS) 


. . $ 84.50 


PRODUCE (DSMBLR) 


. . S 34,50 


PROCESS (CMDFILE 2) 


. $ 34,50 


PRO-ZCAT 


.. $ 34.50 


MTERM Smart Terminal , , 


$ 64.50 


DOTWRITER w/LDS Model 4 . 


. $ 74.50 


ELECTRIC WEBSTER 


$118.50 


LAZY WRITER 


$104 50 


PROLC Compiler 


$129.50 


And More in our Catalog! 





OUR PRICE 
GUARANTEE: 



This list was compiled trom game sales for 
one month ending in September: 

1. SUPREME RULER PLUS , , S26.50 

2. FLIGHT SIMULATOR 29.50 

3. Infocom's ZORK II 38.50 

4. WITNESS 34.50 

5. PLANETFALL 3450 

6- DEADLINE 42.50 

7. WEERD 9.50 

8. NUCLIEX 14.50 

9. SUSPENDED 42.50 

10. BATTLE OF ZEIGHTY, . 8.50 

All games except Infocom's are also 
available in Cassette versions. We also 
have many other games available. 



This Months Spotlight: 

SUPREME RULER PLUS 

Still our best-selling srogram. A strategy/simulation game 
tor one to nine players You must rule your own country, com- 
peting against others or tfie computer. Requires 48K, 
available on Cassette or Disk for 526.50, 



We will beat any legitimate price advenised for any 
product that we carry. If you fmd a lower price 
advertised, our price will be Si 00 less, under the 
same conditions leg same shipping and other 
charges, etc) To receive the lower once you must 
mention the location ot the other ad when ordering. 



We accept orders by phone or mail When ordering please 
specify the Model of TRS-SO you own, the exact programisi 
wanted, and the method of payment. We accept Check, 
Money Order. VISA, MasterCard, and Gold Please enclose 
$2 50 for shipping costs. For Electric Webster and Dotwnter. 
please mention your word processor and onnter brands. 



"TOLL FREE" ORDER LINE: 
(416) 389-6086 

Instead of a regular toll free numoer. ^e deduct S2,00 from 
your order to pay for your phone cnarge (whicn ,s usually 'ess 
than $2). That way you come out ahead, we come out anead. 
and everyone is happy. And :t you oroer by man. ask 'or our 
■'Toll Free Discount" and deduct S2.00' 

iPlonas ar8Sla"Ba"0A>.» :o"PM Moraay ro SaiufQay, eicent WeOfesQayi 



OUR GUARANTEE: 

We sell only lop-quality software. If. 
however, ycu are unsatisfied with a product 
you have purchased from JMG, you may 
return it (in good condition) within 10 days 
for a refund, less a $2.50 handling charge 
'or programs under $50 ($5 00 for programs 
over $501, We also ask that /ou send us a 
etter stating :he reason for your 'eturn. 




////FAm/y/y/Vj/ 



THE FINE PRINT: 

Shipping Charges are S2,50 in Canada and U.S- 
Overseas surface snipping is $5.00, SiQ for air 
mail All onces in U,S. Funds. Add SI. 50 tor COD 
Charges. Model lit programs will all run on a 
Model 4 <n III mode. 



3235 LOCKPORT ROAD 
NIAGARA FALLS, NY 14305 

OR 

710 UPPER JAMES ST. 

HAMILTON, ONTARIO 

CANADA L9C 2Z8 

Phone: (416) 389-6086 



It Paints in 3-D, Keeps 

and Talks to 



Us calk'd "OIM-N ACCI-SS," and il's (he 
rcsull <if (M) man years of oftorl Ut 
create a truly do-il-all, super-program- 
one that can perform virtually every 
task you're ever likely to encounter 

Ihe beauty of it is, all that capability 
resides on a sinjjle proj»ram. You don't 
have to re-enter data, Or spend time 
trying to ^et unmatched programs tn 
work together. 

OPKN ACCI-SS lakes its name from 
the source of its power-a relational 
database manager that gives you access 
to more data in more ways than any 
comparable software. 

OVV.S A(X;i«SS includes an electronic 
spreadsheet. .Vl> graphics, word 
processor, appointment scheduler and 
telecommunications modute-all 
revolving around the powerful 
information manager. 





INFORMATION MANAGEMENT-THE 
MASTERMIND. This advanced data-base 
manager stores and retrieves multiple files 
quickly, easily and reliably. What's more, II 
shares all Information with Ihe other programs. 
BO you never have lo re-enter the same data 
twice. 



ELECTRONIC SPREADSHEET-NUMBER 
CRUNCHING AND GOAL SEEKING. It helps 
you produce forecasts, cost estimates and 
"break-even" points- In seconds, Instead o1 
hours or days. Best of all, It allows "goal 
seeking." Ask. (or example. "What sales must I 
have the rest o1 the year to net S1 million?," 
•nd OPEN ACCESS will figure II outi 



3.D GRAPHICS-NOT JUST PRETTY 
PICTURES. These graphics distill raw data 
Into trends that can t>e instantly visualized, 
helping you discern the Important tacts from 
a wealth of Information. 



does Arithmetic. 



the World. 



► 



I 



Because they ^o not have a dedicated 
relational data-base manager that can 
quickly direct massive amounts of data, 
other programs simply can't do what 
OPKN ACCESS can. Some don't have a 
communications program, others no 
dedicated word processor. None have a 
time management program. 




There's just one conclusion: At S595, 

OPKN ACCKSS can do more for you than 
any other comparable business program 
tm the market. Bar none. But the only 
way for you to be convinced is for you 
to see OPI'N A(X;ksS work its magic on 
your work load. So call your local 
software dealer today, or call us at SPI. 
at 6l9-450-152(>. 



ii^y 



sn 



SOfTWARl rBOOJCTS INTtR\AIIONAL 



102-40 Sorrento Valley Road 
San Diego. CA 92121 



^360 



4 






bi nil 





WORD PROCESSING-EDITOR 
EXTRAORDINAIRE! Superior word processors 
make It easy to correct typos, change words, 
sttultle paragraphs and tormal documents. 
This Is one ol that breed. Use II to write 
ettlcteni memos, tetters, proposals and 
reportt. 



TELECOMMUNICATIONS-YOUH LINK WITH 
THE WORLD. This program gives you access 
lo virtually any other computer system In the 
world. Not onty can you transmit and receive 
reports from your colleagues, you can also 
subscribe to special data banks that Know 
everything from GM's stock price to the 
relative humidity In Genoa. Now that's power! 



TIME MANAGEMENT-CONSERVING YOUR 
MOST PRECIOUS RESOURCE. This module 
helps you keep track ot all your appointments, 
hour by hour, day In and day out. II alerts you 
to standing obligations, automatically 
coordinates meeting times with other busy 
prolesslonals, and list* all your assoclatts on 
a Rolodex^*' -like tile. 



The Tandy 1000 



Compatible 



by Eric Maloney 

Tandy's Model 1000 may lack technological innovation, 
but It gives you IBM PC compatibility for $1,199. 



_ xecutives at Tandy cringe at the 

^~ term "ffiM compatible," but 
~ that's what the new Model 1000 



is — a copy of the IBM PC, with few sur- 
prises or enhancements. Nevertheless, 
the machine's price tag should startle a 
few people. And if the machine's quali- 
ty is up to Tandy's usual standards, 
small businesses and serious home users 
should find it attractive. 

Start with the base price of $1,199. 
You get a I28K system with one drive, a 
90-key detachable keyboard, MS-DOS 
and GW-Basic, a sound generator, 
three expansion slots, and a parallel in- 
terface. Add a color monitor and 128K 
RAM upgrade, and the price goes up to 
$2,048.90. Throw in a second drive, and 
the cost is $2,348.85. (See Table 1 for a 
rundown of the Model lOOO's features, 
and Table 2 for a price list.) 

By comparison, a one-drive IBM PC 
with 256K, color adapter and monitor, 
printer ad^ter, DOS, and Basic goes 
for about $3,063. A PC with a second 
drive costs about $3,488. 

A two-drive Tandy system, then, 
costs close to $1150 less than a compa- 
rable PC. Or, to put it another way, you 
get a PC for the price of a PCjr. 

But how compatible is compatible? 



According to Tandy executives, about 
95 percent. Which means that most 
IBM PC software should run on the 
1000 as-is, and that many IBM PC ex- 
pansion cards should work with the 
lOOO's expansion bus. 

The Hardware 

The Model 1000 looks like a scaled- 
down Model 2000, with the same tex- 
tured white plastic casing. The key- 
board is identical to that of the Model 
2000's. The drive unit includes one or 
two 5!4-inch disk drives mounted hori- 
zontally on the right side of the unit; the 
reset button and two joystick ports are 
on the left. The on/off switch is on the 
right side panel. And following in the 
^OO's footsteps, the lOOO's name plate 
lacks the Radio Shack logo — it's labeled 
the Tandy 1000 Personal Computer. 

Like the IBM PC, the 1000 uses an 
8088 microprocessor, which features a 
16-bit internal architecture, 8-bit bus, 
and 4.77 MHz clock rate. You can ex- 
pand internal memory to 640K, the first 
128K on an expansion card and the re- 
maining RAM on a second card. The 
first card also includes a direct memory 
address (DMA) module, which speeds 
up the lOOO's execution speed. 



The keyboard includes 12 function 
keys, a numeric keypad, and light indi- 
cators for the number-lock and c^>s 
keys (see Photo 1). 

Tandy sells as options a 12-inch high- 
resolution green-screen monitor and a 
13-inch high-resolution color monitor. 
You can, however, use any RGB moni- 
tor, including the one IBM sells for the 
PC. (The 2000's monitors, on the other 
hand, are incompatible with the 1000.) 
In addition, you can cormect the 1000 to 
a TV set with an RF modulator. 

Screen format is either 40 or 80 char- 
acters by 25 lines. In gr^hics mode, the 
1000 has three resolutions: 192- by 
200-pixel, 320- by 200-pixel, and 640- by 
200-pixel. You can also choose from up 
to !6 colors for display, and the mono- 
chrome monitor features blinking, re- 
verse video, highlighting, and shades of 
gray (See Photo 2). 



Editor's note: This article is not a re- 
view of the Model 1000, but a preview 
based on material provided by Tandy 
and an early look at prototype units. 80 
Micro will run a complete review of the 
system in a future issue. 



44 • 80 Micro, December 1984 




80 Micro. December 1984 • 45 




Phoio I. The Model 1000 keyboard sports 12 function keys, a numeric keypad, and light indicators for 

ihe number-lock and caps keys. photograph by Edward Judice 



CPU 


8-/l6-bit Intel 8088 


Internal memor>' (standard) 


128K 


Inlernal memory (maximum) 


640K 


Disk drives 


1 


Disk Horage 


360K 


Speed 


4.77 MHz 


Operating system 


MS-DOS 


Expansion slots 


3, IBM compatible 


Graphics options: 




Low-res 


160 hy 200 


Medium- res 


320 by 200 


Hi res 


640 by 200 


Color (nuLximum) 


16 


Sound generator 


Tl SN76489A 


External connections 


2 joystick ports 




Light pen pon 




Parallel port 




Audio output jack 




TV interface 


Olher 


Mono, color graphics adapters 




TV interface 




Speaker 


Options: 


Second drive 




12-inch hi-res mono monitor 




13-inch hires color monitor 




RF modulator 




300-baud direct-conncct modem 




RS 232 interface 




TRS-80 touch pad 


Table /. The Model 1000 in a nutshell. 



The drives are double-sided, double- 
density, 40-track haif-heigiits, and will 
read IBM-formatted disks. While the 
system won't accommodate an internal 
hard drive, Tandy will sell a hard disk 
interface board. 

For sound, Tandy chose the SN76489A 
chip from Texas Instruments. It contains 
three programmable tone generators, 
each with its own programmable atten- 
uator, and a noise source, also with an 
attenuator. The generator is compatible 
with the PCjr's SN76496N chip. 

The expansion slots are in the rear of 
the drive unit on the right-hand side (see 
Photo 3). Tandy says that the slots will 
accept most cards designed for the IBM 
PC, provided they're no longer than 10 
inches. In addition to memory and hard 
disk boards, Tandy will offer as options 
a 300-baud direct-connect modem 
board, an RS-232 board, and a network 
board. 

Finally, the Model 1000 includes par- 
allel printer and light pen interfaces and 
an audio output jack, all in the rear. 

Software and Compatibility 

Tandy's initial software offerings tar- 
get three main markets — business, edu- 
cation, and entertainment. Table 3 lists 
the software titles scheduled for release 
with the machine. 

In addition, Tandy is bundling a mul- 
tipurpose business program, called 
DeskMate, with each Model 1000. Desk- 
Mate includes six main applications: 
Text, Worksheet, Filer, Calendar, Tele- 
com, and Mail. The software also al- 
lows remote access to Mail and Desk- 
Mate files (see the sidebar for a detailed 
description). 

Tandy officials are a bit uncomfort- 
able when discussing available software. 
Naturally, they'd like customers to buy 
from Radio Shack. But one of the ma- 
jor selling Fwints of the Model 1000 is its 
IBM compatibility. Owners can pre- 
sumably run IBM packages off the 
shelf, a shelf that could very well line 
the wall of a competing retailer. It will 
be interesting to see whether Tandy can 
promote the lOOO's compatibility with- 
out cutting into its own software sales. 

Compatibility will undoubtedly be a 
major concern of potential Model 10(X) 
buyers, particularly after the Model 
2000's lirnjtations. As an out-and-out 
IBM PC clone, the 1000 will run many 
more IBM packages, but it still won't 
run all of them. 

Perhaps the biggest stumbling block 
to compatibility will be memory con- 



46 • 80 Micro. December 1984 



T/Maker 

Integrated Software 

Simple, Powerful 

Well Liked. 




Feelings 

"The program is o 
pleasure to use... 
[it'] is well imple- 
mented, well docu- 
mented, and is quick 
in operation. It de- 
serves on AA rating." 
-FM Remloy, 7 83 



IhfoWorld 



"T/Moker is a superb product! I hove yet to 
see anything that comes close to its level of 
system integration, overall ease of use 
and general sophistication." 

-Tim Danet,\jk, 7/n/B3 



Performance 
Documentation 
Ease of Use 
Error Handling 



". . .if you regulorly 
prepare documents 
combining text, 
charts, and lists, 
. . .if you belong to 
on organization 
that uses severol different kinds ot 
microcomputers ... if you wont to 
reduce the training burden and 
improve the capability of sharing 
files.,. T/Moker can become the 
key program in your softwore 
library." 

- Ffonfc J Deriier, it 4/84 



INIERFACEAGE Maoa..ne 

"After using T/Maker for some time, 
my reaction is thot this progrom 
accomplishes its job simply and 
without effort." 

-Michael Heck 3>84 



POPULAR. 



COMPUTING 

"T/Moker is an excellent choice. . . Unlike the other 
(integroted) programs, it is ovoiloble for the vast 
number of S-bit computers running the CP/M 
operoting system as well as for the more powerful 
16-bit computers." 

-MichaelJ Miller. 12/83 



Everything in ONE 
Program. 

Available for Kaypro,TRS-80 Model II, 4/4P, 
12, 16 (requires CP/M) 
Also available for IBM PC, TANDY 2000, 
Tl PRO, DEC Rainbow, requires 128K, 

Suggested Retail: $450 

Ask your local Radio Shack Center for more 
information or call: 
T/Maker Company 
2115 Landings Drive 
Mountain Viev^, CA 94043 

415 962-0195 



►-'266 



f f Infegrated Software 

Word Processing 
Spreod Sheet Analysis 
Relational Data Base Mangement 
Spelling Checker 
Bar Chart Graphics 
Plus On Line Help 



Peeliogi II quoie 'rom ■'/Malw III . V*N', c W8il. Pwlmgi tl. Inc.. i»pf«H«lby p»'m»iBn, oil "ghti im»ii*ti IntaWu^ quo'* (rom -t/Moto< III. A Gunmril-Pu'CKJM CP/M Program", C 1784 InloWortd. reponled 
by pcmiino", Oil figtm rfwrved PC SAogoime quole ffom Prepor? ro mee! Hoof T/Moke' V3N7, C WB«, K Commu"itotx>ni, Corp . risprinted by pwmnnon, all nghn "Wieived Popuftjf Compir1io() quol« from 
T/Maker OWei o Ditferoii Approoth '. 12/83. t Byle Pubkodom. ific. repnniod by permiiwHi, all nghii letervwl. (nwrloce A^e qvole Ifom "T/Mokw III, Integration ot o Mottei Pnce", V9N3, C 1994. Intsriott 
AQ* MoQuirnd. Jnc., lepfmled by pArmrujon ai\ t^Mi '«i«rued Rspfinn avoikibke on r«(|u«il 



T A N D y 



leee 



2.90 
1.80 
1.60 
1.40 
1.20 
1 . ltS%l 




ClPeated On The TaYtdy 1000 



Photo 2. Screen shot of the Model I000'\ SD graphics. Phoiotraph bi Ld'.'ardJui/iir 



Base unit (main unit and keyboard, 128K, one drive) 


Si. 199.00 


VM-2 Mono monitor (26-321 1) 


159.95 


CM-2 Color monitor (26-3212) 


549.95 


Second disk drive (25-1005) 


299.95 


128K expansion (25-l(XM) 


299.95 


300-baud dircct-conneci modem (25-1003) 


179.95 


RS-232inierracc(2?-1006) 


99.95 


Touch Pad (26-1185) 


59.93 


RFmodulaior (15-1273) 


24.95 


Future options (release dates to be announced) 




Hard disk interface board 




Light pen 




Mouse 




Network board 




Table 2. Model 1000 price list (Radio Shack catalog numbers appear 


ifi parentheses). 




straint. The video graphics memory 
takes 16K or 32K of RAM. and GW-Ba- 
sic will take another 25K, thus reducing 
the room for applications programs. 
Says the Software Developers' Guide 
for the 1000, "Applications that require 
nearly all of a 128K PC and most Basic 
applications will require 256K (on the 
Model 1000)." 

Some keyboard input presents an- 
other potential problem area. Codes at 
the hardware interrupt level differ be- 
tween the PC and the 1000. Thus, says 
the Guide, "software that accesses the 
keyboard ports directly will not func- 
tion properly." 

Other programs that might not work 
correctly include those that use software 
timing or delay loops; that run with the 
IBM monochrome adapter; that use spe- 



Phoio i The hafk of the Mixiel 1000. ('rom left lo nghi: the ftonvr conntiKir, the /mratlel primer port, 
light fyen [Hirl. RGB monitor port, video and audio ports, and three e.xptinsion card Wofs 

COnrlety nf Radio ^Juak . a (lr>-raiin nf Tirvi i Ciirp 



Business Packat>es 




Home w or D 


Sierra Online 


HomeworD Speller 




pfs:File 


Software Publishing 


pfs: Rcf)on 




pfsiGraph 




pfs: Write 




Lotus 1-2-3 


Lotus 


Business Accounting 


Tandy 


Portfolio Decisions 


Eagle Software 


Finance Manager 


Inter Active Software 


Friday! 


Ashton-Taie 


Videotex Plus 


Tandy 


DR (iraph 


Digital Research 


Multiplan 


MlCTOSOft 


Microsoft Word 




Coboi Development 


Ryan McFarland 


tlducalion Packa({es 




Facemakcr 


Spinnaker 


Kids on Keys 




Kindercomp 




Fraction Fever 




Alphabet Zoo 




Kid writer 




Trains 




Pipes 


Creative Software 


Learning in Leeper 


Sierra Online 


Knoware 


Knoware 


Wizard of Id Touch 


Sierra Online 


Type 




tnlerlainmenl Packages 


Chinese Juggler 


Creative Software 


Demon Attack 


Ima^c 


Micro niustrator 


Island Graphics 


One on One 


Electronic Arts 


Pinbait Construction 




Set 




Lode Runner 


Broderbund 


BCs Quest for Tires 


Sierra Online 


King's truest 




Cutthroats 


Inrocom 


Table 3. Software Tandv will release for the 


Model 1000. 





4a • 80 Micro, December 1984 




Tandy Intros XT Compatible 



Houston, Sept. 18— Exhibitors at 
Houston's Personal Computer 
Showcase were greeted with a sur- 
prise this morning — yet another 
IBM-compatible computer from 
Tandy. 

The Tandy 1200, a PC/XT work- 
alike, appeared with no fanfare in 
many of the 125 exhibition booths, 
sending vendors scurrying for DOS 
disks and PC versions of their 
software. 

The computer comes with Intel's 
8088 4.77-MHz microprocessor. It 
has a 10-megabyte hard disk, one 
360K double-sided, double-density 
floppy drive, and 256K of RAM. 
The basic unit sells for $2,999; with 
a monochrome adapter and the 
VM-3 monochrome monitor, the 
price goes to $3,437. (According to 
Tandy, an IBM PC/XT with mono- 
chrome adapter and monitor costs 
about $4,920.) A Tandy 1200 color 
system costs $3,847.95, compared to 
$5,394 for a similar PC/XT. 

The 1200 is expandable to 640K 
RAM. It comes with a parallel inter- 
face and five PC/XT-compatible 
expansion slots. The 84-key key- 
board is like that of the IBM. 



Unlike the 1000 and 2000, the 
1200's keyboard and expansion box 
are housed in metal casings, making 
the unit heavier but significantly 
limiting its radio frequency emis- 
sions. 

The 1200's options include 
monochrome and graphics display 
adapters ($219 and $299, respective- 
ly), the 13-inch CM-2 high-resolu- 
tion color monitor ($549.95), the 
VM-3 monochrome monitor ($219), 
and MS-DOS 2.11 and Microsoft 
Basic ($89.95). 

Tandy is also offering Tecmar's 
Captain multifunction board for 
$795. The board includes 384K of 
RAM, an RS-232 serial port, a 
clock/calendar with battery back- 
up, and a second parallel printer 
port. Its software includes a RAM 
spooler, RAM disk, and appoint- 
ment alert. 

A Tecmar Graphics Master board 
($695) features 640- by 400-pixel 
resolution and PC Paintbrush soft- 
ware. 

Tandy will provide third -party 
software that includes Framework 
and dBase III from Ashton-Tate, 
the PFS series from Software Pub- 



lishing, and MicroPro's WordStar 
word processor. 

Low-Key Announcement 

Tandy chose a decidedly low-key 
style to introduce the 1200: The ma- 
chine simply appeared. The com- 
pany's attitude seems to be that the 
1200 is available to those who want 
a low-cost PC/XT, but it's not some- 
thing to get terribly excited about. 
Tandy executives almost certainly 
don't expect the same kind of sales 
figures they do from the Tandy 1000. 
Model 4/4P. or Color Computer. 

Meanwhile, vendors' mtitude is, 
"If our software runs on the 1200, 
then we like it." At the Houston 
show, one of five such shows spon- 
sored by Tandy to stimulate third- 
party interest in the Tandy line, 
manufacturers seemed to have no 
trouble running their PC programs 
as-is. 

The 1200 is yet another sign of 
Tandy's commitment to the stan- 
dards set by the IBM PC and MS- 
DOS. It slides comfortably between 
the 2000 and the 1000. and reflects 
Tandy's philosophy to sell a com- 
puter for every market and need. ■ 



80 Micro. December 1984 ■ 49 



Feiilure 

I2KK RAM 
Mono snaphtcs 
Colof graphits 

Kcyit un keyboard 
Light Pen 
N<;i wor k 
Hard disk 
Secund floppy 
Philter inlertacc 
lX)S/Basi.- mtluded? 
Bundled d|'pli>.dlioos? 
PC cxpajisHiii slots 

/■uM'4 I he MiHiel 1000, IBM IK', and IHM P< jf L.-m/kireti 



7 and) 


Pt 


P<Jr 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Ve* 


Opi ion 


Yes 


Yes 


t )|)lJOII 


Yes 


Yes 


Option 


Yes 


90 


83 


62 


YcN 


No 


Yes 


<)V>lior 


N/A 


N/A 


Option 


( tpllOII 


N/A 


Option 


I )^>Hoti 


N'A 


Yes 


OpiiiMi 


Opiioii 


Yc^ 


No 


No 


Yes 


No 


Nu 


3 


5 


U 



dal characters, codes, aiid graphics; or 
that directly address the floppy disk con- 
troller. 

Also, while the joysticks are IBM 
compatible, the Guide wanis that most 
joystick software uses software timers, 
and thus probably will not work on the 
1000. 

Finally, any IBM software that uses 
DMA will require the 128K expansion 
card. 



Conclusions 

On the one hand, the Model 1000 is 
Tandy's concession to IBM's dominance 
in the niiciocoinputer market. It offer? 
no technological breakthroughs, as did 
the Model 2000, and signals an abrupt 
departuie from propiietary systems, 
such as the Model 4. It leaves Apple as 
the only company that continues to 
march to the sound of its own drum. 
This decision to join the party ranks will 



disappoint many of the Tandy faithfiil. 

On the other hand, the Model lOOO's 
price can't be beat. Tandy is doing what 
it does best— offering inexpensive hard- 
ware. Old Models I and III owners can 
enter the IBM/MS-DOS world for a 
reasonable price. And businesses with 
several IBMs already installed can add 
units for about two-thirds the cost of 
a PC. 

One of the most pleasing aspects of 
the 1000 is that Tandy is offering it in 
several configurations, as has been its 
tradition with the Z80 machines and 
Color Computers. Thus, someone with 
a tight budget can spend $1199 for a 
base unit knowing that he can expand 
the system as his needs and interests 
grow. This could also create a healthy 
third-party market, whh discount 
houses selling second drives, memory 
upgrades, expansion boards, and the 
like. 

Whatever your feelings about the 
Model 1000, it is final confumation that 
Tandy's future is with MS-DOS. The 
company will do whatever it must to 
survive, even if that means following in 
IBM's footsteps. ■ 



EASY TO USE WTFff/Mrfl? SOFTWARE FROM PEL-TEK ■ ALL THREE MODULES, ONLY $99.00 



Word Processiiiy from Pel Tek 



fOf >Hh aUW. Moill "I *' 



Easiest to use Word Processor anywhere 

■ On scfeen fofmaning what you type « 
what prints on the printer ■ Works with all 
printers ■ Graphics mode for TRS 80 block 
graphics (printer support needed) 

■ Embedded foriTis control to skip 
lines, eject paper, terminate printing 

■ Embedded tile retrieval during printout 
(called from tentl allows chaimrig a 
document to any virtual lengtti ■ Pause 
feature enter data into text line fields 
during printout, great tor forms Of form 
letters, especiallv when used with Multiple 
Copv feature ■ Insert/delete characters, 
lines, tiles, anywhere in your text ■ Text 
centering ■ Embed ASCII codes in your 
leHt to control your printei ■ Headers, 
Footers, page numbering ■ "Warm start" 
trom DOS READY ■ Line oriented ■ Full 
screeri tent editing ■ Supports unmoditied 
Model I for lower case ■ Integrates with 
Spell Check/Correct and DBLCOM 
communications packages ■ FREE 
INDOOR SOCCER and JUMPY arcade 
games included! 



Prootrptnliiu) Irnni Pei Tek 

/pel check/ 
correct /i|/lefn 

liil('s)i«iHi *>iri th« Wiwil MBfhme 3 

1 1 'f lit-- dL'tsr \'li,,l I HI 4' 



Supwrb JO.UOO Literal Word List 

■ Includes prefixes, suffixes, tnarty proper 
nBn>es and geographic locations 

■ Integrates wtlh Ifie Word Machine 3 
without duplicating files ■ Can check 
ASCII tiles created by any Word Processor 

■ Streamlined menu driven operdliun 
makes it easier to use than any olf»er Spelling 
Checker ■ Alh)Wse«pBiisio«i of a secondary 
User Dictionary with words from your text 

■ Or create/edjt your own User Dictionary 
usmgany Word Processor ■ Expand the 
main dictionary lo up to 60,000 words 
automatically with words frorT the User 
Dictionary (Model III) ■ Works with a 
single disk Lonfigurat.on ■ Does spelling 
checking AND spelling corrections no 
extra i.haige for the corrections feature 

■ Less than 1 /? the price ot any cornpetirig 
TRS 80 pntduct, and perfornis better 
based on independein testing ■ Integrates 
with the Wold Machine 3 with 
uninteriupted operation 



VISA • MASTERCARD • CHECK 

Money Orders Accepted 

Add S2.00 Postage and Handling 

Add S3 00 for C D. 



■ Softvvsi" ii(n"dl» 
MuiJ 4 '<- Mfp'1 "I 

• Scu^li-hetl. w'llii 
*o<* will SiifX" 



Sr .iplwl 



PEL TEK ^12- 

P O Box 10?6 

Southampton, PA 18966 

Order Line 1 800 623 2445, Ext, 19 

InPA: 1-80U 346 /61 1 , Ext 19 



Communications trom Saturday Software 

dblcom 

Iriiey ales wilh Ihi^ Wo'Q Ma(.r»rie 3 
rOf> TRSaOfSKMoillll 1- 



Unique Split Screen for 
Sending/Receiving 

■ Split screen feature avoids text 
"collisions" in Conference or "C B " modes 

■ Prepare transmission text lines on bottom 
screen while normal transmissions are 
received on upper screen ■ Large capture 
butter for incoming/outgoing text 

■ Printer spooling of butler to save connect 
time ■ Dump butter to printer, disk or 
communications line ■ Send all 26 ASCII 
control codes ■ Status Ime shows printer, 
butter, and UART status ■ SupportsllO, 
300, 1200 Baud ■ Selectable UARTS 

■ Auto Dialing ■ Optional line feed after 
carriage return ■ Optional local echo for 
half duplex ■ Access lo D OS trom within 
the program ■ Integrates with the Word 
Machine 3 to create or edit buffer tent 
using Word Processing facilities 



PRICES 



Word Machine 3,0 



Spel l Check System 
DBLCOM System 
Spell Check Et 
DBLCOM 




50 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



The Tandy 
DeskMate 



mm9 

R 2 I 4 S 

6 T T m U 12 

13 n n i( 17 It a 

ti 21 22 13 24 B H 

27 2t 2f 3i II 



iPST 
ILDI 

CHIMiLI 



L^ eskMate is a multi- 
purpose business pro- 
gram that Tandy will 
bundle with each Model 
1000. It includes six 
primary applications: 
Text, Worksheet, Filer, 
Telecom, Calendar, and Mail. 
DeskMate can also act as a host com- 
puter, permitting remote access to 
any of DeskMate's files. 

According to Tandy executives, 
DeskMate has two major purposes: 
10 give the new owner software thai 
is immediately useful, and to intro- 
duce him 10 the kinds of software he 
will eventually want as full-blown 
packages. DeskMate's modules, 
then, are generic in nature — func- 
tional but unadorned by fancy bells 
and whistles. "Easy lo use" and 
"simple" are the terms Tandy's pro- 
motional material uses most fre- 
quently to describe the product. 

DeskMate has some of Ihe rudi- 
mentary features of an integrated 
software package. First, the modules 
share several functions, including a 
calculator, a phone dialer for use 
with an auto-dial modem, and an 
alarm. Second, the modules share 
basic commands and function keys. 
And third, you can iransfer some 
files from one module to another. 
For instance, you can save a spread* 
sheet in ASCII formal and then 
merge it with a text fJe. 

All of the modules are available 
from a main menu, which also in- 
cludes a calendar and a things-to-do 
list (see the Photo). The menu dis- 
plays each module's current files; 
you select the module or file you 
want by moving the arrow keys and 
pressing the enter key, much as you 
do on the Model 100. 

Also from the main menu, you 
can rename files, display free space 
on the current work disk, assign 
passwords, and copy and delete files. 

Main Applications 

DeskMate's main applications are: 
Text. A simple word processor. Its 
functions include Find, Add/Re- 



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Flii 
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iHt Hiw Fp*e ftliM Host Pissiid 'jtlii.- Zi-fi It'n'-f -■"? 



Photo. The Tandy DeskMate's main menu. 

Counay of Fadin Stuck, a dn aiun ol TimiJ\ { hrji. 

place. Merge, and Substitute. You 
can also define a text block and then 
delete it, or copy it within the docu- 
ment or to disk. As with the Model 
lOO's text editor, Text is always in the 
insert mode. 

Worksheet. A 99-row by 99-col- 
umn spreadsheet. Worksheet is simi- 
lar to VisiCalc, and includes many of 
its functions. Cell formats include 
left and right justification, decimal, 
integer, and dollar. You can define a 
block of cells and delete it, merge it, 
or copy it within the same spread- 
sheet or to disk. 

Filer. A file management module. 
Filer permits 256-character records 
of up to 21 fields. Its functions in- 
clude Order (identifies field as son 
key), Find, Print, Merge, Copy, Add, 
and Delete. 

Telecom. A communications mod- 
ule. Telecom has both voice- and 
computer-dialing functions, as well 
as an answer mode. It also has an au- 
to-log function that lets you defme 
automatic log-on sequences for host 
computers. 

Calendar. A calendar for schedul- 
ing and planning. 

Mail. A miniature electronic mail 
system. With Mail, the Model 1000 
can receive e-mail from other com- 
puters or directly from the keyboard, 
thus turning it into a local bulletin 
board system. 

Of the subfunctions, Host is the 
most interesting. It lets you access 
DeskMate from a remote terminal or 
computer, from which you can read 
and send files and mail. 

The Phone subfunction lets you 
enter up to 79 phone numbers, in- 
cluding area and special-prefix 
codes. Phone includes sort and 
search functions, and can be used 
with an auto-dial modem for auto- 
matic calling. ■ 



Master 
Handicapper 



?fv 



EVALUATES FROM RACING FORM! 

GeniK' Pu5i iTud^ri 

- -bs JoctHy (Ttxtari Pnsi (Lasii 

Cood't-on Jockey (Lasii Speod 

Consistency Lengtn ^ittnm 

33 Time D( VPar WwMouii 

And gives you GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION ol iinisPi 



PROGRAM 
OLD. Thoroughbred Gold Edition^'' 



^^ 



vonai and tenoui r 



»1 59.95 comD.«« 
EOLD. enhanced 'Oold'* EdItlonTM 

Goa Eiiil-on yyii'i tomo*sre Maslsf fieilorTM gystem inH^tateO 
u"lci Ihe i*"e a.s« Tiis poweitui pftujiwn mii iranjier an io'sm 
ana sco'SS to in« Dei analysis «iir g single kev*"(»« 

;Mi»i»' B»noiTM mgiuoocJ) SI 99,95 compiele 

GLTD Limited -Gold™ 

" P'Dfauional Handitippama auigr speciic values 10 ins 

..k '^ -d'ldU.e^ •".:>, 'i-t'. d'e i-Tipvi'faftt 

PROFESSIONAL HANDICAPPIW: SYSTEMS 



Aga h 


Coos-sioncy 1b w.-f>^, K' 


Oast IS 


Jociey IS nVoffcouli 


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Eaiiings S 


Po« 10 Coni.itergy J 


ilX>»* 


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Create mog'am wvigni based 01 a panicuiw I'acii anti r>fw i„ne ii 
twBminiuni Win Bs'tentage Tftis piogrim « L»s.i(n«J to vAiK 
ut use Tnr uiw r>««ds no prngiwniwng •upcrMoc*. 

iconianii imegratM flmiu'TW' S299.95 -cr"[j«B 



GO Gold Dog Analysis"* 



me manst .ntiuoes 
61 ConOil«r 
T, Runn.ng St/e 
•l«V*iph1 

9) All n«w micrnal wvLgtiimg 
01 NEW Oms iixJicator 
II you aie naai a greynound track fOv ctr r afo'il nor ro use rrvs 
'™»""" $149.95 ramp,,.* 

liKilii inlegrated Masler BellO' '''*<*) S19S.9S 



2 1 PQSI today 
3) Ktnnal 
1) Poo Lmi 
SI Oislanc* 



i^^ 



MHH. Masler Harness Handicapper'" 
P-oiossoruJ ion«ar«i iinigrw] to i»owO» a thoroi^n viaiyst ol all 
••one- ana pace' 'atsi m Nortti Amenta and Canada FbMuisb 
Ciiai Poai Poeiioni Tiin« Fimsti 

O'l'*' Trach Conditions Time Last Ouanar 

Days Since Last T'kner jrick Rsing 

Gpr'iw Time '1 Tft--. *M™»B"re 

S159 95 -ir-ri-'t- * niegraiec: Vdstifl b*^ii.,-I'-' $199.95 



PPX. Protsssor JooM Football Pradtcior. Proi Pu^** 

CcHTipiete Football Anaiybt witFi Data- Baa* 

ijOveiiays di OvH''u-ioer Deli 

2] ''v' SO'Bsas 5i Dau Base Stats 

3i "i.ji-jp- P ayi^ Iji Ho'OB lOO ipam 

Migtieat percentage of (Hinnert 1983 jjg gg Lii-ipiele 

S99 95 «itn [>ni« B«s» Management 



r, rroi fix 



$$ 



MB. Master Bettor'^ 



A compijfnent to ALL Waaler Harxlicitpoer programs. ir<iud«s 

I) Wii'Place, Sno* <i Trrtecla 7; Money Managemonl 

?) Ouineiia Si Pik Sn Si Odos Anairsis 

3) Enacla Gi Daily OouDle 9i and Mucti Mce 

A perfact program deugnotiio use reH>Is trom alt Masie' P'og-ams 

to qenerate oesi l:ie" eca ac 

559.95 tumoieie 



Model 100 Portable Systems 

'PIT- ■ .^j' D-wi'PaeoTM i?*»i 



S99.95 comoieie 
S99,SS ra<noiMe 



LNW Computers 

Call for Lowest Prices 



Send checx ' -loney o'dar ' VISA ' Ma^ilprHa'd 



ic uOe eipira; oi dalej lo 

TELEPHONE 
(208) 342-6939 



Prof. Jones 
1114 N. 24th St. 
Boise, ID 83702 



TERMS FREE SM PPING Al ; SOF-'"WARE 
Aoa S6OO harO*a'e ■COD Aaa S61X) .■ Aaa 3 
ASeks personal c10l\5 ■ Arta 45°5 ID 'eiiiOpnts . 
Aod S6 00 oi.ts flp U S A .■ P'ices suDject 10 c'lange 
1.0 P!-l^,.'.C'i O', ■-O'-.-.AOi 



BROCHURE AVAILABLE 



S«e Lis' Ol Adveitisers on Page '92 



80 Micro. December 1984 • 51 









LEO (The Lioi 



VIRGO (The Virgin) 



LIBRA (The Scales) 






' rF"~ 


Sn/- 


he CrabllH 


,-^._ ._„.; 


i: =S i^ =;; 


==^^:=-^-" 









GEMINI (The Twins) 



• rlicoii ILtiilll. taiin 



[AURU! 



ARIES (The Ram) 



S^ORPtO (The Scorpion] 



I AG ITTARIUS (The Arcff & 




TO THE OWNERS OF THE MODEL I, Ml AND IV: 

This unique program is bringing a breath of fresh air to the everyday, humdrum and 
conventional software products seen today. We say this because the Zodiac Time-Watch 
Calendar System does not fall into any special-interest categories, it is a novel program 
with an appeal to a broad spectrum of people and sought after by schools, businesses, 
computer clubs and home base owners This program produces beautiful graphic 
artwork combined with a completely personalized calendar, for your enjoyment year after 
year. Unlike most software, this program produces a tangible product to be used 
personally, shared with others, given as a gift or even sold for profit. Also refreshing is that 
the Zodiac Time-Watch Calendar System is inexpensive and available right now. So we 
welcome you to look over the graphic designs, study the program's many versatile 
capabilities and order your copy soon. 

THE PERPETUAL PERSONALIZED CALENDAR: 

This IS the most advanced and versatile section of the system. It can produce a calendar 
for any given year from 1 984 through 9999. It can print a month, a range of months or a 
whole year m one run. The best part is that through this special software you can 
customize any or all dates. As shown in January's example, national holidays, personal 
appointments and business meetings can be noted and highlighted This means you can 
plan a full year of dates to be rememt>ered. Or just plan a month at a tme and use the 
calendar as an appointment system. At the end of the year you can easily clear all 
temporary noted dates and !her^eUj^^ie^«ar Shown below are the. 
available for Ihe date boxes, ^hmh^mk 

• 10 TH 



»»?«*»****«Mt**«tt 



* 

1 Ot'O « 

1 1 *:• o • 

1 «:> t* « 

1 * 

I 1 1 I 1 ooo * 

* 

* « * t 4 « « * « « « t « « * 4 « « * 
STANDARD DATE FORMAT 



* MOM AND 

* DAD ^ S 

» * » 

» SILVER 

* ANNIVERSARY 

CUSTOMIZED FORMAT 




^ 




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I 


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- - - - 




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lisiiiiH:-- 


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■ -\-!;.-.v.. ■ 





THE ZODIAC pictures;! 

Featured with the Zodiac Time-Watch Calendar System is a set of beautiful graphic 

designs of the 12 symbols of the Zodiac, Each of the pictures can be assigned to print with 

y month you choose Shown in the display are actual photographic reductions of an 

iginal print, with no touch-ups' So you will get the same quality artwork you see here. 

TRAIT BOX AREA: 

Along with each picture is an area that list informative and amusing characteristics of 
each sign I'm sure we all know someone with Capncorn's traits. This a reals also optional. 
You choose to print it or not- If the trait box area is not printed the picture will automatically 
re-center itself 



fVhi 



ADEMARK AREA: 

IS area provides 5 lines at 54 characters each, to be customized in any fashion. With the 
same quality of a professionally printed calendar you can print your name, company 
name, school name, poem or favonte quote. 



AQUARIUS (TTie Water Bea rer) 




K. 



THE USES ARE MANY AND THE PRICE IS 
RIGHT! 

Priced at S60 00 the Zodiac Time-Watch Caleni 
System can pay for itself many times over, consider- 
ing you can print as many calendars as you wish 
year after year To order send a letter or the order 
form along with your check or money order for 
$60.00 made payable to Blue Print Software Co. 
All sales tax and shipping charges are include d tn 
e purchase price. 



NOTICE TO DEALERS; 



Call or Write for Details. Special 
Highly Visable Marketing Material 
Available. 



ORDER FORMl 



OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS: 



Name 



Address . 



TTSCES (The Fish] 



Models I, 111 or IV 

One Disk Drive, 32k of Storage. 

Any printer that works 

with your computer. 

No Special Graphics Needed. 

80 or 132 Column Printer. 



G Model! D Model 111 or IV 



Check Of fVloney Order for $60.00 
made payable to: 

Blue Print Software Co. 

100 Wauwepex Tr. 
Ridge. N.Y 11961 
(516) 929-4569 



Olie SOMicro 

gift guides 







is»S. 



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iAwordabout the 

This is a sampler, a selective look at what 's a\'ailable for the TRS-80 
user this holiday season. The 80 Micro staff chose some of the prod- 
ucts. We also asked our five associate editors, known to readers as the 
authors of columns, articles, and reviews, to submit gift picks of their 
own. Hardin Brothers writes The Next Step. David Engelhardt is the 
author of a number of articles and reviews that have appeared in the 
magazine. John B. Harrell Ill's new column, 2000 Plus, started in 
August. Terry Kepner writes Feedback Loop. Thomas Quindry writes 
reviews, tutorials, and programs. 

The gifts range from bargain-priced stocking stuffers to expensive 
add-ons, and include hardware, software, and accessories. The only 
requirement is that the product be related to TRS-80 computing. For 
your convenience, we've singled out specific products and provided 
ordering information; however, we encourage you to consider and 
compare a variety of products in any of the gift categories. 



Alphabet Souped Up 

AUwrile is a high-octane, 
high-performance word pro- 
cessor. The price is on the 
high side, too. but Terry 
Kepner says the program's 
well worth the money if you 
need professional-quality 
word processing. AUwrite 
supports more than 40 print- 
ers, and its features include 
text recover)', file status 
checker, and index and ta- 
ble-of-contents facilities. 
Permits easy handling of 
book-icngth documents. 

Special sale price of $195 
through Dec. 31. 1984; 
thereafter it's $249.95. For 
the Model 1, Hi. or 4. Avail- 
able from Prosoft, Box 560. 
N. Holl>'wood, CA 91603, 
800-824-7888, operator 
422. Express orders, 818- 
7W-3131. 



i{<Z 





Package Deal 

Our reviewer called Orni- 
putenls' A-B-See integrated 
software package "serious- 
ly underpriced." That's un- 
rfe/priced. The package in- 
cludes screen graphics, a file 
editor, word processor, and 
a telecommunications pro- 
gram. You can draw, save 
and print figures using thi 
screen graphics program 
Its keyboard driver sup 
ports macro commands 
For the Model I or Hi; re- 
quires 48K of RAM and 
two disk drives. 

$89.95; available from 
Computents, 980 John 
Adams Parkway, Idaho 
FaUs, ID 83401, 208-529- 
2492. 



a-B-Sm'i mphki 



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Ilii-h Nil I'.in.ihlL- v,|,.r,t I'rinKr 

Silent Mght 

A printer can sound iike 
O'Hare airport at rush 
hour. The name of the 
Hush 80 Portable Silent 
Primer tells you that this is 
one machine that doesn't 
make a lot of noise. The 
Hush 80 is a thermal 6- by 
7-pin dot -matrix printer 
that prints 80 characters per 
second. At $159.99, it's one 
of the most inexpensive 80- 
column printers around. It 
weighs 5 pounds and houses 
a 100-foot roll of paper 
under its cover; battery 
pack is optional. 

For more information 
contact Ergo Systems inc., 
1360 Willow Road. Menio 
Park, CA 94025, 415-322- 
ERGO. 



Carry On 



So a package of disk la- 
bels just won't do it this 
Christmas? You have some 
extra change rattling 
around in your F>ocket and 
you're planning to leave a 
new computer under some- 
one's tree. The Model 4P 
transportable is easier to 
wrap than a lot of ma- 
chines, and it's an attractive 
system for its price. In/o- 
World calls the 4P the sleep- 
er of Tandy's micro line. At 
26 pounds, it's light enough 
to carry around, but it 
comes with heavy-duty 
features Hke two built-in 
disk drives, 64K of RAM, 
and 8D-column by 24-line 
display. Supports Model III 
and 4 software and is 
CP/M Plus-compatible. 
Runs on ac current. 51,299. 
Tandy/Radio Shack, One 
Tandy Center, Fort Worth, 
TX 76102. 



Until recently, disk jack- 
ets were like early Ford cars: 
You could have any color as 
long as it was black. But no 
more. Several manufactur- 
ers now offer disks in rain- 
bow hues. Hyper-organized 
people can use them to col- 
or-code disk files according 
to application; orange disks 
might hold your data base, 
blue your spreadsheets. Oth- 
er disk users might welcome 
a change from basic black . 

Sentinal Color Diskettes 
come 10 to a box. all one 
color or in assorted colors. 
Suggested retail price for a 
box of 5/4-inch, single-sid- 
ed, single-density disks is 
$29. Widely available. Sen- 
tinal Technologies, One 
Seminal Plaza, Hyannis, 
MA 02601, 800-323-5005, 
in MA 800-323-5001. 



Utilities Included 

For the Model 2000 user, 
John B. Harrell III suggests 
utilities pacltages developed 
by ALPS. A directot>/file 
search/back-up package 
sells for $59, as does a tool 
assortment that lets you de- 
fine a command string as a 
single key, count the lines in 
a file, dump files in hex and 
character format and 
change attributes of files. 
The Ramdisk utility lets you 
use extra memory as a su- 
perfast disk ($49); ALPS 
also has a serial printer at- 
tachment utility ($49) and a 
printer initialization pro- 
gram ($39). 

ALPS, 23 Angus Road, 
Warren. NJ 07060, 201- 
647-7230. 




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Disk Access 



Let a few dozen disks get 
out of hand and you're talk- 
ing chaos in the computer 
room. For keeping disks 
under control, David Engel- 
hardi recommends the Roll- 
lop 100 Disk File. Measur- 
ing 7 by 7 by 13 inches, it 
holds up to 120 disks and 
comes with file dividers and 
color-coded labels. Putty- 
colored body with bronze- 
colored sliding top. 

$36; available from Mi- 
crocomputer Accessories 
Inc.. 5721 Buckingham 
Parkway, Culver City, CA 
90230, 213-641-1800. 




New Year's Resolution 

Yes, Virginia, you can get 
hi^-qualily graphics on the 
Model 4. Radio Shack's 
high-resolulion graphics 
board adds the power to 
create charts and graphs, 
designs, illustrations, and 
animation. John B. Harrell 
III caUs the hi-res board "a 
very desirable add-on for 
the Model 4." The video 
display is 640 by 240 pixels. 
A Model 111 hi-res board is 
also available. 

The Model 4 board is 
$249.95 uniasiaUcd; the Mod- 
el 111 version is S369.95. 
Tandy/Radio Shack, One 
Tandy Center. Fort Worth, 
TX 76102. 





Cliii>-line 



Open and Shut Case 

The owner of a travelling 
computer has to have some- 
thing for the computer lo 
travel in. Kangan»o's Chip- 
Tole PCD-1 is a foam-pad- 
ded nylon carrving case for 
the Model 100 that opens up 
to fonn a lap-top work area. 
The case has packets for pa- 
pers and a detachable pouch 
for batteries, phone cord, 
coupler, and ac adapter. 
Hand and shoulder straps 
are included. Comes in black 
or gray. 

The Chip-Tote is $59.95. 
You can order it from Kan- 
garoo Video Products Inc., 
10845 Wheatlands Ave., 
Suite C, Santee, CA 92071. 
619-562-%96. 



The Great 
Communicator 

For someone who's itch- 
ing to get into communica- 
tions, a smart terminal pro- 
gram might be the best of all 
possible gifts. 

Lindbergh Systems, 
maker of the highly respect- 
ed Omniterm program, has 
come out \^i^h a deluxe ver- 
sion called Omniterm 2. It's 
menu-driven, supports full- 
er half-duplex operation, 
and features scroll-back 
capability, macro keys, and 
a transit editor. 

For the Model 2000 or PC- 
compat ibles; $245 . Avail- 
able from Lindbergh Sys- 
tems, 49 Beechmont St., 
Worcester. MA 01609, 617- 
852-0233. 



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ClPiCUff 




^l^TLlUoo(Jlfs' chiKolale chips 



Candy Corporation 

This may be a gift guide 
for computer users, but we 
had to get food in here 
somehow. Terry Kepner 
obliged by picking Micro- 
C^uodies' milk chocolate 
circuit chip!^ and disks as a 
gift idea. 

A box of two chips (net 
weight, 7 ounces) costs 
Si 1.95; two disks (net 
weight, 8 ounces) are 
$12.95. Available from Mi- 
croGoodies, 88 Orchard 
Road CN 5283. Princeton. 
NJ 08540, 800-221-0866; 
201-8744328 in NJ. 



Clamp, Clamp, Clamp 

A paper holder may not 
be pretty, but it's a handy 
accessory for anyone who 
types in long programs or 
who uses a word processor. 
The Paper Boss clamps onto 
a computer table and has a 
36-inch flexible arm. 
Thomas Quindry says, "It 
seems ideal for the <S0 Micro 
reader. The clip-on top easi- 
ly holds a magazine while 
you type in a program. 
Comparable items can cost 
twice as much." Comes in 
beige steel. 

$19.95. including ship- 
ping. Available from Home 
Base Supply, 422 Soquel 
Ave., Santa Cruz, CA 
95062, 800-824-3251, in CA 
800-824-3252. MC and Visa 
accepted. 



In the Buffer 

Not everybody welcomes 
printing delays as a chance 
to catch up on that needle- 
point project. For users 
who want to continue work- 
ing on the computer while 
priming a document, 
Hardin Brothers suggests 
Quad ram's Micro fazer 
printer buffer. "I've never 
found in-memory or disk- 
based printer spoolers par- 
ticularly worthwhile. This 
hardware buffer is a superb 
tool for any serious user." 
The Microfazer Is enclosed 
in a metal case and has a 
pause/copy feature that lets 
you make additional copies 
of buffered data. 

Prices vary; parallel-to- 
parallel buffers range from 
S179 for 8K of RAM to 
$1,395 for the512K model. 
Quadram Corp., 4355 In- 
ternational Blvd., Norcross, 
GA 30093. 404923-6666. 





Z It Now 



After you've killed an 
hour waiting for a simple 
Basic graphics program to 
execute, you begin to won- 
der if there isn't a better 
way. A Basic compiler con- 
verts a program to machine 
language and lights a fire 
under it. ZBasic 2.2 Is an up- 
dated version of a compiler 
that has been around for 
years. Z is an interactive 
compiler, meaning the 
source program, compiler 
program, and object pro- 
gram all reside in memory 
at the same time. Z permits 
block memory moves, fast 
memory searches, and lets 
you choose where the pro- 
gram resides in memory. 

Disk version is $89.95, 
tape version $79.95. Avail- 
able from Simutek Com- 
puter Products Inc., 4897 
E. Speedway, Tucson, AZ 
85712, 800-528-1149. MC. 
Visa, American Express ac- 
cepted. 



.'^.^ 



.^^ 




No *'L" 



With a spelling checker. 
>ou don't have to worry 
about leaving a letter out of 
a word. The popular Klec- 
Iric Webster program 
proofreads text, displays 
words in context, displays 
correct spellings, and has an 
expandable 50, 000- word 
diclionarv. A great ^fi idea 
for a student, writer, or 
anyone who uses a word 
processor to prepare reports 
and papers. 

For the Mode! I, III, or 4. 
Specify your word proces- 
sor. $89.95, with correcting 
feature $149.95. Cornuco- 
pia Software, P.O. Box 
61 il. Albany, CA 94706, 
415-524-8098. 



Both Sides Now 



Terry Kepner recom- 
mends Irving a little punch 
this Christmas. The Hip II 
disk-punching kil lets you 
convert a single-sided disk 
to a flippy. A steel guide en- 
sures proper placement of 
the punch before you cut a 
new notch. Kepner says, "I 
use the kit to create double- 
sided disks for my archives. 
1 wind up saving money by 
getting double-sided storage 
for the price of a single- 
sided disk." 

The kit for 5/,-inch disks 
IS $24.95; for 8-inch disks, 
S29.95. Add $3 for ship- 
ping. Available from 
D/Punch Corp., P.O. Box 
201 . Newton Highlands, 
MA 02161, 617-527-3547. 



afiiifi 



^a^imtk 



Elementary, 
My Dear Watson 

Sherlock Holmes might 
not have been so smug if 
he'd tried Deadline, an in- 
teractive adventure game 
from Infocom. As chief of 
detectives, the player is 
given 12 hours to solve the 
locked-room murder of a 
rich philanthropist. Before 
starting the investigation, 
you review a dossier on the 
case that comes with the 
game disk. Careless detec- 
tives run the risk of being 
fired or of becoming mur- 
der victims thcm.selves. 

The Model l/ill version 
is $49.95. Infocom, 55 
Wheeler St., Cambridge, 
MA 02138. 617-492-1031. 





Pain Go Away 



Hardin Brothers, who 
suffers from a bad back, re- 
ports, "Several months 
ago. I bought one of those 
funny-looking backless 
chairs. What a superb in- 
vention! Since I started us- 
ing it, I've never felt any 
back pain or stiffness, no 
matter how long 1 work at 
the computer. My chair 
rocks slightly, a feature 1 
find important because it 
makes me shift my weight 
and position constantly, 
avoiding the effects of being 
in any position for too 
long." 

The Balans chair fits 
standard- height tables, and 
is upholstered in cotton fab- 
ric with teak or beechwood 
finish. Approximately 
$180. Available from Scan- 
dinavian Design /Scandina- 
vian Gallery, 603 Worcester 
Road, Natick. MA 01760, 
617-655-2830. 



€< 



Forever Amber 

Hardin Brothers recom- 
mends a change of screen 
for any TRS-80 compulcr- 
ist: "Radio Shack's flicker- 
ing, reflecting screen left me 
with headaches and tired 
eyes. The Langley-St. Clair 
amber replacemeni CRT 
was easy to install and im- 
mediately increased my pro- 
ductivity. If I were interest- 
ed in arcade-style games, 
I'd have picked the faster- 
decaying green screen, but 
for word processing and 
programming. I've found 
the amber screen ideal. 
For the Models I. III. 4/4F\ 
or 11/12/16. 

Nonreflecting amber 
Soft -View is S99.95 plus $7 
shipping and handling. 
Available from Langley-St. 
Clair Instrumentation Sys- 
tems Inc., 132 W. 24th St., 
New York, NY 10011, 800- 
221-7070. in NY 212-989- 
6876. MC and Visa accepted. 






.^ijiun II 



The Mating Game 

Chess, of course. Hayden 
Software's Sar^on n, says 
Thomas Quindry, "has to 
be one of the best bargains 
around in a chess pro- 
gram." Seven skill levels, 
scrolling .score pad. hints 
for moves. For the Model 1 
or III. 

$19.95 plus shipping Avail- 
able from Computronics. 50 
N. Pascack Road. Spring 
VaUey, NY 10977, 80CM31- 
2818. MC, Visa, American 
Express. 



I rtnglcy-Sl Oair replace men I (L KT 



Search and Rescue 

Super Utility Pius is a 
SWAT team for disk users. 
It repairs damaged files, re- 
vives killed files, and refor- 
mats disks without destroy- 
ing data, among other 
things. Widely recognized 
as a software classic. 

Through Dec. 31, 1984. 
Powersoft is offering a spe- 
cial one-disk version of Su- 
per Utility Plus (for the 
Model I or 111) or Super 
UtUity 4/4P for $49.95, $30 
below the regular price. 
Shipping is $3. Available 
from Powersoft Products, 
11500 Stemmons Freeway, 
Suite 125, Dallas, TX 
75229, 214-484-2976. MC 
and Visa accepted. 



Daia Vic 




Super Ulility Plui 



Swept A way 



Looking for a gift for 
someone who seems to have 
all the peripherals, software, 
and accessories known to 
man? How does a computer 
vacuum cleaner grab you? 
The Data-Vac is a unit de- 
signed (o clean lint and dust 
from keyboards, printers, 
and other hard-to-reach 
areas. Converts from a vac- 
uum to a blower; comes 
with a nozzle, soft brush, 
and pinpoint attachment . 
Price includes a shoulder 
slr^ and a supply of bags. 

List price is $60. Metro- 
politan Vacuum Cleaner 
Co. Inc., 1 Ramapo Ave., 
Suffern. NY 10901. 914- 
357-1600. 




■•^**t,, 1-, '-•^iV-'; ■-■■■.■,^vv:7*. " 



;?.<; 




W V; 



\ i>lk>.nuidfiii 



Just Volks 



If you're looking for a 
modem and don'i want to 
spend a small fortune, 
David Engelhardi suggests 
you consider the Volksmo- 
dem from Anchor Automa- 
tion. It's compatible with 
most systems and costs onlv 
S69.95'plus SI 1.95 for the 
cable. The Volksmodem 
operates ai 300 baud with 
full- or half-duplex and fea- 
tures automatic selection of 
originate/ answer modes. 

Available from Applied 
Microsystems Inc., 612 
Washington, Denver, CO 
80203. 800-468-4474. Add 
S2.50 for shipping; MC and 
Visa accepted. 



<0 



-^^.^^ 



LSTioraTeK 



mm' 



ft'om 




It Takes A U Types 

It's no secret among 
computer users that stan- 
dard dot-matrix tvpefaces 
are dull, dull, dull. It 
doesn't have to be that way. 
howver. Prosofl's l)ol- 
wrilfcf formats typefaces 
ranging fiom art deco to 
Celtic and from liquid crys- 
tal display to Gothic. You 
use your own word proces- 
sor to create a text file saved 
in ASCII format, then r\in 
the graphics text fonmalter. 
The program comes with 14 
typefaces; additional disks, 
with up to 12 Ictiersets, cost 
$17.95 or S24.95. Dotwriter 
supports certain Epson, Oki- 
data, Radio Shack, and C. 
Itoh printers. 

The Model I/IM version 
is $79.95; the Model 4 ver- 
sion is $99.95. A design- 
your-own-typeface pro- 
gram, the Leiterset Design 
System, costs $39.95. Avail- 
able from Prosofi, Box 560, 
N. Hollv-wood, CA 91603, 
800-824-7888, operator 422. 
Express orders, 818-764- 
3131. MC and Visa accepted. 



Its Master's Voice 

For a conversation piece, 
it's hard to beat a voice syn- 
thesizer. "If you know 
someone who can handle a 
computer that talks back," 
sa>'s David Engelhardt , "I 
recommend the VS-100 for 
the Model 1, 111. or 4. ll 
plugs into the expansion 
port; price includes amplifi- 
er, manual, and editing and 
demo software. 

Thc synthesizer is $69.95; 
the speaker is $5.95; text-lo- 
voice software costs $19.95 
or $29.95, depending on 
features. Shipping is $3. 
Available from Alpha Prod- 
ucts, 79-04 Jamaica Ave., 
Woodhaven. m' 11421, 
221-0916; in NY 718-2* 
5916. MC and Visa. 



Mega- Gift 



If you're a kid, it's a 
pony. If you're a serious 
compulerist, it's probably a 
15-megabyte hard disk sys- 
tem. It's what you really, 
truly want for Christmas, 
even though you know the 
odds are against you. For 
those of you with mega- 
bucks. John B. Harrell 111 
suggests Appumt's hurd 
disk s>stem. Based on the 
5 '/j -inch Winchester drive, 
the package includes the 
hard disk and power sup- 
ply, controller, host /inter- 
face module, installation 
manual. NEWDOS up- 
grade and manual, and all 
the necessan- cabling, lor 
the Model I or III. 

The 5-megab\ie svstem is 
$1,489. 10-meg is '$1,735, 
15-meg is $1,945, 26-meg is 
$2,499. Apparal Inc.. 4401 
S. Tamarac Parkway, Den- 
ver, CO 80237. 303-741-1778. 




J^.^ 



<, 




A Little Light Reading 

Bar codes aren'l jusl for 
pricing jars of pickled beets 
an>inore. New applications 
lire popping up all over the 
place. A bar code-reading 
package is available for the 
Model 100; it contains a 
Hewlett-Packard wand and 
software for reading three 
codes (UPC, 3 of 9, and 
I'lessey). List price is $99.95. 
andy/Radio Shack, One 
andy Center, Fort Worth, 
IX 76102. 



With a magnifying ruler, 

you never again have to 
guess whether that black 
speck in line 1978 of your 
listing is a dead tly or a 
semicolon. Many computer 
supply retailers stock a 
I5-inch-long plastic ruler 
with a y,-inch magnificalion 
strip. Measures in inches 
and centimeters. 



Give The Cleat 
Choice in 

TRS'80 
H/lagazines 



Give a gift subscription to 80 Micro. Kvcn month 
80 serves as a shopping fJuidc for tliousiuids of TRS-80 
users. They know exacllv what Ihrv nrvd. And they 
^e( it. at the right price and from the right [)!a( e, by 
reading 80 IWlcro's product reviews, advertising and 
new product announcemenls. 

80 Micro runs more ads ihaji idl its compiMilors 
combined. With over 30% ol 80 readers buving 
through mail order, there's no doubt that more and 
more TKS 80 users are turning to 80 Micro lor sliop 
ping advice. 







And of course 80 Micro rrniains the "1 information 
source for TRS-80 users. Eiich issue is packed with col- 
umns lor the novice and intermediate user: 

Reviews— in-depth analysis and comparisons of 
TRS-80 products thai give 80 readers the inside track 
to sound investments. 

Pulse Train— 80 reports on landy and ihc computer 
IndusliT: produci development and tmprovemenis. 
markeiing slrateg\'. and Irade shows. 
New Products— announcements of the latesl TRS-80 
products the specs, sources ol supply and price. 
Project 80— lor improving applicaiions and the versa- 
tility of the TRS-80 computer. 

Easy to Buy 

Tills yciu- give 80 Micro Ki all the TRS 80 users on 
your list. Just send in llic couiH)n now! Or. for faster 
service caU toll-free 1-800-258-5473. In New Hampshire, 
dial 1-924-9471 to give 12 issues of 80 MICRO for 
S24.97. 



^7"T^Q1^ This year I'll give 80 Micro to 



all the TRS-80 users on my list. 



filer k/MO 



MC 



AE 



MSA 



Card « 

Signature, 

Name 

Address 

Cllv 



Bill riic $24.97 lor 12 issues 

11., 1^ iri.ik' , Mil ks iLHiM'' 1-1 Wi MICRO 

Kxp Dale. 



_Slate 



.Zip. 



Please enter a 1 year gift subscription to: 

Naiiir 

Add rcss 

City Stale Zip_ 



itU 1 S liiriiU il: 



M4-7 I 



CW Communications/Peterborough 
80 Micro • PO Box 981 • Farmingdale, NY 11737 



&4DB8 



THE NO-RISK DISK ON SALE 



LIFETIME WARRANTY 



8ox ot ten S'V ATCK dskettes, witri labels, 
envelopes and femlorced hub rings 
SS/DD OS/DO 

sot or SlfiSO so-'o S9150 

SS/OD $9^50 OS/OD 
96TP1 C*t 96'P- 



•21 

S3-|50 



STAR'w MICROnilCS PRINTERS 



Gemini lOX, 120CPSBi-direcliondl 

Gemini 15X, 120 CPS Bi-tJireclional S365'"' 

Delta 10 160 CPS, 8K Buler, 

Dual Interlace MIS"" 

Delta 15. 160 CPS, 8K Buffer, 

Duallnterlace sgsooo 

«adix ID. 200 CPS, 16K Buffer. 

Dual irleriace ^585"° 

Raflix 15. 200 CPS, 16K Buffer. 

Duallnterlace ^53500 

PowflrtYpe Daisy Wtieel Lenar Quality. 

Dual Interlace, Bi-directional, 

Reverse paper leed ^345''° 

r,ri(pp.ng and HarxJiing U DO to' any si« orOer o' Oiskellei 10 30 
to" armie's. COD O'tlers aoc i: bh Wb jccbdi cr«]<t cjrOi ,il 



L;>ll now TOIL FREE ANYWHERE in the US 

NattonwKiR 1 gOO 336 6875 

Illinois 1 800 M2 5200 

Internalionnl 1 312 2S6 4456 

9 a.m. - 6 p.m. ICentral) Mon. Ihrouuh Fri, 




SfnflRT DATA Jl^iC. 



i-'D tiui ^^/ 



BIBLE 
HIGHLIGHTS I 



Highlights of the Bible for 
children, kindergarten through 
fourth grade. 

Christian learning through 
animated Bible stories, games 

and quizes 

Covers CREATION. JEWISH 
TRIBES AND LIFE OF CHRIST 



A computer software package 
(orTRS8U Models III and IV 
Total program over 7()k bytes 7 
sections each less than 16k. 

Specify tape cassette or diskette 



Pnce$I9r)() Post paid 
Satisfaction guaranletd 



SeiKl check or money order to, 
STAR SOFTWARE CO., 

DEFT, M8n 

2:nb WATERBYST 

WESTIAKK VILI^GR 

CA^lJbl 




USE TOUR 

TBS-80 MODEL III, IV Or 4P: 

• Fur Jimcl measure men I of 

votta^B, or alarm conditions 

• With one raalfitor lo measure, 

current. raeUtance. or 4-20 ma signals 

• With tronadueera to measure 

acceleration, dewpolnt, force, tiumldlty. pH, po- 
sition, pressure, temperature, velocity, viscosity, 
wind speed or dlraotlon 

• With inMrtaces to turn power on off. control analog 

voltage, motor apeed. temperature, etc. 
Note We also manufacture the Model 100 A D tor the 
TRS BO* Model lOOCompuwr 

MODEL HI. IV. or 4P— A/D, oonvertM- 
and digital Interface for your TRS 80' Uodel TTI or IV 

• to 4 096 volts full scale ladjustablei 

■ lii bit integrating A.' D converter ( 025%) 

• 16 analog voltage input 

■ 8 digital inputs, expansion lo 24 bits 

• 9 digital outpuis, expaJialon to 24 bite 

■ 3 addressable output strobes 

Price ISM including software it5 00 for manual] 

HUIMPHREY 
INSTRUMENTS, INC. 

35 Cold Soil Road 
Lawrencevllle, N.J. 08646 

(609)896-1618 ,'J2i 

* THS-80 la a trademark ol The Tandy Corporation 



• UISPI^\YSCORRE(TSI*KUX\(;S: 

IfvdU d(m"I know the correct spelling. 
KW will look it up for you. ;ind display 
tlie dictionary, 

• VKRIFIESCOKRECTIONS: If you 

think you know thccorreL-l spelling ol 
a word. KW willcheck it foryoulk^fore 
makinj^ the correctKin.s 

• HYPHKNATESAUTOMATIC/VIXY: 

iQptionali ln.'«Tts discretionary hy- 
phens throughout text 

• GRAMMAR ASTYLKCHKCKER; 

lOptionah. Identities 22 types uf torn 
nion errors. Makes suggested cor- 
rections with the stn)ke of a key. 
Runs within EW. 

• 50,()(H) WORD DICTIONARY: Uses 
only 2'l! bytes per word; add as many 
words as you wish 

• FAST CORRECTING: In as little as 
30 seainds. Kloctnc Websttr can return 
you to your Word Frotvssing program, 
with your text fully corrected and on 
your screen 

« INTEGRATES: into 12 diffeR-nl word 
pnu'essing programs: WordStar. Spell- 
binder, Palantir NewSeript. Eazy 
Writer, SuperScripsit. Scripsit. Elec- 
tric Pencil, CopyArt. Superscript. Zor- 
lof, and LeScript (specify!. Begins 
proofing at the stroke of a key; returns 
you to word pnK:ressing automatically 




Webster 




"The Cadillac" 

of spel I ing checkers 
80 Micnxo/fipulinn. 9182 

VOTED # I: Vitr I he second straight year. 
Electric Webster was voted the # 1 spell- 
ing checker in the 80 Micro Header's 
Choice Awards. ( 1/83. 1/84) 

"The most helpful program I've found is 
Electric Webster, After looking at nine 
proofreading programs. I've settled on 
Webster . . "Cn-aliLe Conifiuting, 11183 



ACCLAIMED: 

"Electric Webster is the best. Just read 
any review m any magazine and 1 don't 
believe that you will find even one dis- 
agreement til that statement," ( VA'VT '(',. 
( 'imifinati 's t 'sers Group Mufi. . 4!H:i 

"Now there's a program called Eleitric 
Webster that would let me writf to 
Presidents and Kings and never feel em- 
barrassed. Miss Muli)erry would give 
Electric Webster an A + , and so will you " 
Computer User, 1184 

Itrfbnnaiice "Excellent"; Documentation 
"Good"; Ease of I'se "Excellent"; Error 
Handling "Excellent". Info World. 8/82 

LOW PRICES: 

TRS-HO Electric Webster $ H'JMr, 

w/Correeting Feature .$149 95 

Hyphenation $ 49.95 

Grammar & Style Checker $ 49 9.') 

CP/M, KVDOSor MOI)EL2000 

Electric Webster $209 95 

(with Correcting Feature! 
Hyphenation Option Included' 

Grammar & Style Option Included' 



This dii'lionatv ■•, luit |Hi)ilisii'.l !.■. 'h, 
Wclnti-ii DitUonan oi ilii-ii ', - ■-. ■ 



Iltll ]Hil>ltUl|-t\ tif 



Limited Time Only 

CORNUCOPIA 
SOFTWARE 



(415) 52'i-HmH 
Post tHficf Box 61 1 1 Albany. California 94706 



r' 5m List ot A<Sv»niS«rs on Pagm 192 



80 Micro, December 1984 > 65 




*. 



*s^ 



Plug In 



All it lakes is a few 
inillionlhs of a second for a 
power surge to do unspeak- 
able things to data, soft- 
ware, or hardware. Surge 
protectors are designed to 
resp(.)nd instantaneously lo 
voltage overloads, stopping 
them in their tracks. Curtis 
Nursc pntlfctors range in 
price from $49.95 to S89.95. 
All arc switched and have a 
clamping response time of I 
nanosecond. LMI-RM 
nilcrcd models al.so protect 
against interference trom 
office equipment and small 
motors. 

Widely available. Curtis 
Mfg. Co. Inc., 305 Union 
St., Peterborough, NH 
03458, 603-924-7803. 




Captain Chuck of the 
Starship Trixie is about to 
fire a deadly la.ser beam al 
an enemy spacecraft. Does 
he reach for the space bar of 
a typewriter keyboard? 
Heavens, no. For a job like 
this, he needs a fire button. 
A joystick, offering true ar- 
cade control, would make a 
perfect stocking stuffer for 
the dedicated gamer. Alpha 
Products sells an assembled 
joystick for the Model 1. 
Ill, or 4; supports eight di- 
rections and fire button. 

$27.95 plus shipping; 
available from .Mpha Prtxl- 
ucts, 79-04 Jamaica Ave., 
Woodhaven. NY 1I42I, 
800-221-0916, in NY 
718-296-5916. MC and Visa 
accepted. 



Coffee < Break > 

The MS-DOS mug is 

either a coffee cup disguised 
as a reference chart, or a 
reference chart disguised as 
a coffee cup. MS-DOS 
commands are listed in 
black tuid white with red, 
yellow, and blue accents. 
Keeps the Model 2O0O user 
in touch with his operating 
system. 

$7.95; shipping is free. 
Available from TechNovel- 
ty Inc.. 102 Fenway Road. 
Columbus. OH 43214, 
614-888-7111. MC and Visa 
accepted. 



Once you have communi- 
cations software and hard- 
ware, all you need is some- 
where to call. A subscription 
to CompuServe takes care 
of thai. This on-line service 
provides a consumer data 
base and shopping facility, 
electronic mail. and. best 
of all, the chance to keep in 
touch with the computing 
community. Subscription 
includes the starter kit. us- 
er manual, and free connect 
time. 

A basic subscription costs 
$39.95 and comes with five 
free hours. The Executive 
Information Service adds a 
business-oriented data ba.se 
and more extensive elec- 
tronic mail service; it costs 
$89.95 and includes two 
free hours. Line charges arc 
$12.50 per hour during the 
day, $6 at night. Compu- 
Serve operates at 300 baud. 
For information, call 800- 
848-8199. 





NaniM rtlerencc ciiril 



Christmas Cards 

You won't find Currier 
and Ives scenes or reindeer 
canoons on Nanos cards. 
These folding cardboard 
programmer's guides pre- 
sent a summary of com- 
mands and instructions for 
quick reference. Inexpen- 
sive and handy. 

Model I Basic and As- 
sembler is $4.95; Model III 
Basic and Assembler. 
$5.95; Z80 Microprocessor. 
$4.95; set of three Model II 
cards (Basic/ Assembler, 
Supeivisory Calls, and Com- 
mands and Utilities). $11.95; 
CP/M, $5.95. Add $1 for 
shipping. Available from 
Nanos Systems Corp.. P.O. 
Box 24344. Speedway, IN 
46224. 317-244-6888. 





■'■■^&.r 



: ■- [.■ 



1984 O^view 'Digest 

A summary of every review published in 1984, 
Products are rated from one star to five. 



BOOKS 



Computer-Assisted Investment Hand- 
book (Programmed Press) * * * May: 
A collection of 50 short Basic programs 
that analyze stock market data; knowledge 
ot the market is helpful. 

Computer Buyer's Protection Guide 

(Prentice-Hall Inc.) * * * June: A well- 
written book ihal covers legal and com- 
mon-sense safeguards of consumer rights. 

CP/M Bible (Howard W. Sams & Co. 
Inc.) * * * * March: The definitive ref- 
erence guide for CP/M. 

/nsUe Super Utitity Plus (Breeze/QSD 
Inc.) * * * * February: A clear, infor- 
mative guide to the popular disk zapper. 

Learning and Teaching Programming 

(Howard W. Sams & Co. Inc.) * * 
March: This crash course in Basic is useful 
as a resource, bui incomplete as a text. 

learning TRS-W Model 4/4P Basic 

((, ompuSoft Publishing) * * * * Sep- 
tember: A must for anyone who wants to 
learn Model 4 prograinming. 

Model 4 Technical Reference Manual 

(Tandy 'Radio Shack) ***** Jan- 



uary: A complete reference manual cover- 
ing Assembly-language programming and 
computer repairs and modifications. 

Programming in C (Prentice-Hall Inc.) 

* * * * December: A weU-written book 
that makes useful comparisons between 
Basic and C. 

Soul of CP/M (Howard W. Sams & Co. 
Inc.) ***** January: A valuable 
guide to As.sembly- language programming 
with CP/M. ■ . . .. 

Using TRSDOS 6.0 (Lynn Computer 
Service) * '/: January: A video tutorial 
that misses the boat. 

Your First Basic Program (Sybex) 
****'/; February: A clever and con- 
cise beginner's book. 

GAMES 

Child's Play (Indiana Software Group) 

* * * August: An entertaining and edu- 
cational children's program for teaming 
letters, numbers, shapes, and words. Models 
I, III, and 4. 

Compu-Opoly (Dynacomp Inc.) 

* * * ''; August: A good Monopoly 
game thai uses the whole screen as the 
board. Model III. 



Monty Plays Munopoly (Tandy/Radio 
Shack) ** August: A limited program 
that uses the computer as your opponent. 
Model III. 

13 Cihosis (Tandy/Radio Shack) * * * 
November: An entertaining game, but a bit 
slow. 

Volcano Hunter (Lap Video Entertain- 
ment) * * * * September: An ingenious 
arcade-style adventure game. 

Warriors and Warlocks (408614 Ontario 
Ltd.) * December: A frustrating and con- 
fusing game that's loo challenging for a be- 
ginner. 

HARDWARE 

Bar Code Reader (Tandy/Radio Shack) 
* * * '/j Oaober: A reasonably priced 
package that includes a pen wand and si.\ 
programs. Model UK). 

l-"PS-3 Hardware Copy System (J.E.S. 

Graphics) * * * * April: Tliis circiut 
board that backs up protected software is a 
good value. Model IIL 

High-Res Graphics Board (Tan 
dy/Radio Shack) * * * * October: \ 



( 



t 



plug-in circuil boaftl iliai upgrades ihc 
screen lo 640- by 240-pixels; a good fieriph- 
eral but lacks software support. Model 4. 

Inlellilenn (Nlicrocorp) * * * March: A 
ver\' good smart tenninal package. Models 
land 111. 

microMERLIN (Micro Projects En- 
gineering Inc.) ***** Seplember: A 
well-designed 16-bit upgrade unit. Models 
I, Ill,and4/4P. 

Model 4P (Tandy/Radio Shack) 

* * * * ', : February; A portable with the 
features of a desktop. 

NewcIock-KO (Alpha Products Co.) 

* * * \'i June: A handy low-cost hard- 
ware unit that keeps track of the date and 
lime. Models 1, III, and 4. 

PAT- 1 (Dysan Corp.) ****'/• July: 
All accurate aiid multifunctional disk drive 
diagnostic tool. 

PMU-IOO (Holmes Engineering) 

* * * * June: A well-designed tape stor- 
age unit for the Model 100. 

Reference C'anl for the CP/M System 

(Nanos Systems Corp.) * * * October: A 
handy pocket reference card that details 
TnosI CP/M commands. 

Sit;nalman Mark \11 (Anchor Automa- 
tion) ****': October: An excellent 
modem at a good price. 

Tandy 2000 (Tandy/Radio Shack) 

* * * * May: An MS-DOS machine su- 
perior to the IBM PC. 

VS-JOD Voice Synthesizer (Alpha Prod- 

ucIn) * * * * December: Inexpensive 
and fun. 



LANGUAGES 

Assembly Language Tutor (Tan- 
dy/Radio Shack) * * * September: A 
thorough tutorial, but no substitute for a 
real assembler. Models I and III. 

Basic Learning Programs (Academic 
Computer Center) * * ' ; February: An 
unexceptional package for teaching Basic 
[irogramming. Model 111. 

Snake (James W. Burgmeier) * * * * 

I obruary: An entenaining Basic language 
[caching tool for children. Model 111. 



PRINTERS 



Brother Compactronc 60 (Brother In- 

Lcmational Corp.) * * * * !/2 March: An 
.ilfordable tN-pewriter/ printer. 



DMP-IIO Printer dandy/ Radio Shack) 

* * * November: An adequate dot- 
matrix printer. 

DMP-120 Printer (Tandy/Radio Shack) 

* * * November: A very good, competi- 
tively priced dot-matrix printer. 

DMP-420 Printer (Tandy/Radio Shack) 

* * * * November: Excellent but expen- 
sive dot-matrix printer. 

DWP-210 (Tandy/Radio Shack) 
***** January: A superb daisy- 
wheel printer. 

Juki 6100 (Juki Industries of America 

Inc.) * * * * '/; February: A very high 
quality daisy-wheel printer. 

ThinkJet Printer (Hewlett-Packard) 

* * * * July: An ouLslanding, afford- 
able Inkjet printer. 

SOFTWARE 

A-B-See (Compuienis Inc.) ****': 
August: A thoroughly professional file edi- 
tor, word processor, screen graphics, and 
telecommunications package. Model III. 

AUwrile (Prosofi) ****'/: Novem- 
ber: A world class word processing system. 
Models I, III, and 4. 

Arranger II (Triple-D Software) 

* * * * '/; januar>: One of the best disk 
libraries around. Models 1, HI, and 4. 

Career Directions (Jefferson Software) 
***** April: An impressive self-as- 
sessment package that pinpoints career op- 
portunities. Models III and 4. 

College Directions (Jefferson Software) 
****■; June: A comprehensive pro- 
gram that helps students select a school. 
Models III and 4. 

CP/M Plus (Tandy/Radio Shack) 

* * * * August: An updated version of 
CP/M for the Model 4 with some definite 
improvements. 

Crayon Deluxe 2.0 (Pioneer Software) 

* * * * June: A versatile word proces- 
sor/graphics package that formats a varie- 
ty of typefaces and graphics designs. Mod- 
els 1. Ill, and 4. 

dataCure (Colorado Online) * * * 
April: A CP/M disk repair tool; performs 
as represented but has some limitations. 

Datagraph (Micro Software Systems) 

* * * * V: Januar>-: A worthwhile high- 
resolution graphing program with a couple 
of annoying faults. Models I, U, and Hi. 

DiskDISK (Logical Systems Inc.) 
***** July: A useful package thai 



partitions disks into fiks thai youi operai 
ing system treats as indivklual disk drives 
Models I, III, and 4. 

Disk Drive Analysis System (J & M Sys- 
tems Ltd.) * * * * '/: April: An excellent 
disk diagnostic program. Models III and 4, 

Kilemale n (Daiafile Systems) * * * * 
February: A data base manager that pro- 
vides advanced features for its price range. 
Models I and III. 

Investment Analysis (Tandy/Radio 
Shack) * * * May: A complex and pricey 
program for analyzing investment calcula- 
tions. Model 100. 

LeScript (Anitek Software Products) 

* * * * April: Word processing for the 
Model 4 comes of age. 

M^cBind (Computer EdiType Systente) 

* * * * July: An inipievsive print for- 
matting and file-merging program. Modeh 
I, II. III. and 4. 

MAP 1.3 (Softshell) * * * * June: A 
group of programs that index and searcli 
text and data files; performs well but shori 
on disk spacx'. Models II, 111, and 4. 

Malh-Analy/er-Paks (International 
Communication) * * ' .i March: A flawed 
tool for manipulating math formulas. 
Models I and 111. 

MicroEdilur II (Alphaware Inc.) * * 
February: An elaborate word ptoces.sor 
that's difficult to use. Model 100. 

Micm-Link 11 (Bi-Tech Enterprises Inc.) 
***'/; October: An able and inoderatel> 
priced communications package. Model 4 

Model 4 Scripsit (Tandy/Radio Shack) 

* * * May: An updated version of the 
original Scripsit. Best tor shon documents 
and correspondence. 

Model 4 SupcrScripsit (Tandy/Radk) 
Shack) * * * * August: A word process 
ing system that takes advantage of the Mod- 
el 4's capabilities. 

Multiplan (Tandy/Radio Shack) 
***** June: Kai and away the best 
spreadsheet. 

Multimate (Tandy/Radio Shack) 
***** December: Truly professional 
word processing. Model 2000, 

NICK (XYZT Computer Dimensions 
Inc.) * '/; October: A complex integrated 
program that suffers from poor documen- 
tation. 

Open Access (Software Products Interna- 
tional) ***** November: An out 
standing integrated package. 



<*' 



(iii. 



TT 



ii ^ 



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' ^i-ffilKifMmWgm' 



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Personal Finance (Tandy/Radio Shack) 

* * •': August: A limited checkbook and 
budget program. Model 100. 

PowerMail Plus (Powersoft) * ♦ * ♦ 
May: A highly recommended mailing list 
program. Models 1, II, III, 4, 12, and 16. 

Scribe (Chatianooga Systems Associates) 

* * * * February: A ver>- useful word 
processing program. Model 100. 

6.0 Plus (Micro-Systems Software Inc.) 
****'/: February: A powerful en- 
hancement package for the Model 4 
TRSDOS 6.0 operating system. 

SofPac (Sofironics Computer Systems) 

* * '/; July: A limited integrated software 
package that puts integration ahead of 
quality. Models I, 111, and 4. 

Spectaculator {Tandy/Radio Shack) 

* *■*■* October: An affordable aiid 
easy-to-use tape-based spreadsheet. Mod- 
els 1, 111, and 4. 

Sprinter (Scenic Computer Systems Inc.) 

* * * May: A sophisticated word pro- 
cessor for the experienced user; runs under 
the UCSD p- System en\ironment. 

Stock Tracker (H & H Trading Co.) 

* * * * April: A high-quality package 
designed to give market advice based on 
technical analysis of trends. Models 1 
and 111. 

Superiog (KSoft) * * * * June: A valu- 
able free-form information handler but 
only if you have LIX)S. Models 1 and III. 

SuperScripsIl Dictlonar> (Tandy/ Radio 
Shack) * • • * August: A fa.st and con- 
venietii proofreader with limited storage 
space for data files. Model 4. 

The Talking Program (Ron Hutchin- 
son) • *••■: January: A machine-lan- 
guage program that vocalizes everything 
appearing on screen. Models I, III, and 4. 

Target PlannerCalc (Tandy/Radio 

Shack) * * * * April: An excellent and 
moderately priced spreadsheet program. 
Model 4. 

Tele-Stock (Teksoft Inc.) * ♦ ♦ '/z April: 
An easy-to-use program for tracking daily 
variations in the stock market. Model 100. 

Trend Anahsis Program (Harley D. Wil- 
bur) * * * * March: .^n ideal program 
for the investor interested in technical 
analysis of the stock market. Models I 
and 111. 

TRS-80 WordStar 3.0 (Logical S>^tems 
Inc.) * * * May: Software for the serious 
word processor. Models I and 111. 



UCSD p-System (PCD Systems Inc.) 

* * * May: A DOS that bridges the soft- 
ware gap between business micros. Models 
II. 12. and 16. 

Univeisal Subroutine System (Ramona 
Enterprises) *** August: A library of 
207 proven Basic subroutines that's flawed by 
poor documentation. Models II, 12, and 16. 

VEDIT 1.15e (Compuview Products) 

* * * * '/2 January: A full-screen text 
and program editor with complete key- 
board customization and word processing 
features. Model II. 

Videotex Plus (Tandy/Radio Shack) 

* * * September: A difficult -to-use com- 
munications package. Model 4. 

VisiCalc Business Forecasting Model 

(Tandy/Radio Shack) * * * January: A 
well-documented financial analysis tool. 
Model III. 

WIBasic (WittSoft Inc.) ***'/: July: 
An uncomplicated interpreter/compiler 
designed specifically to generate Z80 
machine code. Models I and ill. 

Word Machine (Pel-Tek) * * * * Feb- 
ruary: An inexpensive word processor 
that's easy to u.sc. Models I and 111. 

WordStar Professional (Micro Pro In- 
ternational) ***** January: An ex- 
pensive, high-quality integrated word pro- 
cessing package. 



UTILITIES 

Akror C Languid Compiler (Alcor Sys 
tems) * * * * November: A well-rounded 
implementation of C. 

ALDS (Assembly Language Develop- 
ment System) (Tandy/Radio Shack) 
***** September: A top-notch edi- 
tor/assembler. 

The Ana]>'sl (Modular Software Asso- 
ciates) * * * * I'l May: Speeds up Basic 
by sorting variables; a good buy. Models 1 , 
III, and4/4P. 

Aztec C/80 Pro Compiler System 

(Manx Software Systems) ***** De- 
cember: A truly sophisticated compiler 
system for high-level programming. 

Back-Track (Ridge-Tec Inc.) * * * * 
December: A powerful utility for copying 
and recovering data on damaged disks. 

Basnim {Wiley Inc.) * * * * Novem- 
ber: A useful linking loader and library 
manager for Basic programs. Models 1 
and 111. 



Clone III (Gibberman Enterprises) 
* * Vi July: A fast back-up utility that 
doesn't quite live up to its advertised prom- 
ises. Models 111 and 4, 

The Collector (Modular Software Asso- 
ciates) * * * * May: An efficient, rea- 
sonably priced string collector. Models I. 
111. and 4/4P. 

COiNV3T04 (Educational Micro Sys- 
tems Inc.) * * * June: This utility con- 
verts Model III Basic programs to Model 4 
format; does the job but is slow. 

Dostamer (CDC) ***'/; April: A neat 
little utility that executes most DOS com- 
mands with a single keystroke. Models I, 
III, and 4. 

Pro-Create (Misosys) * * * * October: 
A very good version of Misosys' popular 
EDAS IV editor/assembler. Model 4, 

Super Utility 4/4P (Powersoft) 
***** September: A streamlined 
version of the disk-zapping utility. Models 
4/4P. 

Toolbell (Powersoft) ***'/- May: 
TRSDOS 6.x disk utilities for the ad- 
vanced programmer. Model 4. 

Toolkit (Stewart Software) ***'/; 
May: A collection of disk directory utili- 
ties. Model 111 TRSDOS. 

Tran-sfcr (The Small Computer Com- 
pany) ***** March: A utility pro- 
gram for transferring Profile Plus or 
Profile III Plus data files between two com- 
puters. Models II and III. 

Transfer (MichTron Inc.) * * * July: 
An cxcelleru Models 1/111/4 utility for 
transferring Basic files to a Model 2000. 

TRSDUM (CRB Microtools) ****!/; 
March; A handy TRSDOS utility for sav- 
ing libraries of cassette programs to disk. 
Models I, 111, and 4. 

Turbo Pascal (Borland International) 
***** December: A high-perfor- 
mance Pascal compiler. 

Vis/Bridge/RPT (Solutions Inc.) un- 
rated January; A VisiCalc report for- 
matter. 

Vis/Bridge/Sorl (Solutions Inc.) 
***'/: January: A VisiCalc utility that 
sorts portions of a spreadsheet; on the 
pricey side. Models 1, 11, III, 12, and 16. 

Viz. A. Con (Abacus Associates) * Jan- 
uary: A VisiCalc worksheet utility that con- 
solidates data from different worksheets; 
too rigid and complicated to be useful. 
Model III 






?<° ^oi 



The 
PRODUCER, 



PRODUCER 

The Professional Program Writer. 



YOU CAN MULTIPLY YOUR PRODUCTIVITY 

WITH THIS SENSATIONAL SOFTWARE BREAKTHROUGH 

Beginners can now program with no experience necessary. 

Professional programmers now have a tool to save days and weeks of time. 



THE PRODUCER 

WRITES CUSTOM PROGRAMS 

FOR YOU! 

Why buy expensive Data Base 
programs that are only half effective and 
require the original operating system disk 
to run the finished program? The 
Producer is a true stand-alone Program 
Generator that can create the exact 
programs you want. 

You don't need any previous 
programming experience since The 
Producer writes all the code for you And 
when the program is finished, it runs by 
Itself without the support of the original 
operating system run disk 

What Kind of Programs 
Can The Producer Wrile? 

With the Producer you can create 
impressive, sophisticated and functional 
software to manage your data The only 
limit IS your imagination. You can quickly 
and easily create programs to manage 
such things as mail lists, personnel 
records, inventory control, library 
catalogs, loan calculations, personal 
finances, and maintenance schedules 

You may never again need to buy a 
canned program to perform a needed task 
related to data storage and retrieval The 
Producer can write all those programs for 
you, including the capacity to do all 
standard calculations and to generate 
both on-screen and printed reports The 
freeform report generator even allows you 
to design reports on your preprinted 
forms 

How Does The Producer Work? 

The Producer itself is a sophisticated 
program based on years of research and 
development But The Producer was 
written with the end user in mind and the 
program generation process is quite 
simple 

You can begin by using a planning form 
designed to help you organize your 
program ideas The Producer then asks 
you a series of simple English questions to 
enable those ideas to be translated into a 
program format You use the computers 
arrow keys and graphic characters to 
draw the data entry screen just the way 
you want it. 



Then with the press of a button, the 
program generator takes over and does all 
that complex coding (or you m a matter of 
minutes. The result is a complete 
program, capable of running by itself. 
That means your customized programs 
may be used independently of The 
Producer. (A feature not possible with 
Data Base creations.) You may duplicate 
your Producer generated programs and 
even sell them for others to use. without 
paying royalties 

How Difficult 
Is The Producer 
Process to Learn i 

The Producer software package makes 
learning simple An easy to follow tutorial 
takes you through each step of The 
Producer process as you stt at the 
computer. (This includes audio cassette 
tapes with the Model l/lll versions.) This 
hands-on experience not only teaches 
you the process but allows you to create a 
program of your own design while you 
learn The tutorial is all you need to get 
started 

Later, if you have need for more specific 
information, you can turn to the fully 
indexed Producer Reference fvlanual The 
200 pages of documentation co'er 
virtually any question you may have so 
you will never be left guessing what to do 
next. The Producer package also includes 
a quick reference card to streamline your 
program operation and. should you ever 
need technical assistance, you may call a 
Producer Software technician for free 
counsel and trouble shooting. 



The Producer 
$199.95 

Available now for TRS-80 

ModeU I, III, IV 

Ask about DATA SHUFFLER, 
New Sort Merge Program S34.95 

^,g Order toll free: 

1-800-433-5355 

Texas 817 274-6998 



Is II True Thai I Can 

Both Create and Edit 

At Will With The Producer? 

Yes' Uniike most other program 
generators. The Producer gives you 
complete freedom to design the screen 
any way you wish Experiment, rearrange, 
"cut and paste" between trial screens. 
That's the kmd of versatility you get And 
even after your program is complete, you 
can change your mind With The Producer 
you can edit and refine finished programs 
without starting over That's a real time 
saving 

What Are Some Other 

Outstanding Features 

Of The Producer? 

• Our B-Tree file structure gives extremely 
fast access to data, allows global search 
and replace.dataentry by batch mode and 
automatic file rebuilding 

• The Screen Generator is the best 
anywhere at any price and gives full 
screen control including graphics You 
can add. insert, or delete, and move blocks 
of text on screen and between screens 

• All math calculations are supported 
including subtotals and global 
recalculations. 

• The Freeform Report Generator gives 
you an amazing versatility to design text 
placement, interfield calculations, and 
formats You can even print reports on 
your standard forms 

• Ttie Producer package also includes a 
free Home Inventory program and a one 
year subscription to The Produce' 
Newsletter 




Producer Software, Box 12-15 Ar: 



;xas T6004 



Uwning a computer program that writes programs for you 

mav seem like a science fiction dream. 

But tnal*s exactly what The Producer does. 

You can now enjoy professional quality programs, 

custom written for your specific needs! 

Here's a sampling of what Producer users are saying: 



"This program has paid for itself over 
and over." People tell us this 
''ipeatedly First time computer users 
Kivo successfully been able to 
■jcrierale programs with The Producer 
ihat rival the professional quality of 
programs available through 
commercial sources 

"There are only two Ihing^ you need 
to -idy dboul The Producer: it's easy to 
u^e and it's powerful!" The woman who 
lold us this had used several 
computers before but had no 
programming experience Now she is 
saving time, money and effort by 
creating the programs she needs lor 
her office, 

OwninR The PROOUCER is like 
having <) profi'ssion.il programmer on 
<all-^4 hours a da v. I partUularlylike the 
tad that if I desii^n a program to do a 
'•perific job lodav, and later discover it is 
inadequate lo m\ changing needs. I can 
regenerate the program with 
corrections in a matter of minutes.' 
Thats right Tf^e PRODUCER qives 
you the ability to edit or expand your 
programs in any way you choose 

The screen generator alone is worth 
the price! I created a professional data 
entry screen in minutes just after 
opening the package." With our screen 
generator, you are the artist and you 
are never locked into what someone 
else has designed for you. 

"How did I ever live without it." This 
often heard quote comes from 
experienced programmers who are 
now using The Producer to generate 
programs in a fraction of the time it 
previously took to them to write 
programs 



"The Freeform Report Generator is an 
amazing feature. I never thought a 
product like this could give me the 
ability lo gel reports on my preprinted 
forms, but The Producer does il all." 
Yes. you can put the text anywhere on 
the page you want, do up to lOO 
inlertieid calculations, etc. And the 
Freeform is now a part of The 
PRODUCER package. 




OTHER QUOTES 

FROM PRODUCER USERS 

The PRODUCER package I received 
was excellent. The finest software 
package I have ever purchased. Far 
beyond my expectations." 

S R Foster, Pensacola. Florida 

"I'm in love with The PROOUCER. It's 
one of my favorite programs." 

R Selsback Burlingame, California 

"The value of the deal, everything 
included, was the best I've seen to dale." 

G Slusher, Martin, Kentucky 

"Excellent! Above and beyond other 
software." 

R Hapgood. Henrietta. Texas 



"The PRODUCER is the best all 
purpose program generator 1 have used. 

(We have tried .ilmost all of them). The 
generated code is bug free, well 
commented and etfirienl." 

A, Copella, Northbrook, Illinois 

"This is by far my number one 
software and I will use il anywhere and 
everywhere I possibly can, both 
personal and in business." 

R A Neuman, Okemos. Michigan 



The program I created with The 
Producer meets my needs exactly and I 
can ( hange it easily as different 
conditions require. You can't do that 
with other software." 

Neal Bloomenfader 

"One of the best I've setn. We write 
about 20 volumes of material per year. 
Take il from a pro, it's good." 

J. Crespi. Sherman Oaks, California 



"Thank you for an excellent program. 
I agree that The PRODUCER will change 
the entire concept of program creation 
in the future. But for now. you stand as 
the best data base management system I 
can buy." 

E Sung. Vancouver, B.C 

"I think The PRODUCER will make 
the software hackers upgrade their 
products lo this high level quality of the 
PRODUCER. I'm sure you realize that 
there is a lot of garbage on the market." 
D J. Smith, Lombard, Illinois 

"The Producer is among the best 
systems I have used in ten years of 
professional data processing." 

Dennis R Cutshall, APO NY 



New from Producer Software 
THE DATA SHUFFLER $34.95 

All purpose Sort/Merge program 

Many of you have been asking for it, so here it is. With Data 
Shuffler you can perform powerful sort and merge functions in 
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Sorts key size up to 256 bytes • Does up to 9 sort keys m 
ascending and' or descending order • Includes a complete sort 
parameter builder program, etc. 

Data Shuffler is available now for TRS-80 Models I. Ml- and 4 

Call us to place your order for immediate shipment 



The PRODUCER 

The Professional Program Writer ^/6 

TRS-80 Model I Version 
TRS-80 Model III Version ifllOQ Q^^ 
TRS-80 Model IV Version *^ JJ*^-^ 

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1-800-433-5355 Texas (817) 274-6998 



We accept money orders, cashier s checks, VISA. Master Card and American Express 



LITTLE 
WONDER 



by Alain Cirkovic 

This 200'record data base manager 

resides completely in RAM, giving you fast access 

to information and letting you scroll through the entire data base. 



Wi hat's in a name? A 
f lot in the case of 
Easydata, my Model 
1/111/4 data base man- 
agement program. Jusi 
as its name implies, 
Easydata gives you easy 
access to anything from 
phone numbers and addresses to a list 
of the books you've read to a catalogue 
of your stamp collection. It holds up to 
200 records of nine fields each. The pro- 
gram lets you create, extend, edit, 
search, print, display, and format files 
or selected records. 

Easydata is a memory-resident data 
base manager; thai is, all of the data 
base files reside in RAM, making data 
retrieval fast. In addition, you can scroll 
through the entire data base, much Like 
you'd scroll through a Scripsit docu- 
ment. 

The Model I/III/4 program uses 48K 
of memory, but 32K will suffice if you 
reduce the size of the files allowed. It 
works with any DOS, printer, or key- 
board drivers that use the standard In- 
put and Print commands. The program 
contains numerous error-checks that 
help pre\ent conunon mistakes, and 
you can call the command menus at any 
time. Easydata keeps track of any 



changes made, and reminds you to save 
your data before quitting the program. 

Structure 

Easydata organizes information into 
files and stores them on disk. It divides 
each file into records, and each record 
into fiekls. For example, you might 
have a name and phone number file 
with 50 names and numbers (50 records) 
divided into three fields: last name, first 
name, and phone number. 

Easydata uses sequential, rather than 
random-access files. This way, it's easi- 
er to use your data base files with other 
Bask: programs, and to edit them with a 
word processor if you want. 

To use Easydata, type in the Program 
Listing and save it with the command 
SAVE "EASYDATA". Then type in 
RUN "EASYDATA" from BasK. The 
main menu will ^pear on the screen, 
outlining your four options: creating a 
new file, reading an existing file, listing 
the files on disk, and quitting Easy- 
data. Note that pressing the F key prints 
a directory of all files on disk. The 
command for this is in line 380 of the 
Program Listing. The "DIR" is for 
DOSPLUS and NEWDOS, while in 
TRSDOS, "DIR" must be changed 
to "D". 



Creating a FUe 

When creating a file, Easydata first 
asks you for a file name. If you don't 
supply an extension for the name, the 
program adds the default /DTA. If you 
don't supply a drive number, Easyda- 
ta uses the drive number specified in 
line 85. 

Then Easydata prompts you for the 
number of fields you want in each rec- 
ord and asks you to label each field. 
You can't change the number of fields 
once you've created a file. 

Easydata automatically numbers 
each fiekl within a record. If you had a 
record with fiekls for name, address, 
and phone number, for instance, it 
would appear as: 

1. NAME: 

2. ADDRESS: 

3. PHONE: 



The Key Box 

Models I. m, and 4 
48KRAM 

Disk Basic 
One disk drive 
Printer (optional) 



l6*PW 



so Micro, December 1984 • 73 



Program Listing. Easydala/BAS 



10 CLEAR200:CLS:PRINTSTRINGS(63,"*') :PBINT:PRINT 

20 PRINT TAB(27) ;"EASYDATA":PRINT:PRINT 

3fl PRINT TAB(26) ;"VERSION 2.0" : PRINT: PRINT 

40 PRINT TAB(23);"BY ALAIN CIRKOVIC : PRINT: PRINTiPRINTSTRINGS (63 , ' 

•■) 

50 FOR X=l TO 1000:NEXT 
60 CLEAR 10000 
70 DIM AS(9,200) ,I$(20) 
80 MD=1 ' highest drive number 
85 DFS="1" 'default drive for files 
200 REM *•* Main menu entry point *** 
210 CLS 

220 PRINT TAB(2) "(C) 
230 PRINT TAB(2) ' (R) 
240 PRINT TAB(2) "(F) 
250 PRINT TAfl(2) " (Q) 
IF AS11,0)=" 



260 

270 PRINT TAB[2) " 



350 
360 
370 
3 80 



IF YC-4 
IF VC=6 
IF YC=-7 



RECORD (# OF FIELDS) "jNI 



CREATE A NEW FILE" 

READ AN EXISTING FILE" 

FILES ON DISK" 

QUIT EASYDATA" 
THEN 310 

E) EXTEND AN EXISTING FILE" 
280 PRINT TABt2)"(D) DISPLAY/EDIT/DEL. /SEARCH " 
290 PRINT TAB(2)"(S) SAVE FILE IN MEMORY" 
300 PRINT TAB(2)"(P) PRINT/DISPLAY FILE" 
310 yCS=INKEY$:IF YC5="" THEN 310 
315 YCS=CHRS(ASC{YC5) AND 223) 
320 YC=INSTR( "CRFEDSPQ'fYC^) 
330 IF YC=0 THEN 210 
340 IF YC^S THEN 3000 
THEN 4000 

THEN GOSUB e000:GOTO 210 
THEN GOTO 6000 
IF YC=3 THEN CLS : INPUT'WHICH DRIVE";D:IF D>WD THEN 210 ELSE QS 
="DIR "+STR$(D) :CMD QS:LINEINPUT Q$:GOTO210 
390 IF YC=8 THEN 15010 
400 IF YCOl AND YC<>2 THEN 21B 
410 CLS 
420 PM=0 

500 REM **• Filename query *•* 

510 LINEINPUTTILENAME: "iFLS:IF FL$-"" THEN 210 

520 IF INSTR(FLS,':") <>0 THEN DNS"RIGHT$ ( FLS rl) : FL$=LBFTS(FLS,LE 
N(FLS)-2) :ELSE DNS=DFS 

538 IF INSTR(FLS,"/')=0 THEN FL$=FLS+"/DTA" 
540 FLS"=FLS + ":"tDN5 
550 CLS:PHINT"FILENAME: "fFLS 
560 IF YC=2 THEN GOTO 2000 
570 INPUT'NUMBER OF ITEMS IN EACH 
580 PRINT 
590 FOR X-1 TO NI 

600 PRINT"FIELD NAME »"rXiiINPUT A${X,0) 
610 NEXT X 
620 Y=l 

630 GOSUB 1000 
640 GOTO 210 

1000 REM **• Create a new file •** 
1010 CLS 

1020 F-0:G=0:HAX=0 

1100 REM **• Entty point for extend •** 
1110 CLS:PRINT"RECORD •"fYsPRINT 
1120 FOR X-1 TO NI 

1130 PRINT AS(X,0);': " ; iLINEINPUT" "; AS(X,Y) 
1140 IF AS(X,Y)="END" OR AS (X , Y) -"end" THEN X=NI:F=1 
1150 NEXT X 
1160 PRINT 

1170 QS-"" : INPUT" 'ENTER' IF OK, 'E' TO EDIT"|QS 
1180 IF QS = "E" THEN GOSUB5000: F'=0 
1190 Y-Y+l:G=G4l 
12B0 IF F-0 THEN GOTO 1110 
1210 MAX=y-2 
1220 RETURN 

2000 REM *** Reading in a file *•* 
2010 G<'0 

2020 OPEN "I",*1,FLS 
F-0!Y=0 
INPUT 11, NI 
2050 FOR X=l TO NI 

2060 IF EOF(l) THEN X-NI ; F-l iGOTO 2080 
2070 LINEINPUT »1,AS(X,Y) 
20 80 NEXT X 
Y=Y+1 

IF F-fl THEN GOTO 2050 
2110 CLOSE 
2120 MAX=Y-2 
2130 GOTO 210 

3B8B REH *** Display routine **• 
3010 Y=l 



2030 
2040 



2090 
2100 



1.151 mg conlinued 




Easydata uses these numbers later in the 
program during editing and printing. 

After you type in each record. Easy- 
data gives you the option of editing it . If 
you don'l need to do so, you can con- 
tinue with the next record. 

When you've finished inputting data 
for the entire file, t>pe in END and 
press the enter key. The program then 
display's an extended main menu that in- 
cludes all the options mentioned above 
and four other commands: a command 
to extend the size of your data base, a 
Display command (with subcommands 
for record maintenance), a command to 
save the file to disk , and a command to 
print and display a record according to 
a format you define. 

The Extend Command 

The Extend command lets you add 
records to a file. It works identically to 
data entry in the Create mode. To E.\- 
tend a file, first read the file into memo- 
ry, and then type in E from the main 
menu. 

Display Mode Commands 

After reviewing this menu, you 
should first save your file with the S 
key. Then press the D key to get a se- 
quential display of each record in the 
data base. In this mode, you can use the 
up- and down-arrows to scan through 
the file one record at a time. You can 
move easily from the beginning or end 
of the file by using shift /down -arrow 
keys {you may have to use shift/down- 
arrow and Z keys for the Models I and 
III), or shift /up-arrow keys. 

In the Display mode, a list of sub- 
commands appears below the record 
entry. They are Edit, Delete, Restore, 
Menu, Search, Get, Put, and #. 

Edit lets you change the contents of 
any field. You can even edit the names 
you assigned a record's fields by using 
the # command to go to record IfO, 
which displays the assigned field names. 



74 » 80 Micro, December 1984 



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CLS 

PRINT-RECORD •".-Y;" "; 

IF GRO0 THEN PRINT'GET RECORD IS #"jGR ELSE PRINT 

PRINT 

IF AS(0,Y)='X' THEN PRINT"*** DELETED RECORD ***' :GOT0312fl 

IF Y-MAX+1 THEN PRINT"*** END OF FILE **•" :GOTO3120 

FOR X-1 TO NI 

PRINT AS(X,0);": ";AS(X,Y] 

NEXT X 

PRINT : PRINT'COMMANDS : E,D,R,M,S,G,P,«" 

I$-INKEY$ 

IF IS-"" THEN 3120 

IF INSTR("edrinsgp",I$) THEN IS-CHRS(ASC(I$) AND 223) 

IF IS-CHR5(91) THEN Y-Y-1:IF Y<1 THEN Y-l 

IF IS-CHRS(10) THEN Y-Y+1 

IF IS-"#' THEN 1NPUT"G0 TO RECORD NUHBER";Y:1F Y<0 THEN Y-0 

IF Y>KAX+1 THEN Y-MAX+1 

IF Y-KAX+1 THEN 3240 

IF 1S-"E" THEN GOSUB500fl 

IF I$-"D" THEN 7000 

IF IS-'R" THEN AS{0,Y)-"" 

IF IS-"K" THEN 210 

IF I$-"S" THEN 10000 

IF IS-"G" THEN GOSUB 11000 

IF IS-'P" THEN GOSUB 11070 

IF IS-CHR5(27) THEN Y-1 

IF I$-CHRS(26) THEN Y=HAX 

GOTO 3020 

RETURN 

REM *** Extend routine *** 

CLS 

Y-MAX+1 iF=0 

GOSUB1110 

GOTO 210 

REN EDITING ROUTINE 

CLS 

FOR X-1 TO NI 

PRINT XiA$(X,0) ;": ";AS(X,y) 

NEXT X 

PRINTiPRINTiPRINT"** EDITING MODE **" 

INPUT "CHANGE NUMBER (0 FOR DISPLAY)"; EC 

IF EC<1 THEN RETURN 

IF EONI THEN 5060 

G-G+1:LINEINPUT"T0 WHAT?" ; AS(EC,Y) 

GOTO 50 

REM •** Save routine *** 

CLS 

G-0:PRINT"PRESS 'ENTER' IF "iFLSf" IS CORRECT" 

PRINT:LINEINPUT"OR TYPE NEW FILENAME "lNF5 

IF NF$<>"" THEN PLS-NFS 

OPEN "0",#1,FLS 

PRINT »1,NI 

FOR Y-0 TO MAX 

IF A$(fl,Y)="X' THEN 6120 

FOR X-1 TO NI 

PRINT #1,A5(X,Y) 

NEXT X 

NEXT Y 

CLOSE 

RETURN 

REH *•* Delete record *** 

IF Y-0 THEN 3020 

IS-" 

CLS 

FOR X-1 TO NI 

PRINT XjAS(X,B);"i "lAStXjY) 

NEXT X 

PRINTiPRINTiPRINT"** DELETE MODE **' 

QS-""iINPUT"ARE YOU SURE YOU WANT TO DELETE THIS RECORD ( Y/N) " 

IF LEFT$(Q$,1) <>"Y" AND LEFTS (QS, 1) <>"y' THEN 3020 

A$(0,Y)-"X" 

G-G+1 

GOTO 3020 

REM **• Print/display records **• 

CLS 

ODS-"iINPUT"PRINTER (P) OR SCREEN {S)"jODS 

IF ODS-'P" OR ODS-"p" THEN OD— 2 ELSE OD-0 

CLS!PRINT"THESE ARE THE FIELDS; " iPRINT 

FOR X-1 TO NI 

PRINTXiA$(X,0} 

NEXT X 

PRINTiPRINT"» ■= FIELD NUM." 

PRINT"CR - CARRIAGE RETURN." 

PRmT"«>9 = TAB POSITION." 

PRINT"PRESS 'ENTER' WHEN FINISHED." 

Lislinn conlinued 




By then getting into the Edit mode, you 
can change the field labels. 

Delete doesn't actually delete a rec- 
ord, but marks it so that it's ignored by 
the Print/Display and Save commands. 
You can restore a deleted record by 
moving to the deleted record (marked 
"Deleted Record") and pressing the R 
key. Once you save the file back to disk, 
however, the record is permanently 
deleted. 

Search scans your file, looking for a 
string you typed in as the target. This 
command uses a substring search; for 
example, it locates the "ell" in "hello". 
You must type in exactly what you want 
to find, including capital letters. When 
Easydala finds a match, it displays the 
appropriate record. To search through 
the entire file, you must start at the be- 
ginning of the file. The search for the 
same target will continue if you press 
the enter key when you're prompted for 
the target. 

The Get and Put commands let you 
move records. When moving a record, 
first go to the beginning of the record 
you want to move and type in G. The 
message "Get record is NN" (where 
NN is the appropriate record number) 
appears at the top of the screen. Now 
move to the desired insert position. 
Press P and Easydala inserts the record 
just ahead of the one you're looking at. 
To put a record at the end of a file, 
move to the end-of-file marker and 
press P. If you want to cancel a Get 
command, move to the end of the file 
and press G. 

The Print/Display Command 

The only other command that re- 
quires explanation is Print/ Display. 
This lets you format and print out or 
display seleaed fields of each record. 
When you select the Print/Display op- 
tion from the main menu, you're shown 
each of the fields in the records of the 
file you're working on. The numbers of 



76 • 80 Micro. December 1984 



Learn to Program Like a Professional! 

THE COMPLETE BOOK OF RANDOM ACCESS 
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Written for TRS-80 - 1, II, & III - IBM "/PC - APPLE^" M/S - OSBORNE"' - HEATH " - DEC'- - 
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• The creation ol a basic record * Hashcoded data tile manipulation -- (probably the fastest method of 

• The FIELD and LSET routines lor buffer preparation data relneval). Hashing the input key and recovery method explained 

• Disk storage of random access records • Span-blocking techniques allow creation of records longer than 256 

• Changing or editing stored records bytes wuhoui wasted space 

• The LPRINT capability from disk using three different formats • Blocking & Deblocking 

• Sorting the random file • Shelt-Metzner sort 

• Searching by name or key field • In-place screen editing 

• Search m next" or priof" fashion • Recovery of deleted record space 

• Purging deleted records • Alpha-index record retrieval 

• Using disk file data for calculations • Fast machine language/BASIC sort 

• Future expansion of data fields • Linked list record structure and sort-merge, deleted record removal 

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Listing continued 

8120 PRINT 

8130 IF PH>9 THEN PRINT'Control String is "mFOR 1=1 TO PMjPRINT I 

S(I) ;■ "i:NEXT I 

8140 P=l 

8150 IS="":INPUT 1$ 

8160 IF IS-" AND P=l THEN 8220 

817B IS(P)=IS 

8180 IF IS(P)="" THEN 821B 

8190 P=P+1 

8195 IF P=19 THEN PRINT'Only 1 mote response left" ELSE IF P-2fl TH 

EN 8210 

8200 GOTO 8150 

8210 PH=P-1 

8228 PRINT: PRINT"ENTER to print all records,' 

8230 SES-":INPUT*'S' to selecfjSES 

8240 IF SE5="S" OR SE$-"s' THEN GOSUB 9000 

B250 CLS 

B260 FOR Y=l TO MAX 

8270 IF SE$="S" OR SE$-"a" THEN GOSUB 12000 ELSE T=l 

82 80 IF T-0 THEN 8400 

8290 IF AS(0,Y)="X" THEN 8480 

8300 FOR P=l TO PM 

8305 IF 0D=-2 THEN GOSUB 8500 

8310 IF IS(P)="CR" THEN PRINTsGOTO 8360 

8320 V=VAL(IS(P)) :IF V<0 THEN V-0 

8330 IF V=0 THEN PRINT I${P) ; :GOTO8360 

8340 IF V>9 THEN PRINT TAB(V);:GOTO 8360 

8350 PRINT AS(V,Y) ;" "; 

8360 NEXT P 

8370 QS=INKEYS 

8380 IF OD=fl AND QS-'" THEN 8370 

8390 IF QS^'H" OR Q$="m" THEN Y=MAX;QS="" 

8400 NEXT Y 

8410 IF OD=0 THEN PRINT!PRINT"** END OF FILE **" : LINEINPUT Q$ 

8420 GOTO 210 

8500 '*•* Send output to printer *•* 

8510 IF 1S(P)="CR" THEN LPRINT" ":GOTO 8560 

8520 V=VAL(IS(P) ) ;IF V<0 THEN V-0 

8530 IF V=fl THEN LPRINTI$ (P) ; :GOTO8560 

8540 IF V>9 THEN LPRINT TAB(V};:GOT0 8566 

8550 LPRINT A5(V,Y);" "; 

8560 RETURN 

9000 REM •** Set up conditions *** 

9010 CLS 

9020 FOR X=l TO NIjPRINT X; A$ (X ,0) sNEXT XiPRINT 

9030 FOR J-1 TO 3 

9040 F(J)=0:C$(a)="-:SS{J)='" 

9050 NEXT J 

9060 L1S="-:L2S="" 

9070 JJ=0 

9080 FOR J=l TO 3 

9090 JJ=JJ+1 

9100 INPUT"FIELD";F{a} iIF F(J)<1 THEN F(J}=1 ELSE IF F(J)>NI THEN 

F{J)=NI 

9110 INPUT'CONDITION (=,♦,>,<)' ;C$ (J) 

9120 IF INSTRC"=«<>',CS(J) )=0 THEN 9110 

9130 INPUT"COMPARE WITH";SS{J) 

9140 IF J=l THEN INPUT "CONNECTIVE (AND/OR) " ;Ll$ 

9150 IF LIS-"" THEN J=3:GOT0919fl 

9160 IF L1S<>"AND" AND LISO'OR" THEN 9140 

9170 IF J=2 THEN INPUT'CONNECTIVE (AND/OR) " ;L2$: IF L25="' THEN J=3 

:GOTO9190 

9180 IF J=2 THEN IF L2S<>"AND" AND L2$<>"0R" THEN 9170 

9190 PRINT:NEXT J 

9200 RETURN 

10000 REM **•* Search routine •** 

10010 PRINT:PRINT:PR1NT'** SEARCH MODE *'" 

10020 PRINT"TARGET " ";TS 

10030 INPUT'NEW TARGET";NTS 

10040 IF NTS<>" THEN TS=NT$ 

10050 Y=Y+1:IF Y>MAX THEN Y=MAX : PRINT'NOT FOUND"iFOR J-1 TO 7B0:NE 

XT J:GOTO 3020 

10060 FLAG'=0 

10070 FOR X-^1 TO NI 

10080 IF INSTR(A$(X,Y} ,TS)<>e THEN X=NI:FLAG-1 

10090 NEXT X 

10100 IF FLAG=0 THEN 10050 

10110 GOTO 3020 

11000 REM *•• Get & put •** 

11010 IF Y=MAX+1 THEN GR=0:RETURN 

11020 GR=Y 

11030 FOR X'^B TO NI 

11040 TEMP$(X)= AS(X,Y) 

11050 NEXT X 

11060 RETURN 



Lstmi! continued on p. S2 




the fields are also displayed. Then 
you're asked to develop a print control 
string. The print control string controls 
the order in which Easydata prints a rec- 
ord's fields and where they end up on 
paper or the screen. Type in the ele- 
ments oi this string one item at a time, 
pressing the enter key after each item. 

Easydata will prompt you to enter the 
first field number you want printed. 
You enter a number from zero to nine 
to specify the field, a number above 
nine to tab to a specific column (tabs be- 
yond 64 won't work properly on the 
Model I), a carriage return (CR) to start 
a new line, or any text string you want 
printed as is; you must enclose the string 
in quotes if it contains commas, semico- 
lons, or colons. After typing in the print 
control string, hit the enter key twice 
(once for the last item, and once to initi- 
ate the actual printing). 

For example, say you have a record 
that appears as: 

1. LAST NAME: Smilh 

2. nRSTNAME: John 

3. CITY: Westmoum, Quebec 

4. POSTAL CODE: HSJ 2J5 

5. PHONE: 555-1234 

When you answer the question-mark 
prompts in the Print/Display mode 
with 2, 1, 15, "Phone:", 5, CR, 4, CR, 
the printout will appear as: 



John Smith 
H5J2J5 



Phone:555-1234 



When printing the results, output is 
continuous until the end of the file. If 
you want the results displayed on 
screen, however, you'll have to press the 
enter key to display each new record. In 
either case, pressing and holding the M 
key returns you to the main menu. 

Easydata lets you reuse the same 
print control string as often as you like. 
To do so, press the enter key when 
you're asked to supply a new print con- 



78 ■ 80 Micro, December 1984 



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INAME DESCRIPTION 

1 RCILETH kiiMcst Apporttonment by Rule of the 78's 

2 AMtiCl 1 Annuity computation ptogrttn 

3 CtME Time brt»««i doln 

4 DAYYEAR Day ol yew a pwticutar dote ttUs on 

5 lJL*£EIhT Imetest t/ne on leM« 
G BREAKEVn Bcutwvm anolyas 

7 DEPRSL Sti^ghtine depreiiiobon 

a DEPRSV Sum erf the Oigti depieCMtJon 

9 DEPRDB Dnlming balvicc deprccubon 

10 DEPRDD6 DoiMe dectnng balance deprvo«jon 

I ) TAXDEP Oah now vs depfeoobon uMes 

1 2 CHECK2 PnrKs NEBS d>«ki ^ong w«h dnly register 

13 CHECKBKI Chci:kbook mainlenonce program 

14 MORTGAGE. ^ Mortg^e amortuabofi table 

1 5 MCILT^^OfS Computes lime rweded for money to douWe, tnpk. 

16 SALVAGE Detemiirws salvage vdue Ol an investment 

17 RRVARIM RiKe of return on investment with vanaWe inflows 

1 8 RRCOMST Rate ol return on investment with constant inflows 

19 EFFECT Effective interest rote of a loan 

20 FVAL Future value of an rvestment (compound «iteTe*l| 

2 1 FVAL Present value ol s future amount 

22 LOATHPAY Amount of payment oti a toan 

23 REGWirH Equal withdrawah from investment to leave over 

24 SVAPDISK Srrvte discount aWysn 

25 DATEVAL Eijurwilenl 6 nooequiwalent dated values fbt oUig. 

26 ANrKJDtF Present value of deferred annuties 

27 MARKU* X /^Vartiup analysn lor Hems 

28 Sa^KFUMD Sintong fu.id amoftudtxxi program 

29 BOfiDVAL Value of a bond 

30 DEPLETE Deptetxxi arulysa 

31 Bt^CKSH Black Schotes optjorts dnalysn 

32 STOCV.^1 Expected retum on slock via Ascounts dividerxfa 

33 WMWAL Value trf o n.'aiianl 

34 BOf1DVAL2 Value of a borwJ 

35 EPStST Estimate cf future earnings per share lor company 

36 BETAALPH Computes alpha and beta vanaUes lor stock 

37 SHARPtI Portfolio setectxxi model i.e wh* stocks to IwkJ 
3B OPTWRFTE Optton wming computations 

39 RTVAL Value of a nght 

40 EXfVAL tjtp*cled value analysis 

41 BAYES Bayesian decisions 

42 VALPRIMF Value of perfect infonnabor 

43 VALADIMK Value of additional irrforniatwn 

44 ITTILITV [Jenves unity furntjon 

45 SWPLEJC Lr>e»r progrHmming sokibon by simplex method 
4b TRAILS Tiansportatkxi method for linear programming 

47 EOO Eionomtc order quantity inventory model 

48 QUEUE I N'lgle server queuetng (waiOng Hne) mudH 

49 CVP Cos<«*jmeproft aiWysts 

50 COMJPkO CorwWiond profit t^>les 

51 OPTLObb Oppcrtumfy k)ss tables 

%2 FQUOQ Fixed quantity ecorKxnic order quantity modd 

53 l-QtOWbH Ai above but »rth shortages perm^ed 

54 FQtUUPB As ab€7tv but kith quantity pnce breaks 

55 QUEUECB Cost benefit wating Ine ar^^ysis 

56 riCFAMAL Net cash fkj* andfysts tor sirnjle «ivestmer< 

57 PROFIMD Ptolilflbtlfty indea of a project 

58 CAPI Cap Asset Pr )"todel analysis of project 



59 WACC Weighted average cost of capilaJ 

60 COWBAL True r*e on loon wHh compensating bal required 

61 DtSCBAL True rale on discounted loan 

62 MERGANAL Merger analysis computations 

63 F^RAT Financial ratw* for a firm 

64 NFV rSei present vakie of project 

65 PRIMDLAS Laspeyres price indot 

66 PRnDPA Paasche pnce irvJex 

67 SEASIND Constructs seasortal quantity indices for company 
66 TIMETR Time sencs ar^alysa lir»ear tier^ 

69 TIMEMCV Tjme serws arulysts moving average trend 

70 FUPRfiF Future pnce esfimation with irAalKxi 

71 MALPAC Ma*r^ Itsl system 

72 LETWfTT Letter wrMig syrtem-inla with MAILPAC 

73 SOfiT3 Sorts lot of names 

74 LABELl Sh4>pn<g label n^aker 

75 LABQ-2 Marrw labd maker 

76 BUS6UD DtDME busneu booldieeping system 

77 TIMECLCK Computw w«ek& total houre from Hmeciock irfo 

78 ACCTPAY hi memory acccH^^ payable system storage permuted 

79 WTOtCE Generate invotce on screen and pont on pnrter 
BO rfVENT2 In menwry invcrtory control system 

81 TtLDlR Computerued telephone directory 

82 TIMUSAM Time use analysis 

83 ASSIGN Use of assignrnent algorithm for optimal job asslgr^. 

84 ACCTREC In memory accoints receivable system-storage ok 

85 TERMSPAY Compares 3 methods of repayment of loans 

86 PAVMET Computes gross pay requred for given net 

87 SELLPR Computes sellw>g price for given after lax arxHjnt 

88 ARBCOMP .*jtntrage compilatiorK 
69 OEPRSF Sulking fund depreciatton 

90 UPSZOfiE Fmds UPS tones from np code 

91 ENVELOPE Types envelope inckiding retum address 

92 AOTOEXP Automobile experue ar^alysis 

93 mSfVE Insurance pokey fte 

94 PAYROLL2 kn memory payroi system 

95 Dfl-AMAL Dik<KNi analysis 

96 LOAMAfr-U Loan arrvxint a borrower can ^o>d 

97 RENTPRCH Purchase pnce for rental property 
96 SALELEAS SoletoasebKk analysis 

99 RfKOITVBD kiuestor's rate d letum on comntaMe t>ond 

100 PORTVAL9 Stock rrwket portfolio storage-vakiatkxi program 



D TRS-80 Cassette Version $99.95 

D TRS'80 (Mod-I or III). Pet, Apple 

or Atari Versions $99.95 

D TRS-80 Mod-ll, IBM, Osborne 

and CP/M Versions $149.95 

ADO tJ.OO FOfI 5HII>PtNO IN UPS AREAS 

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ALL FtttCES A SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CMANOE 
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See List ol A(}vertiS6rs on Page 192 



80 Micro. December 1984 • 79 



trol string. After selecting the print for- 
mat parameters, you're asked to press 
the enter key if you want to print or dis- 
play the entire file, or to select (S) cer- 
tain portions of the file. 

If you choose to display or print only 
certain sections of the file, Easydata dis- 
plays a new set of prompts to selectively 
retrieve only specified files. You can 
specify search parameters with the fol- 
lowing three criteria; field, condition, 
and comparison. First, you're asked to 
type in the number of the field you want 
used for comparison. Then you have to 
specify one of the following conditional 
elements: equal to, not equal to, less 
than, and greater than. Note that com- 
parisons based on numbers must have 
the same number of digits as all items 
are stored in strings. 

Finally, you're asked to specify the 



string that Easydata will use for com- 
parison. To enter a null string, type in 
" ". The connectives And and Or let 
you join the criterion so that you can 
make your selections as specific as you 
want. When you're finished inputting, 
press the enter key to start the selection 
process. 

Final Notes 

Easydata does place limitations on 
the size of files and records. A file can 
hold a total of 10,000 characters, con- 
sisting of a maximum of 200 records 
with nine fields in each. Any item can be 
up to 200 characters long. If you need 
more record space you can change the 
DIM A$(9,200) in line 70 of the Pro- 
gram Listing. This only works if you 
have very few fields. For example, if 
you have four fields in 400 records, you 



could change DIM A$(9,200) to DIM 
A$(4,400) to gain space to increase the 
number of records. 

You can adapt Easydata to other ma- 
chines. If you want to use another ma- 
chine, watch the Program Listing for 
these crucial lines: the file opening com- 
mands in lines 2020 and 6050; the direc- 
tory command in line 380, the values 
returned by the arrow keys in lines 3140, 
3150, 3260, and 3270; and the printing 
routine in lines 8500-8560. 

To use Easydata in Model 4 mode, 
change line 3140 from CHR$<91) to 
CHR$(11), and line 380 from CMD Q$ 
to System 0$. ■ 



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90 • 80 Micro, December 1984 




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Computer Can Protect Its Data — 



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The most advanced disk drive 
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Until recently, only trained technicians using 
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computer's technician. 

IVlemory Minder is the most comprehensive disk 
diagnostic program available for microcomputers. 
With Memory Minder, you can periodically test 
disk drives to monitor long-term drift of head 
alignment, index hole timing, spindle speed, 
directional seek, and many other parameters. 
Then, if your head is out of alignment. Memory 
Minder can accurately align it once again. Early 
detection and correction of these problems will 
help protect you against costly data loss and 
down time. 

And with Memory Minder, you don't need a 
technical background to perform these tests. 
Simply follow the easy instructions in the 
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use state-of-the-art software to care for your 
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IVlemory Minder is currently available for IBM. 
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Id like more Informalion on Memorv Minder 

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Send me mlonrialion on other line produtb. 



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See List of Advertisers an Page 192 



80 Micro. December 1984 • 81 



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t CKW I:RT mod III BAJilC 
MOD 4 IBMFC T.\.\DY2000 

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programs to run on any o( these new machines 
The programs are menu dnven very easy to use and automatically 
Iranslate 95»u or more ot even your largest BASIC programs in 
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programs and files may be eicftanged between machines without modems 
Diskettes and guides ate packaged m deluxe three nng binders User Guides 
available separately tor those wtio wani complete details before ordenng 
entire package (S5 00 cash or MO only, creditea to subseqixnt pacliage order). 

TO ORDER. CALL NOW - TOLL FREEIExcept NJ) 
800-922-0786 

NJ residents, and local dealers: 201-879-5982 

EDUCATIONAL MICRO SYSTEMS, Inc. 

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a^S^ DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

Terms: VISA Mastercard MO, check, or COD Orders snipped wiiivn 24 

nrs Add $3 00 stiipping/handliog Add $1 65 'or COD. Foreign or first class 

I add tirsl class postage (package wt 2 i /4 lbs | N J residents add 6% sales ia« 




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82 • 80 Micro. December 1984 



LOG 

SUPERLOG and 

SUPERLOG 4 



KSott's Electronc Notebooks. Free-format informaDon manage- 
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A LOG or SUPERLOG Electronic Notebook is designed to replace 
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for I, III, 4 and 4P 
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MasterCard or Visa accepted 

Add S5.00 for shipping and handling 

Dealer inquries vi/elcome 



ITBSOOS 15 a ireoemart oi Tanay Corporationi 
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Before this happens, 
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80 Micro, December 1984 • 83 



DISK 



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S DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 

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pelles bettres 




Illustration by Dan Coiiin& 




esign your own character fonts and print 
out letters, graphics characters, and symbols in 
standard or double width. 



by Joseph Gaudreau 

One advantage of a daisy-wheel printer is thai you can use different print fonts to give your documents a distinctive, professional 
look. Those of us with dot -matrix printers haven't had that opt ion— until now . I wrote a Model l/III program that lets you design 
your own character sets and print them out in either standard-size or enlarged font (see Figs. 1-3). You can create any type of 
character you want, from liters to language symbols to high-resolution graphics characters. 

System Requirements 

To use the custom character generator, you need an Epson MX scries printer with any version of Graftrax and a 48K Model 
I or 111. ril discuss how to conven the main printer driver and editor programs for other graphics printers later. 

You can use these programs vvith any software that has a ROM-based characler driver. They won't run with a program that 
has its own charaaer driver, such as Scripsit, but you can change disk Scripsit so that it accepts an alternate character driver (see 
the Scripsit documentation). Tliese programs work without modification on Electric Pencil or Lazywriier. 

i used NEWDOS80 2.0 to run the character editor programs. Conversion to other DOSes is easy if your DOS lets you dump 
main memory from Basic to disk — simply rewrite the Save portion of the editor. 

If your DOS doesn't let you dump main memory from Basic, go to DOS Ready after you create your character set. You can 
compute the size of the set with the formula 57364 + 512*(characler width), and save it using the Dump command. This also 
works with tape or stringy floppy systems. 

The Programs 

Standard/EDT and Standard/DVR (Program Listings 1 and 2) arc. respectively, the editor and driver programs 

80 Micro, December 1984 • 87 






Figure I. An example of the script print style. 
TiO,^ cAo-n.ojLJUi_n. -ojeJt- A-a. IE *^ 10 <x*vdl -*_a 



q : ; < = >?eaBce)e5B 

aRflTTAMUXli%.T 1' •_ 



12 3 4- 

M Jt $? K I 

* a. &. jc A 

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E 7 B 

nop 

^ t ^ 



.s^^^UC^ 



Figure 2. An example of the digital print styfe. 

Thia is an eh amp I h □! the DtGtTflU /SET - 
The characiBrs in ihis aeT are dEmonslratBd 
baloiu. Thia characler set is IB btj !□ and ks 
betng prlnled In t ha amphas t eed moda • 



tlUI SrtHI UPFIil 



q: ; < = >?eflBCO 
qnsTUi'iUHyET i 

i iUlmnopqrst 



E F 



G H 



5 5 

m n 

a i 



7 fl 

a p 

g h 



- ---■J"r-si^-fcj»---,|^r^ 



Figure 3. An example of the Broadway print style. 




TIHTS T«; HTI IFXHIVILE (D(F TME (D(R(D(D(UFTY 1 /SET - 




TME (nHFIRHrTEDJS TITl TIHTS 'biLl HHL lULlITlLW Cb 1 IKH 1 lUU 




{HEILiDOJ. TIHTS (LMTRHC TiLlR ?^l AS lb lUf i la muj i^ 




frarrmiD iPiRiinTiEiD im the EirtPi)*isiziED oiaxaE. 


a 




'"#*■/.&'<: >* + ,-. /0123H5E7 


s: i < - >?epiD(i:iDElF(DIHIJIK[L[niDID 


P 


iDRSTaJIUIUKtZT i- •_' RCCIDEFID 


[H 


IJKlLOimDlPailRSTIUtllDJKYZ < I > " 






^ 



for printing standard-size characters (8 
by 6 pixels). The character driver lets 
you create a character set, but with the 
standard number of characters per line 
and lines per page. 

Double/EDT and Double/DVR (Pro- 
gram Listings 3 and 4) are the editor and 
driver programs for creating empha- 
sized characters twice the normal size 
(16 by 12 pixels). Program Listing 4 has 
a 16- by n-pixel matrix, and requires 
two passes of the print head to print one 
line of characters. The first pass prints 
the top half of the line and the second 
pass prints the bottom eight dots. The 
character width is variable and depends 
on the type of characters you draign. 

The driver programs in Listings 2 and 

M ■ SO Micro, December 1984 



4 automatically recognize the difference 
between the two print sizes. You can 
change the number of characters per 
line from DOS, Basic, or Assembly lan- 
guage, and you can have between one 
and the maximum character count per 
line. 

The computer calculates the maxi- 
mum character count per line by divid- 
ing the character width into 480. You 
can vary the spacing between lines, usu- 
ally by 8/72 of an inch, from 1/72 of an 
inch to the maximum value your printer 
allows. 

Using the Editor 

Both editor programs operate simi- 



larly. To run either editor, starl from 
DOS Ready, run the driver program for 
the desired editor, and enter Disk Basic. 
Then load and run the corresponding 
editor program. 

The editor will present a list of menu 
options and display random characters 
in the lower right-hand comer to 
prompt your input and to indicate that 
the program is running. 

The main menu in Listing 1 offers six 
options. Which option you choose de- 
pends on whether you're creating a 
character sel or editing an old one. 

Creating a Character Set 

To create a character set, clear char- 
acter memor>' (option 3) and enter the 
creation routine (option 6). A blinking 
cursor will appear in a window in the 
upper left-hand comer of the screen. 
You create and edit characters within 
this window. 

Use the arrow keys to move the cur- 
sor around the edit window. You 
"draw" your character with two keys: 
The S key sets the pixel at the cursor's 
current location, and the R key resets 
the pixel under the cursor. 

The clear key clears the edit window. 
You can use this to erase the current 
character and start over again from 
scratch. 

Once you've finished creating a char- 
acter, save it by pressing the T key. The 
T key invokes the Take subcommand 
and saves the character you designed. 
The Take command (and option 5) re- 
quire a specific input form. By entering 
a l-b\le response representing the 
character you want (e.g.. A, 8, or *), 
you can save the edit window to that 
character. 

Entering a 2- or 3-b\te number repre- 
senting the ASCI I value of the character 
also works, and it's u.seful for saving the 
edit window to a character you can't 
enter from the keyboard (for example, 
codes 0-31, the graphics characters, ar- 
rows, and so on). You can use any 
number from 0-255, as long as you put 
them in the correct locations. 

Once the program saves your charac- 
ter, clear the window to continue. 



The Key Box 



10*0 M 



Models I and HI 

48KRAM 

Disk Basic 

Assembly Language 

NEWDOS80 2.0 

Editor/ Assembler 

FpKon MX-SO wilh Graflrax 



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34DFa 



Program Listing I. Standard/EDT, the editor for the standard-size character driver. 



' Shape Editor for Char Set II - 
by Joseph Gaudreau on June 24, 1983. 

For the Model I TRS-80 with Newdos/80 and an 
Epson Mx-80 with Gcaftrax +. 



110 CMD"T":CLEAR5fl00 

120 CLS:ONERRORGOTO0:DEFINTA-Z:DIMZ(256,5) ,V(8) 

130 X0-12:YQ=11:W16 

140 PRINTTAB(W+10) ;"E D I T R — II' 

150 PHINTTAB(W) "<1> Load a previously created character set." 

160 PRINTTAB(W) "<2> Save the character set in memory." 

170 PRINTTAB(W) "<3> Clear character buffer." 

180 PRINTTAB(W) "<4> Print character set in memory." 

190 PRINTTAB(W) "<5> Display a character (ASCII/by character)." 

200 PRINTTAB(W) "<6> Edit character displayed in windpw." 

210 FORN-11TO24:SET(N,10) :SET(N,19) iNEXT 

220 F0RN=11T018:SET(11,N) :SET(24,N) :NEXT 

230 FORJ-0'PO7:V(J)-2[{7-J)!NEXT 

240 '--*=- 

250 P0KE16383,RND(254) : IFPEEK ( 14 463) =0THEN250ELSEAS-INKEY$ 

26 POKE163e3,32:IFAS<"l"ORAS>"6"THEN250 

270 A=VAL(AS) :ONAGOTO30B , 360 , 7 50 , 900 , 810 , 5 80 

280 : 

290 '— •=- LOAD DATA - = •=- 

300 PRINTe640, "Filename - ??? "; 

310 LINEINPUTFS:CMD"LOAD •+FS 

320 FORN=0TO25 5:T=N*6-40 96:FORJ'=0TO5 

330 Z{N,J) =PEEK(T+J) :NEXT:NEXT 

340 PRINT'File loaded and converted. 

Press <SPACE> to continue. ";: GOSUB420 :GOTO250 

350 '-=*=- SAVE DATA -=•=- 

360 PRINT§640, -Filename - ??? "j 

370 LINEINPUTFS 

3 80 FORN=0TO255:T=N*6-40 96:FORJ=0TO5 

390 POKET+J,Z(N,J) :NEXT:NEXT 

400 CHD"DUHP "+FS+",F80flH,F5FFH,402DH" 

410 PRlNT"File converted and saved. 

Press <SPACE> to continue. " :GOSUB420:GOTO250 

420 POKE163 83,RND{25 4) : IFPEEK ( 14463} -flTHEN4 20 ELSEPRINT§44 8, CHRS { 

31) J 

430 RETURN 

440 •-=*=- EDIT DATA IN WINDOW -=*=- 

450 YD=0:XD=0:W-PEEK(14400) : IFW-0THEN60fl 

460 1FWAND8THENYD=-1 

470 IFWAND16THENYD=1 

480 IFWAND32THENXD=-2 

490 IFWAND64THENXD=2 

500 IFWAND2THEN510ELSE520 

510 FORN-12T023:FORO=-11T018:RESET(N,0) iNEXTsNEXT: B"fl:GOT0598 

520 IFWANDlTHENGOSUB420:GOTO250 

530 IFYD-0ANDXD=0THEN590 

540 IFB=0THENRESET[XQ,YO) : RESET(XQ+1 , YD) ELSEB=0 

550 XQ=XQ+XD;YO=YQ+YD 

560 IFXQ<12THENXQ=12ELSEIFXQ>22THENX0=22 

570 IFYQ<11THENYQ-11ELSEIFYQ>18THENYQ-18 

580 IFPOINT(XQ,YQ) — ITHENB-'l 

590 RESET(XQ,YQ) : FORTT=1TO20 :NEXT:SET(XQ,YQ) !GOTO450 

600 W=PEEK{14340) :IFW=0THEM590 

610 IFW-4THENB=0:GOTO540 

620 IFW-aTHENSET(XQ,YQ) : SET(XQ+1 ,Y0) :B-1 

630 IFH=16THEN640ELSE450 

640 PRINTe586,""; :LINEINPUT"Save to what character (Letter/ASCII 

) ??? ";LS 

6 50 IFLEN(L$) =1THENSN=ASC ( LS) ELSESN-VAL ( L$) 

660 PRINT@64B, "Saving under ASCII number";SN;" — >"; 

670 POKE16042,ABS{SN) 

6 80 PRINT§532,""; : IFB=0THENRESET{XQ, YQ) 

6 90 FORX-12TO22STEP2:E=0:FORY=11TO18 
700 IFP0INT(X,Y)=-1THENE=E+V(Y-11) 
710 NEXT 

720 PRINTE; : Z(SN,X/2-C) =E 

730 NEXT:GOSUB420:GOTG450 

740 '-=•=- CLEAR BUFFER -=•=- 

750 PRINT@458,"Are you really sure ?? (Y/N)"; 

760 IFPEEK (14463) =0THEN760ELSEA$=INKEYS 

77 IFAS="Y"THEN7 90ELSEIFAS<>"N"THEN760 

780 GOSUB420:GOTO250 

7 90 FORN-0TQ255:FORO=0TO5:Z(N,O) =0 ! NEXT: NEXT: G0T07 80 
800 '-=*=_ DISPLAY A SINGLE CHARACTER -=•=- 

810 PRINT§522,""; :LINEINPUT"Load what character ??? "jLS 

820 IFLEN(LS) =1THENSN=ASC (LS) ELSESN=VAL ( LS) 

830 FORN=12T023:FORO=11T018:RESET(N,0! :NEXT:NEXT 

840 FORX=12TO22STEP2:FORY=0TO7 

850 IFZ(SN,X/2-6)ANDV(Y)THENe60ELSE870 

860 SET{X,Y+11) :SET{X+1,Y+11) 

Laiing I ajnlmutd 



To save the character set, return to 
the main menu by pressing the enter 
key. Then select option 2, name the 
character set, and save it to disk. Stringy 
floppy users can convert the save and 
load features without any trouble. 

Editing a Character 

Use option 1 to load an existing char- 
acter set from disk. Use option 6 to edit 
characters in the edit window. 

Use the arrow keys to move the flash- 
ing cursor inside the edit window. You 
can change the shape of the character 
using the S and R ke>^ to set and reset 
the pixels as before. The T key saves 
your edited character. 

Other Options 

Option 2 saves the character set cur- 
rently in the buffer to disk. Option 3 
clears the memory buffer. 

Option 4 prints out the current char- 
acter set for inspection. It's difficult to 
judge character size or shape in the edit 
window; a printout is a better way to 
critically assess the final product. 

Option 5 loads a character into a 
small edit window on the screen and 
asks you what character you want the 
computer to display. Press the key for 
the desired character to appear in the 
window. 

The emphasized-charaaer editor in 
Listing 3 has an additional option. Op- 
tion 7 changes the width of all charac- 
ters in a character set. You should use 
this command only when first running 
the editor. The legal values for width 
range from 1-14; the width routine re- 
jects all others. 

Design Hints 

One good tip for designing characters 
is to use proper spacing. Leave at least 
one blank vertical line on the left or the 
right of a character to make sure letters 
aren't connected together at print time. 

Also, design the character set on 
graph paper before entering it, and re- 
cord any changes you want to make. Be 
careful near the bottom of the edit win- 
dow because the imderline routine uses 
the second line from the bottom and 
can change your character. 

Figures 1, 2, and 3 contain examples 
of the kinds of print styles you can cre- 
ate. These figures show the script, digi- 
tal, and Broadway character styles, re- 
spectively. Check the card catalog at 
your local library under "lettering" as 
another source of character sets. Also, 
many ads, products, signs, and other 
commercial displays have imusual types 
of lettering to convey a different mood 
or effect. 



90-50 Micro. December 1984 



Standard-Character Driver 

When first activaied, ihe driver in 
Listing 2 sets memory size, changes the 
LPRJNT vector, and jumps back to 
DOS. Whenever the program prints a 
character, the ROM driver loads it into 
the C register and jumps to the 
LPRJNT routine. The driver initializa- 
tion routine then changes the address of 
the LPRINT routine from 4026 hexa- 
decimal (hex). 

When you type in a control code, the 
program checks to determine whether 
or not the control code flag is set . If it is, 
the program prints a control character. 

Control characters are E, F, Y, and 
Z. Lines 1300-1500 check for these let- 
ters and set or reset flags, depending on 
the control codes, and then return con- 
trol to the caller. If the program doesn't 
recognize the character that it's printing 
as a code, it prints an ampersand (&) in- 
stead. 

The driver recognizes the control 
codes &E. &F, &Y, and &Z. &E sets the 
dark print mode (960 dots per line). &F 
sets the defaults to the normal light 
mode. &Y activates the driver and alerts 
it to print all remaining text in your new 
alphabet. &Z deactivates the alternate 
alphabet and returns you to normal 
printer operation. The driver defaults to 
&Z on its first run. 

Don't mix &E and &F or &Y and &Z 
on the same line; you might lock up the 
printer by exceeding the maximum 
count. 

When the control code flag is inac- 
tive, the program determines whether or 
not it should set a control flag. The pro- 
gram returns to the calling routine when 
setting a flag. Otherwise, it assumes it 
has encountered an alphanumeric char- 
acter and prints it. 

Standard -Character 
Driver Routines 

The driver reads a carriage return or a 
line feed as an alphanumeric character. 
Both characters tell the driver to print 
the character buffer. If the program 
doesn't print the buffer, it sends the 
character to the printer buffer or to the 
driver buffer in high memory. 

The driver program controls this ac- 
tion with the AFLAG routine. When 
the driver sets the AFLAG to zero, the 
printer operates normally. The rest of 
the time, the alternate character set is 
active and the program sends the char- 
acter to LETTS, the internal buffer. 

The ALTSET routine stores the char- 
acter in the buffer, increments the char- 
acter count, and checks the maximum 
count. When the computer exceeds the 



/ isling I citfirinued 

870 NEXT:NEXT 

680 GOSUB420:GOTO250 

890 '-=•=- PRINT CHARACTERS TO PRINTER FOR SAMPLE -=*=- 

900 PRINTe458,"<N>orpal print or <E>mphasized ???" 

910 IFPEEK (14463) =0THEN910ELSEAS=IHKEYS 

92 IFA$-"H"THENLPRINT"i,y6f"ELSEIFAS = °E"THENLPRINT'&YiE"ELSE910 

925 FORN=33T037:LPRINTN;CHR$(N) ;" ";: NEXT: LPRINT 

927 W=0:FORN=39TO127 

929 LPRINTN;CHRS(N) ; " "; 

931 W=W+1: IFH=9THENW=0: LPRINT 

933 NEXT:LPRINT 

1000 LPRINT"fcZ":GOSUB420:GOTO250 

1010 : 

1020 ONERRORGOTO1O20 

1030 IFERL=310THENRESUHE300 

1040 RESUME1050 

1050 END 





Program Listing 2. 


Standard/ D VR, the standard-size 


•haracler driver. 






91000 


I Alternate 


Character Set Driver 












01010 


; By Joseph 


Gaudreau on June 24 


1983 


for 48k, Model I. 






01020 


;Allows use 


of different character 


sets on the Mx 1 






01030 


jsenes of printers with the Gra 


f trax 


option . 






01040 


; Commands - 














01050 


; Control Code is a "fc". 












01060 


; iE - 


Use emphasized mode when 


rn 


alternate set. 1 






01070 


; iF - 


Use normal type wnen in a 


Iternate set. | 






01080 


; iY - 


Use 3 


Iternate set. 






1 






01090 


; kl - 


Use normal printer set + 


corarnands , etc. 1 






01100 












1 






01110 














Ftee 




01120 


BUFFER 


EQU 


0F000H .-Alternatp 


character start 1 






01130 


J 












F7Bfl 




01140 




ORG 


0F70 0H 








F7ea 




01150 


Z START 


EQII 


S 








F700 


21BFF7 


01160 




LD 


HL, START 






jGet driver start 


F703 


22264H 


01170 




LD 


(4026H] ,HL 






;Set printer DCB 


F706 


21FEt:F 


01180 




LD 


HL,BUFFER-2 






jHIMEM value 


F709 


224940 


B1190 




LD 


(4049H) ,HL 






jSet MEM-SIZE 


F70C 


C32D40 


B1200 
01210 




JP 


402DH 






:Back to DOS 


F70F 




al 220 


STAKT 


EQU 


s 








F70F 


3A3AF8 


01230 




LD 


A,[CFLAG) 






jGet control flag 


F712 


B7 


ai240 




OB 


A 






;Test flag 


F713 


2B3 3 


01250 




JR 


Z . CMDS 






;Jamp no control 


F715 




01260 


CONTRL 


EQU 


S 








F715 


AF 


01270 




XOR 


A 






;A=0 


F716 


323AF8 


01280 




LD 


(CFLAG) ,A 






jReset flag 


F719 


79 


01290 




LD 


A,C 






;Get code 


F71A 




01300 


EON 


EQU 


S 








F71A 


FE4b 


01310 




CP 


■E' 


;Tl 


rn 


on EMPHASIZED mode? 


F71C 


2004 


01320 




JR 


NZ.FOFF 






;GO NO 


F7iE 


323BF8 


01330 




LD 


tEFLAG) ,A 






;Eet yes 


F721 


C9 


01340 




BET 








;To print caller 


F722 




01350 


FOFF 


EQU 


S 








F722 


PE4e 


01360 




CP 


'F' 


.-Emph 


asized mode off ?? 


FT 2 4 


2005 


01370 




JR 


NZ.YON 






;G0 NO 


F726 


AF 


013 80 




XOR 


A 






;A=0 


F727 


323BF8 


013 90 




LD 


(EFLAG) ,A 






;fieset flag 


F72A 


C9 


01400 




BET 










F72B 




01410 


YON 


EQU 


S 








F72B 


FES9 


01420 




CP 


'V 


lUi. 


e 


alternate set ?? 


F72D 


2eB4 


01430 




JR 


NZ.ZOFF 






;G0 NO 


F72F 


3239FB 


01440 




LD 


(AFLAG) ,A 






;Set yes 


F732 


C9 


01450 




RET 










F733 




01460 


ZOFF 


EQU 


s 








F733 


FCSA 


01470 




CP 


•Z ' 


;UE 


e 


nornal printer cmds? 


F735 


2B0D 


01480 




JR 


NZ , AMPER 






;G0 NO 


F737 


AF 


B1490 




XOR 


A 






;A-0 


F738 


3239F8 


B1500 




LD 


(AFI^G) ,A 






; Reset It 


F73B 


E5 


31510 




PUS!- 


HL 






; Zero count 


F73C 


210800 


01520 




LD 


HL,0 








F73F 


223CF8 


01530 




LD 


[COUNT) ,HL 








F742 


El 


01540 




POP 


HL 








F743 


C9 


01550 




BET 










F744 




01560 


AMPER 


EQU 


S 








F744 


0E26 


01570 




LD 


C, 'i ' 






;Print a & 


F746 


1811 


01580 




JR 


OKAY 






;Proper mode 


F748 




015 90 


CMDS 


EQU 


S 








F748 


79 


01600 




LD 


A,C 






[Get letter 


F749 


FE2e 


01610 




CP 


't ' 






jControl char? 


F74B 


2064 


01620 




JR 


(J2,N0TC 






iGO SO 


F74D 


323AFS 


01630 




LD 


(CFLAG) ,A 






;Set flag 


F750 


C9 


01640 




RET 










F751 




01650 


NOTC 


EQU 


S 








F751 


FEBD 


01660 




CP 


13 






;<ENTER> ?? 


F753 


2B2S 


61670 




JR 


Z.PULL 






iGO YES 


F75S 


FEBA 


016 80 




CP 


10 






j<Line-Feed> 77 


F757 


2821 


016 90 




JR 


2. FULL 






iGO YES 


F759 




01700 


OKAY 


EQU 


S 








F759 


3A3 9FB 


01710 




LD 


A, (AFLAG) 






,'Get print mode 


F75C 


B7 


01720 




OR 


A 






jTeat flag 


F7SD 


2003 


01730 




JR 


NZ. ALTSET 






;Jump mode type 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 91 



Lalmt 2 coniinutd 










mr C329FB 


017 48 


JP 


LPRINT 


]Nomal let print 


F762 


017 50 ALTSCT 


EQU 


S 




F762 E5 


01760 


pusa 


HL 


;5ave UL/DE 


F76 3 D5 


01770 


PUSB 


DE 




F764 213EPe 


017 80 


LD 


HL, LETTS 


; Point to key buf 


F767 ED5B3CF8 


B1790 


LD 


DE, (COUNT) 


;Get byte count 


F76B 19 


BIBBB 


ADD 


HL.DE [Point (HL) to empty let spot | 


F76C 71 


B181B 


LD 


(HL) .C 


; Store byte 


F7fiD 13 


B1820 


INC 


DE 


;Next spot 


F76E ED533CFa 


01B30 


LD 


(COUNT) .DE 


jRe&tore count 


F772 7B 


01840 


LD 


A,E 


;Get LSB of count 


r773 FE4E 


01850 


CP 


78 


[End line yet?? 


F775 2817 


0186B 


JR 


Z.PRIBUC 


fgo yes 


F777 Dl 


01 87 


POP 


DE 


r Restore regs 


F778 El 


018BB 


POP 


HL 




F779 C9 


B1S90 


RET 






F77A 


B19B0 FULL 


EQU 


s 




F77A 3A39F8 


0191B 


LD 


A,(APLAG) 


;Cet print mode 


F77D B7 


01920 


OR 


A 


;Test flag 


F77E 2003 


01930 


JR 


NZ,FULL2 


;Jliibp mode type 


F780 C329FB 


01940 


JP 


LPRINT 


;Normal LF/ENTER 


F7 83 


B19S0 FULL2 


EQU 


S 




F783 ED5B3CF8 


B1960 


LD 


DE, (COUHT) 


;Test count zero 


F7B7 7A 


B1970 


LD 


A,D 




F788 B3 


B1 98B 


OR 


E 




F789 CA29F8 


B199B 


JP 


Z. LPRINT 




F7BC 1802 


02BB0 


JR 


PRIBUF 




F7BE 


02B10 PRIBUG 


EQU 


s 




F7BE Dl 


02B20 


POP 


DE ;Re&to[e ceqa 


fiOD abort exit up 


F7aF El 


02B3B 


POP 


HL 




F7 90 


02fl40 PRIBUF 


EQU 


s 




F7S0 F5 


B2B50 


PUSH 


AF 


iSave legs 


F791 D5 


02060 


PUSH 


DE 




F792 E5 


02070 


PUSH 


HL 




F7 93 C5 


02BS0 


PUSH 


BC 




F7 94 DDES 


020 9B 


PUSH 


IX 




F796 3A3BF8 


02100 


LD 


A, (EFLAG) 


jGet print type 


F799 B7 


02110 


OR 


A 


jTest flag 


F79A 2flBC 


B212B 


JR 


NZ,NINE60 


I Jump i>Lq mode 


F79C 


B2130 FOURBB 


EQU 


S 




F79C 3E4B 


02140 


LD 


A, 'K' 


i480 Med-rei mode 


F7 9E 32D1F7 


02150 


LD 


(WHATW+l) ,A 


;S«c it 


F7A1 3E00 


02160 


LD 


A,0 


;Byte count 


F7A3 320AFB 


02170 


LD 


(WHATC+1) ,A 


I Set it 


F7A6 I8BA 


02180 


JR 


DOIT 


lYea 11! 


F7A8 


B219fl NIKE60 


EQU 


$ 




F7AB 3E4C 


022B0 


LD 


A,'L' 


1980 hi-cez ■ode 


F7AA 32D1F7 


02210 


LD 


(WHATH+l) ,A 


|Set it 


F7AD 3Eil 


0222B 


LD 


A,l 


jByte count 


F7AF 320APe 


0223B 


LD 


{ WHATC+1) ,A 


iSet it 


P7B2 


02240 DOIT 


EQU 


S 




F7B2 ED5B3CF8 


0225B 


LD 


DE, (COUNT) 


iGet line-lcn 




02260 } Nifty 


little 


routine to multiply DE 


by € : 


F7B6 D5 


t221t 


PUSB 


□E 


]HL"DE 


F7B7 El 


022BB 


POP 


HL 




F7BB 29 


022 90 


ADD 


HL,HL 


fl»*2 


F7B9 29 


02300 


ADD 


HL,HL 


(DB*4 


F7&A 19 


02310 


ADD 


HL,DE 


j&E*5 


F7BB 19 


02320 


ADD 


HL,DE 


(DE*6 


F7BC 3A3BF8 


B2330 


LD 


A, (EFLAGi 


jGet print node 


F7BF B7 


B234B 


OR 


A 


(Test foe node 


F7C0 2801 


02350 


JR 


Z.F80 


(Jump if 480 node 


F7C2 29 


02360 


ADD 


HL.HL 


(DE*12 


F7C3 7D 


B2370 FB0 


LD 


A,L 


rGet LSB 


F7C4 32D6F7 


023 80 


LD 


(LSB+1) ,A 


I SET 


F7C7 7C 


B239B 


LD 


A,H 


;n5B 


F7Cfl 32DBF7 


02400 


LD 


(HSB+1) ,A 


falso too 




02410 ; This 


little 


bit 'kicks* Mz-BO into 


grafiz mode - 


F7CB 


02420 HODE 


EQU 


$ 




F7CB BEIB 


0243B 


LD 


C,27 


;<:CTL> 


F7CD CD29F8 


B244B 


CALL 


LPRINT 




F7DB 0EB0 


02450 WHATn 


LD 


C,0 .-Filled with 


K or L above 


F7D2 CD29F8 


02460 


CALL 


LPRINT 




F7D5 0E0e 


02470 LSB 


LD 


C,9 ;Filled with 


count above 


F7D7 CD29FS 


02480 


CALL 


LPRINT 




F7DA 0E00 


024 90 MSB 


LD 


CO ;DITTO 




F7DC CD29Fa 


02500 
02510 I 


CALL 


LPRINT 




P7DF DD213EFa 


02520 


LD 


IX, LETTS jPoint to ptint buffer - 1 


F7E3 


02530 LOOP 


EQU 


S 




F7E3 ED5B3CFB 


02540 


LD 


DE, (COUNT) 


iGet letrs left 


F7E7 7A 


02550 


LD 


A,D 


1=0 yet?? 


F7EB B3 


B256B 


OR 


E 




F7E9 282B 


02570 


JR 


Z.DONE 


lGo yes 


F7EB IB 


025B0 


DEC 


DE 


J— 1 an count 


F7EC ED533CF8 


025 90 
02600 : 


LD 


(COUNT) ,DE 


;Save count 


F7F0 DD7E00 


02610 


LD 


A, (IX) 


}Get a letter 


F7F3 DD23 


02620 


INC 


IX 


;Next lettei 


F7F5 21B0Fe 


02G3B 


LD 


HL, BUFFER 


iPoint to alts 


F7Fa 110600 


026 40 


LD 


DE,6 


;Offset Kult/fldd 


F7FB 


02650 LFl 


EQU 


s 




F7FB B7 


0266B 


OR 


A 


;Dane yet? 


F7FC 28B4 


B267B 


JR 


Z.HULTD 


J Go mult done 


F7FE 19 


826 80 


ADD 


HL,DE 


lAdd offset 


F7FF 3D 


026 90 


DEC 


A 


j-1 on count 


F800 18F9 


02700 


JR 


LPl 




FBBZ 


02710 MULTD 


EQU 


s 




F8B2 0606 


02720 


LD 


B,6 


16 bytes to print 


F804 


02730 LF2 


EQU 


$ 




F804 4E 


02740 


LD 


C,(HL) 


iGet letter 


F805 23 


02750 


INC 


HL 


iNext 


F806 CD29Fe 


02760 


CALL 


LPRINT 


) Print byte 


?8I9 -iZtt 


ama vraAxc 


LD 


A.,B 


jGet 6/12 node 


F80B B7 


027 80 


OR 


A 


(Test mode 

Lalmg 2 conlinued 



maximum coum, the buffer automati- 
cally prints out its contents. 

The Full routine determines program 
mode and sends a line feed or a carriage 
return to the printer or prints the buffer. 
Then PRIBUF prints the contents of the 
buffer (unless it's empty). 

PRIBUF saves all registers that you 
can change or modify. The program de- 
termines the current mode (480 or 960 
dots per line) by checking the EFLAG 
and loads values depending on the 
mode in effect. 

The program then calculates how 
many dots to print on a line by multiply- 
ing the character width (6 pixels) by the 
number of character in the buffer. 
When the computer selects the 960 
mode, the value in the buffer doubles. 

The program enters the printer 
graphics mode by sending the esc^)e 
code (27), a K or an L (mode-depen- 
dent), and the dot count in least sig- 
nificant byte/most significant byte 
(LSB/MSB) format. Register IX points 
to the LETTS buffer. PRIBUFs main 
loop is named Loop. The Count buffer 
holds the character count and decreases 
it by one as the program prints each 
character. 

The IX register points to the charac- 
ter buffer, register A holds the ASCII 
value of that character, and HL points 
10 the buffer coring the bits for each 
character. 

Since each letter is sbt dots wide, the 
program needs a routine to multiply the 
ASCII value by six. This points HL to 
the 6 bytes representing the letter. The 
program repeats the loop six times to 
print the coded bits to the printer. When 
the program is on the 960 dots-per-inch 
mode, each byte prints twice. After 
completing the small loop, the program 
retums to the main loop until the buff- 
er's empty. 

The ROM driver in the LPRINT rou- 
tine blocks control-code characters such 
as zero, 10, and 12 from reaching the 
printer. These codes control form feeds 
and other printer functions. The 
LPRINT routine doesn't block any oth- 
er characters, eliminating the cumber- 
some POKEing found in some pro- 
grams. 

The character the program prints is in 
the C re^er. The program preserves all 
other repsters on entry in the LPRINT 
routine and restores them on exit. 

The program stores the data for each 
character in RAM before the driver pro- 
gram, and arranges it with an ASCII 
zero at the beginning and an ASCII 255 
at the end. Each printed letter requires 6 
bytes of information. The total memory 
required is about 15,000 bytes. 



M • AO Micro, December 1984 



Emphasized-Chanicter Driver 

Listings 3 and 4 have a bigger matrix 
size and an expanded command set than 
Listings 1 and 2. The driver in Listing 4 
operates similarly to that in Listing 2, 
but requires about 8K of RAM com- 
pared to Listing 2's 4K. 

Listing 4 also uses flags differently. 
Instead of using up to six separate mem- 
ory locations for on/off storage, it uses 
a single 8-bit byte. 

Each bit is either on (a zero) or off (a 
1), indicating the driver mode. Bit 7 is 
the control code bit. Bit zero is the em- 
phasized yes/no bit. Bit 1 controls in- 
verse printing. Bit 2 affects underlining, 
and bit 3 controls whether the program 
uses Epson's character set or a new one. 

The reason for using the bits of 1 byte 
rather than several bytes is the new com- 
mand set. The inverse and underline 
commands can occur in the middle of a 
line and need to be checked during 
printing. 

ALTSET saves the current flag state 
with each character. The program 
stores status flags in a buffer 100 bytes 
ahead of the ALETTS buffer (similar to 
LETTS). 

When PRIBUF prints the characters, 
the flag bits change for each letter. This 
lets you invert the fust letter in a para- 
graph or word, or alternate the invert 
feature. For example, a program could 
control the turning off and on of print- 
out so that it inverts every other letter 
not including the space. 

The new commands in Listing 3, &I, 
&J, &L, and &M, represent inverse on, 
inverse off, underline on, and underline 
ofT, respectively. You can mix commands 
in a line without any problem. 

The inverse mode changes everything 
to reverse printing: A normal white-on- 
black letter appears as black on white. 
Use it to make a word or phrase stand out. 

Unlike Listing 2, the driver in Listing 
4 has two buffers: one for the top and 
one for the bottom of each line. Since 
character widths are variable, the pro- 
gram must find the second buffer by 
multiplying the character width by 256 
and adding the result to the start of the 
first buffer. 

The location of the first buffer never 
changes. The program reserves EOOO- 
E009 hex for control information by the 
driver program, and the first buffer 
starts at EOOA hex. 

The editor program in Listing 4 puts 
the character width byte into EOOO hex 
with the other control bytes. EOOl hex 
holds the line spacing value in incre- 
ments of 1/72 of an inch. The default 
value is 8/72 of an inch. E002 hex holds 



Lislirg 2 connnued 


















F8IC 


28B3 


027 90 




JR 


Z.TWO 








I Jump if 6 aode 


P80E 


CD2gFB 


B2aBB 

B281B 




CALL 


LPRIKT 








jPrlnt It 


reii 


IBFI 


02B2B 
02B30 


TWO 
t 


DJNZ 


LP2 








;Outai loop 


F813 


C3E3F7 


B284B 
B2S5B 
B2B6B 




JP 


LOOP 




= = = = 


;and till done 1 


; 








FB16 




02678 


DONE 


EQU 


$ 










FB16 


BEBD 


82BBB 




LD 


C,13 








I<ENTER> 


FBI a 


CD29F8 


B2B9B 




CALL 


LPRINT 








iDO IT 


P8IB 


IIBBBB 


BZ9fl0 




LD 


DE,B 








iltto count 


F81E 


ED533CFe 62910 




LD 


[COUNT) 


.DE 








F822 


DDEl 


B292B 




POP 


IX 








iRestoce cegs 


F824 


CI 


02930 




POP 


&c 










F8:5 


El 


B294B 




POP 


RL 










F82G 


Dl 


02950 




POP 


DE 










F827 


Fl 


029fiB 




POP 


AF 










F82B 


C9 


0297B 
B298B 
0299B 


; 


RET 












F829 




B30B0 


LPBINT 


EQU 


$ 










F829 


F5 


B101B 




PUSH 


AF 








I Save leg A 


FB2A 


3AE837 


B302B 


LP 3 


LD 


A, (14312) 






iGet print BtatB 


F62D 


E6FB 


BJB3B 




AND 


240 








rStrip bitB 


FB2F 


FB3a 


03B4B 




CP 


48 








J Ready 77 


FB31 


2BF7 


0JB50 




JR 


NZ,LP3 










FB33 


79 


B3BGB 




LD 


A,C 








tGet print byte 


F834 


32EB37 


03B7B 




LD 


(14312) 


■ A 






("Print" it 


F837 


Fl 


B368B 




POP 


AF 










F83B 


C9 


B3090 
B310B 


1 


RET 












FB39 


BB 


0311B 


AFLAG 


HOP 




iNocKal 


pode 




FB3A 


BB 


B312B 


CFLAG 


NOP 




;No 


control 




F83B 


BB 


B3130 


EFLAG 


NOP 




;Not enphasizad 




F83C 


BB 


0314B 


COUNT 


NOP 




; Letter 


count stoiaqc | 


F83D 


BB 


03150 




»0P 












F83E 


BB 


B316B 


LETTS 


NOP 




jPr 


,ntec buffec 


storage 






03170 


■ 


















03168 


; 














F7B0 




03190 




END 


Z5TART 










deee 


a TOTAL 


ERRORS 
















29785 TEXT 


AREA BYTES LEFT 
































F,nd 



Pro-am Ltsling 3. Double/EDT, the editor for the double-size character driver. 



lB0fl ' Shape Editor foe Char Set IIT - 

by Joseph Gaudreau on August 1, 19B3. 

For the Model I TRS-e0 with NewdOB/80 and an 

Epson Mx-'flfl with Gratttax +. 

Version 3.2 

leie G0T0166fl:' Set up routines 

1I2B '— •=- 

1B3B POKEI63S3,RND(254} : IPPEEK ( 14463) -BTHENlBSBELSEAS-INKEyS 

104e POKE16383,32:IFAS<"l"ORA$>-7-THENlB3B 

1B5B A>VAL(A$) :0NAG0T0112fl ,114B , 1430 , 1^50 ,1460 , 129fl ,10 SB 

1060 GOTO1B30 

1070 '— *"- Assign new chacacteE- width -»•=- 

lese PRIKTe64fl,"New character width ??? ".-iINPUTWW 

1B90 IFWW<10RWH>14THENlB8fl 

IIBB POKE-B192,WW:GOTO1670 

lllB '-"*=- LOAD DATA -=■• — 

112B PRINTe576.-LOAD -" j : PRINTe640 , "Filename - ??? ";!LINEINPUT 

FS:CHD"L0AD " +F$! PRINT'File loaded .': GOSUB1620 :GOTO1670 

1130 '— *— SAVE DATA -=*=- 

114B PRINT§576,'SAVE -";! PRINT§640 , "Filename - ??? "jiLINEINPUT 

F$ 

1150 CMD'DOMP ■+F$+- 57344'+STR$ ( 57364+512*WW) +" 402DH" 

1160 PRINT"File saved. ■:GOSUB1620:GOTO1030 

1170 '-=•— EDIT DATA IN WINDOW — *«- 

1180 YD-fl:XD=«:W»PEEK{1440B) : IFW-0THENl31flELSEIFWANDBTHENYD=-l 

1196 IFWAND16THENYD-1 

12BB IFWAND32TKENXD=-2 

121B IFWAND64THENXD-2 

122B IFWAND2THEN1230ELSE1240 

123B FORN»2TOWl!FORO-3TOia:RESET(N,0) : NEXT: NEXTiB-0 :GOTO130B 

124B IPWAND01THENGOSUB1620:IFB=00TH£NRESET{XQ,YD] :GOTO1030ELSE10 

30 

125B IPyD-0ANDXD-0THEN1300 

126B IPB=0THENRESET(XQ,YO) : RESET (XO+1 ,Y0) ELSEB=0 

1270 XQ=XQ+XD:YQ-YQ+YD:IFXQ<2THENXQ-2ELSEIFXQ>W1-1THENXQ"H1-1 

1280 IFYQ<3THENYQ"3ELSEIFYQ>18THENYO-18 

1299 IFP0INT(XQ,YQ)=-1THENB=1 

1300 RESET(XQ,YQ) : FORTT-1TO20 :HEXT:SET(XO, YQ) :GOTO1180 

1310 W-PEEK(14340) : IFW=flTHEN13BBELSEIFW=4THENB=0 :GOTO1260EI,SEIFW 
-8THENSET(XQ,yQ) : SET(XQ+1 , YO) : B=1ELSEIFW=16THEN1330ELSE11 80 
1320 GOTO1180 

133fl PRINTe65fl,"";:LINEINP[IT"Save to what character (Letter/ASCI 
I) ??? ■;L$:IFLE1](L$)=1THENSN=ASC(LS) ELSESN=VAL ( L?) 

Lalmg 3 continatd 



Micro, December 19S4 • 93 



liiling } conlinued 

1340 IFSN<0ORSN>255THEN1330 

1350 PRINTe714, "Saving under ASCII number " ;SNj " — >"; :POKE1610 S, A 

BS(SN) :IFB=0THENRESET(XQ,YQ) 

1360 G=WW*SN-8182:G1=G+WW*256 

1370 FORX-2TOW1-1STEP2:E=0:E1=0:FORY=3TO10 

13 80 rFP0INT(X,Y)=-lTHENE=E+V(Y-3) 
1390 IFP0INT(X.Y+8) =-lTHENEl=El+V( Y-3 ) 
1400 NEXT 

1410 PRINTe510+2*X,E; : PRINT^57 4+2*X , El ; : POKEG+X/2-1 , E: POKEGl+X/2 

-l,El:NEXT:PRINTg7 6 8,""; : GOSUB16 20 : GOTOll 80 

1420 '-=*=- CLEAR BUFFER -=*^- 

1430 PRINT@522,"Are you really sure ?? ( Y/N) " ; :GOSUB1650 : IFAS="Y 

■ORA$="y"THEN1440ELSEIFAS<>"N"ORAS<>"n"THENl43 0ELSEGOSUB16 20:GOT 

01030 

1440 PRINT" 

Okay then . ..■; !FORN=-8182TO512*WW-8182!POKEN,0:NEXT:GOSUB1520!G 

OTO1670 

1450 '-=*=- DISPLAY A SINGLE CHARACTER --*=- 

1460 PRINTg522,""; :LINEINPUT"Load what character ??? ";LS:IFLENC 

LS! =1THENSN=ASC ( LS) ELSESN=VAL ( LS) 

1470 IFSN<0ORSN>255THEN1460 

14 80 G=WW*SN-8182;G1=G+WW*256:FORX=2TOW1-1STEP2:FORY=0TO7!Z=PEEK 
(G4X/2-1) :Zl-PEEK(Gl+X/2-l) 

1490 IFZANDV(Y)THEN1500ELSERESET{X,Y+3) : RESET(X+1 ,V-t-3) :GOTO1510 

1500 SET(X,Y+3) iSET(X+l ,Y+3) 

1510 IFZIANDV(Y) THENl5 2 0ELSERESET(X, Y+11) : RESET ( X+1 ,Y+11) iGOTOlS 

30 

1520 SET(X,Y+11) :SET{X+1,Y+11} 

153 NEXT: NEXT: G0SUB16 20 iGOTOl 030 

1540 '-=•=- PRINT CHARACTERS TO PRINTER FOR SAMPLE -=•=- 

1550 LPRINT"SY":RESTQRE 

1560 READG,H:IFG=0THENLPRINT"SZ":GOTO1030 

1570 FORN=GTOH:LPRINTCHRS{N) J 

1580 IFN=38THENLPRINT"S"; 

1590 NEXT:LPRINT 

1600 GOTO1560 

1610 : 

1620 PRINT:PRINT"Press <SPACE> to continue." 

16 3 POKE16 3 83,RND(254} : IFPEEK ( 14463) =0THEN1630ELSEPRINT@44 8,CHR 

S(31) ; : RETURN 

16 40 PRINTS 52 2, STRINGS (6 4, 3 2) ; : PRINT§522 , "" ; : RETURN 

165 IFPEEK( 14 463) =0THEN16 50 ELSEAS=INKEYS : RETURN 

1660 POKE-8191, 8;POKE-8192,10 

167 CMD"T":CLEAR10000:DEFINTA-Z:WW=PEEK(-8192) : POKE- 8190 , INT( 48 

0/WW] 

16 80 DIMW,0,N,XQ,YQ,X,Y.YD,XD,Z,Z1,TT,G,G1,B,W1,E,E1,A$,J,WW,LS, 

SN,A,HI,T,Ti,I,V(8) 

16 90 XQ=2:YQ=3:W=19:W1=2«WW+1:HI=191 

1700 CLS:PRINTTAB[W+4) ; "E DITOR — III — > Width -";WW:P 

HINTTAB(W) "<1> Load a previously created character set. " iPRINTTA 

B(W)"<2> Save the character set in memory. ": PRINTTAB(W) "<3> Clea 

r character buf f er . " :PRINTTAB(W) "<4> Print character set in memo 

ry." 

1710 PRINTTAB(W) "<5> Display a character (ASCII/by character)."; 

:PRINTTAB(w) "<6> Edit character displayed in window.' 

1720 F0RN=2TQW1STEP2:SET{N,2) :SET{N,19) :NEXT: FORN=3T01 8STEP2 ; SET 

(1,N) :SET(Wl+l,N) : NEXT: SET [ Wl+1 , 1 9) :SET(W1,2) :SET(W1+1,2) :SET(1, 

2) : SET {1,1 9) : SET (1,18) :SET(W1 ,19) : SET ( Wl+1 , 1 8) : SET ( 0,14) :SET(Wl + 

2,14) :FORJ=0TO7 :V(J)=2[ (7 -J) : NEXT: GOTQ103 

17 3 DATAl, 15, 16, 3 1,3 2, 6 2, 6 3, 93, 94, 12 4, 125, 15 5, 156, 186, 187, 191,0 
,192,222,223,23 8,23 9,255,0,0 

17 40 END 



Program Listing 4. Double/DVR, the doubie-size character driver. 



01010 



01060 
BI070 
01080 
eiB9B 
01100 
01110 
01120 
01130 
01140 
01150 
01160 
01170 

eiisfl 

01190 
01200 



; Alternate Character Set Driver - 

! By Joseph Gaudreau on August 1, 1983 for 4Bk, Model I, 

jAllows use of different character sets on the Mx 

;serieH of printers with the Graftrax option. 

jVecsion 3.5 - For use with Editor III. 

; Commands - 

; Control Code is a "s" . 

; db - Print the ampersand [S) character. 

; iE - Use emphasized mode when in alternate set. 

! SF - Use normal type when in AS. 

; 61 - Use INVERSE printing mode in AS. 

! SJ - Use NORMAL printing mode in AS. 

; SL - Underline on while in AS. 

; SM - Underline off while in AS, 

! SY - Use alternate set, 

J kZ - Set normal printer mode. 

I 

! IBUFFER ) = Character width. 

; (BUFFER+1 ) "^ Line spacing. 

! (BUFFER+2 ) = Max characters/line. 



Listing 4 conlinued 



the maximum characters-per-Iine 
count. You can change it to get shorter 
lines for printing labels and so on. 

Unlike Listings 1 and 2, Listings 3 and 
4 use short-line logic -seeking. If a line is 
blank, the driver executes a line feed. 

Also, the print head only goes as far 
to the right as necessary. When printing 
a blank line, the program executes two 
line feeds for each line printed. This is 
because the top part of a line might be 
blank, while the bottom half contains 
an underline character. 

Emp hasized-Character 
Driver Routines 

To accommodate the two-line driver 
feature in Listing 4, I split the PRIBUF 
routine into the subroutines GRPRIN, 
LINEF, Eight, Four, LPRINT, and IN- 
VUND. The program makes a dry run 
for both the first and second lines be- 
fore printing them. 

The dr>' run tests for blank lines and 
accommodates logic-seeking. The pro- 
gram disables the LPRINT routine dur- 
ing the dry run, so 1 added the NOP in- 
struction to it. Some routines change 
the NOP to a 201 or a zero to disable or 
enable the LPRINT routine, respective- 
ly. The 201 is a Z80 return instruction, 
arid zero represents an NOP. 

The SEEKE fiag is important in log- 
ic-seeking. As the program prints the 
bytes, it ORs each one to this flag. If 
SEEKE remains zero after the program 
prints the whole line, the line is blank 
and the program prints nothing. Other- 
wise, the program prints the line. 

LINEF executes a carriage return af- 
ter each buffer print. Eight and Four 
change the line spacing to reflect which 
line the program is printing. By adjust- 
ing EOOl hex, you can change the line 
spacing. 

The Second flag controls operation 
of the underline. An underline occurs 
only when the Second flag and bit 2 
of the flag are on. Inverse, however, 
doesn't depend on printing the top or 
bottom lines, 

GRPRIN prints the buffer that HL 
points to on entering the routine. It also 
activates the graphics mode, saves and 
restores the mode flag, and adjusts a 
few important pointers. 

GRPRIN calls INVUD when the 
program prints character bits. INVUD 
checks for underline and inverse flags 
and turns them on and off. The inverse 
print routine comes after the underline 
routine because it supports inverted un- 
derline characters. The program 
wouldn't have this feature if I reversed 
the routines. 



94 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



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S«« List 0' Aat«'lisa:i on P»ga 192 



80 Micro. December 1984 • 95 



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The computer inverts a byte by XOR- 
ing the byte with 255. At the bit level, 
255 means all on. XOR stands for ex- 
clusive OR; one bit or the other, but not 
both. When both bits are on, the pro- 
gram makes them into a zero and 1 
XOR 1=0. 

Using the Driver 

To run the driver programs, type in 
ALT (or whatever name you chose for 
it) from DOS Ready. The program 
boots up, changes some memory loca- 
tions, and returns to DOS Ready. To 
load a character set, enter its full name. 
Tape users should follow the instruc- 
tions given below. 

To use the driver's commands in Ba- 
sic, LPRINT the codes with the text. 
For example, LPRINT "Y" enters the 
alternate mode. LPRINT '*&Ethis is 
fun": LPRINT "&F" prints "THIS IS 
FUN" in emphasized letters. The sec- 
ond LPRINT command turns the em- 
phasized mode off. 

LPRINT "&IT&The &Lcomputer 
age&M is here" prints "THE COM- 
PUTER AGE IS HERE" with the first 
letter inverted and the words "comput- 
er age" underlined. 

Once you're familiar with the new 
commands and the format, you'll find 
many uses for the driver. If your word 
processor uses the printer driver cur- 
rently installed in memory, you can use 
the driver to create a special look. If it 
has a line length feature, set it to one less 
than the maximum value that the cur- 
rent character set allows. The driver in- 
tercepts the codes mixed in with your 
text at print time. Be sure not to mix &E 
and &F on the same line or they'll can- 
cel each other out. 

Tape Conversions 

Tape users should change the driver 
and editor to work with their systems. 
Change all references to 402D hex and 
JP 402D hex to RET. Then load the 
driver and wait for the program to re- 
turn to the System prompt. 

Load the character set, press the 
backslash and enter keys to activate the 
driver, and hit the break key at the next 
prompt. You have now installed the sys- 
tem. When loading new character sets, 
hit the break key on the second prompt. 

You can save a character set to a tape 
system in both programs. In Listings 1 
and 2, the buffer is from F00O-F7O0 
hex. For Listings 3 and 4, the buffer 
starts at EOOO hex and ends at 57364-*- 
512*(character width) hex. The entry 
point is 8000 hex. 

Use a low-memory monitor thai fits 



Listing 4 conlinufd 
















01210 


; (BUFPEB+lfl) 


= Actual chac/code 


start. 






01220 














01230 










Eeeo 




01240 


BUFFER 


EQU 


0E000H ;Alternate character start | 






0125B 










8000 




0126D 




ORG 


80O0H 




8D00 




01270 


ZSTART 


EQU 


S 




eS00 


211CFC 


0128D 




LD 


HL, START 


;Set print dciver 


eOB3 


222640 


01 290 




LD 


{4026H) ,HL 


;g print vector 


8Q0e 


21FE0F 


01300 




LD 


HL,BUFFER-2 


;Set merasize 


6809 


224940 


01310 




LD 


(4049K) ,HL 




e00c 


2163FE 


01320 




LD 


HL.FLAG 


;SET lY 


e00F 


CBDE 


01330 




SET 


3,(HL) 




8011 


C32D4fl 


01340 
01350 
01360 
01370 




JP 


402DH 




FCIC 




01380 




ORG 


G4540 




FCIC 




013 90 


START 


EQU 


S 




FCIC 


3A63FE 


01400 




LD 


A, (FLAG) 


;Get control flag 


FCIF 


CB7F 


01410 




BIT 


7, A 


iTest bit 


FC21 


2 86C 


01420 




JR 


ZjCMDS 


;Junip no control 


f-C23 




01430 


CONTHL 


EOt) 


S 




FC23 


CBBF 


01440 




RES 


7, A 


f Reset control 


FC25 


326 3 FE 


01450 




LD 


(FLAG) ,A 


; Reset flag 


FC2e 


79 


01460 




LD 


A,C 


;Get code 


FC2 9 




01470 


EON 


EQU 


S 




FC2 9 


FE45 


01480 




CP 


'E' 


Turn on EMPHASIZED node? 


FC2B 


2007 


01490 




JR 


NZ,FOFF 


;G0 NO 


FC2D 


3A63FE 


015D0 




LD 


A, (FLAG) 


;Get modes 


FC30 


CBC7 


01510 




SET 


0,A 


jSet emphasized 


FC32 


1857 


01520 




JR 


BACK 




FC34 




01530 


FOFF 


EQU 


S 




FC34 


FE46 


01540 




CP 


'F' 


Emphasized mode off ?? 


FC36 


2007 


01550 




JR 


NZ.YON 


;G0 NO 


FC3e 


3A63FE 


01560 




LD 


A, [FLAG] 


;Get modes 


FC3B 


CBB7 


01570 




RES 


0,A 


;Reset modes 


FC3D 


ie4c 


01580 




JR 


BACK 




FC3F 




015 90 


YON 


EQU 


S 




FC3F 


FE59 


01600 




CP 


'Y' 


L'se alternate set 7? 


FC41 


2007 


01610 




JP 


HZ.ZOFF 


;G0 NO 


FC43 


3A63FE 


01620 




LD 


A, IFLAGI 




FC46 


CBDF 


01630 




SET 


3, A 




FC4 8 


1841 


01640 




JR 


SACK 




FC4A 




01650 


ZOFF 


EQU 


S 




FC4A 


FE5A 


01660 




CP 


'Z' 


Use not^ial printer crds? 


FC*C 


20 0D 


01670 




JR 


NZ.ION 


;G0 NO 


FC4E 


AF 


01680 




XOR 


A 


;A=0 


FC4F 


3263FE 


01G90 




LD 


(FLAG) ,A 


;Resec flags 


FC52 


E5 


01700 




PUSH 


HL 


;Zero count 


FC53 


2100B0 


01710 




LD 


HL,e 




FC56 


2266FE 


01720 




LD 


[COUNT) ,KL 




FC5 9 


El 


01730 




POP 


HL 




FC5A 


C9 


01740 




RET 






FC5B 




01750 


ION 


EQU 


s 




FC5B 


FE49 


01760 




CP 


' I' 


;Inverse on ?7 


FC5D 


2007 


01770 




JB 


NZ.JOFF 


;GO NO 


FC5F 


3A63FE 


017 80 




LD 


A, (FLAG) 




FC62 


CBCF 


01790 




SET 


1,A 




FC64 


1825 


01800 




JR 


BACK 




FC66 




01810 


JOFF 


EQU 


S 




FC66 


FE4A 


01820 




CP 


'J' 


; Inverse o£ E ?7 


FC6 8 


2007 


01830 




JR 


NZ , LON 


fGO NO 


FC6A 


3A63FE 


01840 




LD 


A, (FLAG) 




FC6D 


CB8F 


01850 




RES 


1,A 




FC6F 


leiA 


01860 




JH 


BACK 




FC71 




01870 


LON 


EQU 


s 




FC71 


FE4C 


01880 




CP 


'L' 


jUnderline on ?? 


FC73 


2007 


01890 




JR 


NZ.HOFF 


;GO NO 


FC75 


3A63FE 


01900 




LD 


A, (FLAG) 




FC7e 


CBD7 


01910 




SET 


2, A 




FC7A 


180F 


01920 




JR 


BACK 




FC7C 




01930 


MOFF 


ECU 


S 




FC7C 


FE4D 


01940 




CP 


'M' 


jUndecline off ?? 


FC7E: 


2007 


01950 




JR 


NZ ,AMPER 


;GO NO 


FC8B 


3A63FE 


01960 




LD 


A, (FLAG) 




FC83 


CB97 


01970 




RES 


2, A 




Fces 


1804 


01980 




JR 


BACK 




FC87 




01990 


AHPER 


EQU 


S 




FC87 


0E26 


02000 




LD 


C'i' 


[Print a k 


FC89 


1818 


02010 




JR 


OKAY 


[Proper mode 


FC8B 


3263FE 


02020 


BACK 


LD 


(FLAG) ,A 


[Store £laq bits 


FCBE 


C9 


02030 




RET 






FCBF 




02040 


CHDS 


EQU 


S 




FC8F 


79 


02050 




LD 


A,C 


[Get letter 


FC90 


FE26 


02060 




CP 


'fc' 


[Control cnar? 


FC92 


2007 


02070 




JR 


NZ,HOTC 


[GO NO 


FC94 


3A63FE 


02080 




LD 


A, (FLAG] 




FC97 


CBFF 


02090 




SET 


7, A 




FC99 


18FB 


02100 




JR 


BACK 




FC9B 




02110 


NOTC 


EQU 


s 




FC9B 


FE0D 


02120 




CP 


13 


[<ENTER> ?? 


FC9D 


2836 


02130 




JR 


Z,PULL 


[GO YES 


FC9F 


FE0A 


02140 




CP 


10 


;<Line-Feed> 77 


FCAl 


2832 


02150 




JR 


Z,FULL 


;G0 YES 


FCA3 




02160 


OKAY 


EQU 


s 




FCA3 


3A63FE 


02170 




LD 


A, (FLAG) 


[Get print mode 


FCA6 


CB5F 


02180 




BIT 


3, A 




FCA8 


2003 


02190 




JR 


NZ, ALTSET 


jJump mode type 


FCAA 


C352FE 


02200 




JP 


LPRINT 


[Normal let print 


FCAD 




02210 


ALTSET 


EQU 


s 




FCAD 


E5 


02220 




PUSH 


HL 


;Save HL/DE 


FCAE 


D5 


02230 




PUSH 


DE 




FCAF 


216AFE 


02240 




LD 


HLfZLETTS 


[Point to key buf 


FCB2 


ED5B66FE 


02250 




LD 


DE, (COUNT) 


[Get byte count 

latinx A lonlinued 



80 Micro, Decemberl 984 • 97 



Lining 4 continued 










FCB6 19 


02260 


ADD 


HL.DE ;Point 


(HL) to empty let spot 


FCB7 71 


02270 


LD 


(HL) ,C 


jStote byte 


FCB8 11 


02280 


INC 


DE 


jNext spot 


FCB9 ED5366FE 


B229B 


LD 


(COUNT) ,DE 


[Restore count 


FCBD D5 


02300 


PUSH 


DE 


;Save DE fa later 


FCBE 116400 


02310 


LD 


DE.IBB 


jFlag bytes 


FCCl 19 


02320 


ADD 


HL.DE 


J Point to it 


FCC2 Dl 


02330 


POP 


DE 




FCC3 3A63FE 


02340 


LD 


A, (FLAG) 


;Get flag 


FCC6 77 


02350 


LD 


(HL) ,A 


;Save it 


FCC7 3AB2EB 


02360 


LD 


A,(BUFFER*2] 


;Get max chat/line 


FCCA 32CFFC 


02370 


LD 


(Y0H»1) ,A 


;Set it 


FCCD 7B 


23 80 


LD 


A,E 


;Get LSB of count 


FCCE FEBB 


023 90 YOW 


CP 





[End line yet?7 


FCD0 2818 


02400 


JR 


Z.PRIBUG 


;G0 YES 


FCD2 Dl 


02410 


POP 


DE 


^Restore c»9b 


FCD3 El 


02420 


POP 


HL 




KCD4 C9 


02430 


RET 






FCD5 


02440 FULL 


EQU 


S 




FCD5 3A63FE 


02450 


LD 


A, (FLAG) 


iGet print mode 


FCD8 CBSF 


B2460 


BIT 


3, A 




FCDA 2003 


02470 


JR 


NZ,PULL2 


;Jump mode type 


FCDC C352FE 


02480 


JP 


LPRINT 


.•Normal LF/ENTER 


FCDF 


02490 FULI.2 


EQU 


S 




FCDF ED5B66FE 


B2500 


LD 


DE, (COUNT) 


;TeBt coant zero 


FCE] 7A 


02510 


LD 


A,D 




FCE4 B3 


02520 


OR 


E 




FCE5 CA52FE 


02530 


JP 


I, LPRINT 




FCEB 1802 


02540 


JR 


PRIBUF 




FCEA 


02550 PBIBUG 


EQU 


s 




FCEA Dl 


02560 


POP 


DE [Restore regs froir abort enit up | 


FCEB El 


02570 


POP 


HL 




FCEC 


02580 PRIBUF 


EQU 


S 




FCEC F5 


02590 


PUSH 


AF 


;Save tegs 


FCED D5 


02600 


PUSH 


DE 




FCEE E5 


02610 


PUSH 


KL 




FCEF C5 


02620 


PUSH 


BC 




FCF0 DDE5 


02630 


PUSH 


IX 




FCF2 3A63FE 


02640 


LD 


A, (FLAG) 


;Get print type 


FCF5 CB47 


02650 


BIT 


e,A 




FCF7 200C 


02660 


JR 


NZ,NINE60 


;Jump bi9 mode 


FCF9 


02670 rOURBB 


EQU 


S 




FCF9 3L4B 


026 B0 


LD 


A, 'K' 


;480 Med-rez mode 


FCFB 32B2FD 


02690 


LD 


(WHATM+1) ,A 


;Set It 


FCFE 3E00 


027Q0 


LD 


A,0 


I Byte count 


FD00 321AFE 


02710 


LD 


(WHATC*!) ,A 


;Set it 


FDD3 180A 


02720 


JR 


DOIT 


;yea 111 


FOBS 


02733 NINESB 


EQU 


S 




FD0S 3E4C 


02740 


LD 


A, 'L' 


J 980 hi-rez mode 


FDfl7 32B2FD 


02750 


LD 


(WHATM+J) ,A 


;Set it 


FD0A 3E01 


02760 


LD 


A,l 


;Byte count 


FDBC 321AFE 


02770 


LD 


(WHATC*1) ,A 


;Set it 


FD0F 


027 80 DOIT 


EQU 


S 




FDBF 210AE0 


02790 


LD 


HL,BUFFEB+10 


iFind 2nd buffer 


FD12 3A>BEB 


B28B0 


LD 


A, (SUPPER) 


rGet chat width 


FD15 llBBBl 


02810 


LD 


DE,256 




FD18 B7 


02820 LPB 


OR 


A 


(A-B 7? 


FD19 2 804 


02638 


JR 


I, MULTDl 


;G0 YES 


FDIB 19 


02640 


ADD 


HL.DE 


;Repitive add 


FDIC 3a 


02650 


DEC 


A 


iA-A-1 


FDID 18F9 


02860 


JR 


LP0 




FDIF Z263FD 


02870 MULTDl 


LD 


(ZIT+1) ,HL 


; Store address 


FD22 226BFD 


02880 


LD 


(ZITl+1) ,HL 




FD2S ED5B66FE 


02890 


LD 


DE, (COUNT) 




FD29 210000 


02900 


LD 


HL,0 




FD2C 3A00E0 


02910 


LD 


A, (SUFFER) 


jGet width 




02920 ; Nift) 


little 


routine to mult 


iply DE by WIDTH : 


FD2F B7 


02930 LP4 


OR 


A 


SGO DONE 


FD30 2804 


02940 


JR 


Z,MULTD2 




FD32 19 


02950 


ADD 


HL.DE 


jYA 


FD33 3D 


02960 


DEC 


A 


; A"A-1 


FD34 18F9 


02970 


JR 


LP 4 




FD36 3A63FE 


B2980 MULrD2 


LD 


A, (FLAG) 


; Get print mode 


FD3 9 CB47 


02990 


BIT 


0,A 




PD3B 2801 


03000 


JR 


Z.PSB 


[Jump if 480 mode 


FD3D 29 


03010 


ADD 


HL.HL 


[Double HL 


FD3E 7D 


03020 FB0 


LD 


A.L 


jGet LSB 


FD3F 32B7FD 


03030 


LD 


(LSB+1) ,A 


;SET 


FD42 7C 


03040 


LD 


A.H 


;MSB 


FD43 32BCFD 


03050 


LD 


(HSB+l) .A 


;ALSO TOO 


FD46 


03060 WOW 


EQU 


S 




FD46 CD8FFD 


03070 


CALL 


EIGHT 


iSet 8/72' mode 


FD4 9 210AED 


03080 


LD 


HL.BUFFER+IB 


fPolnt bufl 


FD4C CDACFD 


03090 


CALL 


GRP8IN 


fShort seek 


FD4P 2806 


03100 


JR 


Z.HEBE 


J Go on 


FD51 210AEe 


03110 


LO 


HL,BUFFER*10 


;See above - teal 


FD54 CDACFD 


B3120 


CALL 


GRPRIN 




FDS7 CDe9FD 


03130 HERE 
03140 i 


CALL 


LINEF 


fLinef eed 


FD5A 3E01 


03150 


LD 


A,l 


[Set second line 


FD5C 3264FE 


03160 


LD 


(SECOND) ,A 




FDSF CD93FD 


03170 


CALL 


FOUR 


[Set 12/72" mode 


PD62 210000 


03180 ZIT 


LD 


IIL,0 




FD65 CDACFD 


03190 


CALL 


GRPRIN 




FDGB 2 806 


03200 


JR 


Z,HEREl 




FD6A 210000 


03210 ZITl 


LD 


HL,0 




FD6D CDACFD 


03220 


CALL 


GRPRIN 




FD70 CDagFD 


B3230 KEREl 


CALL 


LINEF 




FD73 AF 


03240 


XOR 


A 


;Reset 2nd line 


PD74 3264FE 


03250 
03260 ; 


LD 


(SECOND) .A 




FD77 UB000 


03270 


LD 


DE,0 




FD7A ED5366FE 03280 


LD 


(COUNT) ,DE 




FD7E ED536BFE 03298 


LD 


(COUNTl) ,DE 




FD82 DDEl 


03300 


POP 


IX 


Listing 4 commued 



below 8000 hex. T-Bug is inexpensive 
and does the job if you don't have a 
monitor. 

Model m Conversions 

All four programs run on the Model I 
without conversion, but to run them on 
the Model III you need to make some 
minor changes. The memory size vector 
is 4049 hex on the Model I. For the 
Model III, change it to 4411 hex. Make 
the change in the driver's Initialization 
routine. 

Also, the program performs printer 
input/output at 14312 (37E8 hex) on the 
Model I, and at port F8 hex on the 
Model 111. Change two lines of the 
LPRINT routine; LD A,{14312) to IN 
A,(0F8 hex), and LD (14312),A to OUT 
(0F8 hex),A. 

Printer Conversions 

Although I wrote these programs for 
the Epson MX series printers with Graf- 
trax, conversion to other bit-mapped 
graphics printers is simple. 

The MX-80 has two print densities: 
480 and 960 dots per line. Unlike most 
Radio Shack printers, the Epson uses all 
8 bits for firing the print head pins and 
uses values 0-255. This means you must 
first specify how many bytes you want 
to print in graphics mode. 

Enter the graphics mode by printing 
CHR${27); "K"; CHR$(LSB); 
CHR$(MSB); for the 480 mode, where 
LSB and MSB represent the number of 
graphics bytes to expect . The 960 mode 
is similar, except that it uses L in place 
ofK. 

Bit zero controls the lowest of the 
eight pins, and bit 7 controls the highest 
pin. Most Radio Shack printers use val- 
ues of 128-255 and handle seven pins 
instead of the MX's eight. You must 
therefore convert the editor program 
and driver. 

In the editor, change the Scan and 
Take routines slightly. Also, alter the 
array holding the bit information vari- 
able, V(n). Printers that use eight pins 
are easier to work with, since the only 
changes are in printer control codes and 
how the printer handles its bits. 

Since you must create your character 
set one character at a lime, this task re- 
quires most of the work in running these 
programs. Once running, however, 
these programs are a handy utility for 
personalizing everything from letters to 
listings. ■ 



You can reach Joseph Gaudreau at 
314 E. Main St., Malone. NY 12953. 



W • 80 Micro, December 1984 



ATTENTION TRS-80* OWNERS! 

DONT SCRAP YOUR MODEL I . . . 
CONVERT IT INTO A MODEL III WORK ALIKE 



With 

• Disk Controller 

• 48K RAM RS-232** 
AND ALL OTHER 
MODEL III FEATURES 

The Norcom TC-III is a replacement for the entire Model I 
electronics which perfectly fits into your original Model I 

enclosure. 




Features 



Uses Mod 1 Keyboard, case, monitor & power 

suDply 

■ Includes full 48K memofy disk conlroHei 
printer i eiternai I/O ports same as Model 111 

■ All Model III features plus reverse video A 
output lo drive external speaker with no 
additional tiardware 

■ Uses Model III Basic ROMS or other EPBOMs 
' Runs Model 111 software 

I No eipansion interlace needed - tl s all buill-in 
' R5-232 add-in accessory board available 
' Delune Keyboard Available- make your own 
portable 



Assembled & 

Tested TC-lll 

with Basic ROMS 



399 



00 



Factory 

Con version 
ol your Model I 

00 



'499 



* Deluxe Keyboard coa nn 

with Numeric Pad ^iJa.UU 

Illinois Resktenti add 7% Sal« tax 
IC-lll Board Add S5 00 Shipping 
& Insur 



'RS-232 Interface Board 
tit in case 



$49.00 



Factory Conv add $10 00 
C O D s require 10^. payment 
w/order 
■BS-232 IS optional 'TRS-SO is a trademark ol Tandy Corp '^ 



NORTHERN INFORMATION 
TECHNOLOGY CORP. f. 

748 W ALGONQUIN RD, ARLINGTON HTS IL 60005 i 

312-640-3220 



* Outputs: 

DllnDATn "HIQIQ DEFM READY" 

DEFB ODH •■ 

NOUI rOr insCBod of the meoningless "equivolenf : 

The Model 4! "^''' IS, ^,f 

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The (m LD B,H 

^ // LD E.H 

Disassembler dec c etc 

That Cven Tracks Douin 

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1^11 1 ns 1 S . Outputs fully-lobeled Radio Shock* or 

^^Y\ fiPPFIf^T** ffiTftSM* source code to disptay, 

^^^^ ] printer, disk (and cassette ~ Models I/Ill onlv). 

^^^trir^ ' ^on relocate itself to any free fWM orco 

^^^^\$ ■ Loads progrorrts from disk (or cassette -- 

■' Models I/Ill only) and displays entrv point 

•For TRS-80 Model I (Level II). Model III. or Model 4 

(in Model III mode or under TRSDOS 6.0. in Model 4 mode). 

«1 554-42 (Model 4 diskette. TRSOOS* 6.0) t49 95 

*1 354-22 (Model III/4 diskette. TRSOOS* 1.3) S39.95 

*1354-12 (Model I/Ill cassette) $36.95 

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"Model 1 ^ From 4K-16K Requires (1) One Kit 
Model 3 ^^ From 4K-48K Requires (3) Three Kits 

Color = From 4K-16K Requires (1) Kit 

*^od«l 1 equippAd with Eipansion Board up to 48K Ton Kits R«quif«d 

One Kit Required for each 16K of Eipansfon - 



TRS-16K3 
TRS-16K4 



200ns for Color & Model 
250n8 for Model I 



$8.95 
$6.95 



TRS-80 Color 32K or 64K Conversion Kit 



Easy to install kits come complete with 8 ea. 41 64-2 (200ns) 64K 
dynamic RAMs and conversion documentation. Converts TRS-80 
color computers with D. E. ET. F and NC circuit boards to 32K. 
Also converts TRS-80 color computer II to 64K. Flex DOS or OS-9 
required to utilize full 64K RAM on all computers. 

TRS-64K2 $38.95 

Easy to install kit comes complete with 8 each 4164 (200ns) 64K 
dynamic RAMs and conversion documentation. Converts TRS-80 
Model IV computers from 16K to 64K. 

TRS-64K2 $38.95 

(Converts from 16K to 64K) 

TRS-64K2PAL $59.95 

(6-4164S with PAL Chip to expand from 64K to 128K) 

DIP/IC INSERTER/EXTRACTOR TOOLS 

MOS-1 41 6 (Inserts all atxive RAM pkgs. 1 4/1 6 pin) $1 0.95 

EX-1 (Extracts 8-24 pin pkgs.) $ 2.49 

5V4" Diskettes 

i»<fM<i SSDD Single Sided Double Density 

:,jjB^ DSDD = Double Sided Double OensNy 

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^ftNo. Dwcripllon floK«d Pric« 

UM51401 SSDD With Hub Ring 10 $24.95 

UM52401 DSDD with Hub Ring 10 $33.95 

All dislteltes are sofl-sectored arKi have hub (ings 
Bulk prices available on request 





DISK 

MINDER 



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Part No. DMcriptkxi Prk* 

DM36 

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DMSO 



Stores 36 (3", 3.25" and 3.5") Diskettes. . . . $19.95 ea. 

Stores 75 (5'4 ") Diskettes $19.95 ea. 

Stores 50 f8") Diskettes $29.95 ea. 



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CfVe us a call today! 



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Eliminates voltage spikes and EMI-RFI noise be- 
fore it can damage your equipment or cause 

data loss. Six month warranty. 

ModeMOO $69.95 

DATA SHIELD Back-Up Power Source also available 
Protect your TRS-80 Model computers. 

PC200 (200 Watt Rating) $299.95 

XT300 (300 Watt Rating) $399.95 



SIOOO MmHtHini OrMr - US FuiNtiOiilv 
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Ssff List ot Advenisers on Page 192 



1355 SHOREWAV ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 -''^ 
Phone Orders Welcome (415) 592-8097 Telex: 176043 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 99 



TIED UP BY 

STRING 

COMPRESSION? 



CUT YOURSELF 

LOOSE WITH 

TRASHMAN"' 




THIS PROGRAM IS A MUST FOR 
EVERYONE WHO USES "BASIC" 
ON A TRS-80. It reduces stiincj com- 
pression delays by 95 'c or more You] 
suifei from these delay s whenever yoi 
run a BASIC program Your computei 
locks up tor seconds, or minules. an( 
you may even think il's "crashed 
TRASHMAN FIXES THE PROBLEl 
As soon as ycu slari tn use it. iho! 
delays will almost disappear. Th« pro- 
giatn is very easy lo use, su vou dor. t 
have to be o com pule i pfograiiimer to 
lake advantage of it It's written m 
"machine language and uses only 678 
bytes of memory ior ilseii. plus 2 byles 
for each "strinq ' in youi program II 
works with other machine laiiyu^q*? 
programs and ali the niaior oper^tinn 
systems 

IT SHOULD HAVE BEEN BUILT 
INTO THE COMPUTER IN THE FIRST 
PLACE, but since ;t wosn i, iunk nl (hih 
chart, andthenorderyourcopv'od.tv 



# SECONDS DELAY PERCENT 

STRINGS NORMAL TRASHMAN IMPROVEMENT 

10 .1 1 

250 11.8 7 94 

500 45 8 1,6 96 S 

10DD 179.6 3.5 98 

2000 713.2 7.8 98 9 



"...in those programs that use hundreds 
of strings arrays, the time saved i% out- 
standing " 80 MICRO, Jan 83 
Works great, had 45 sec. delays in 
printing, now almost no delays, D T 

■We have installed TRASHMAN m 
one of our most major programs and il 
has reduced the run time by ovei 
one-third* A W L- 

TRASHMAN is available on Disk 
ior the TRS-80 Models I & III ior 

luat $39.95 



..■■■■■ \0W. TOLL-FREE 
(800) 824-7888, oper. 422 



pRa 



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1^. 



Depl. G, Box 56C, No, Hollywood. CA 91603 

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TERMS' VISA, MC, OwcM. CDD ^ease iM %i OD siiC'"fl ■ 
US wCaiM*. S5 00 c.Eistas sales Is. - Ca v.--- 



oidan tiUd «ittun c-t ati 



taring 4 ctMilinued 












Foat ci 


B3310 




POP 


BC 




FDaS El 


0332a 




POP 


HL 




FDa6 Cl 


B333e 




POP 


DE 




FDBT Fl 


03340 




POP 


AF 




FDaa C9 


B335B 
03360 




BET 






FD89 Q0 


03370 


LINEF 


NOP 






FD8A OEBD 


B3380 




LD 


C,13 




FDBC C35 2FE 


033 90 
B34BB 




JP 


LPBINT 




FDBF 3E0 8 


03418 


EIGHT 


LD 


A, 8 


;B/72" 


FD91 1883 


fl342B 




JR 


ROR 




FD93 3AeiE0 


B343B 


FOUR 


LD 


A, [BUFFER*!) 


;Get line spac 


FD96 C5 


B344B 


ROR 


PUSH 


BC 




FD97 BEIB 


B345B 




LD 


C,27 


! CONTROL 


FD99 CDS2FE 


B34«0 




CALL 


LPRIMT 




FDK; BE41 


0347B 




LD 


C,65 


;CMD 


FD9E CD52FE 


B34 8B 




CALL 


LPBINT 




FDAl 4F 


B349B 




LD 


C,A 


;Get spacing 


FDA2 CD52FE 


B35Be 




CALL 


LPRINT 




FDA5 Cl 


B351fl 




POP 


BC 




FDA6 3 EC 9 


03528 




LD 


A, 201 


iDleable LPRINT 


FDAB 3252FE 


03530 




LD 


(LPRINT) ,A 




FDAB C9 


03540 

83550 




RET 






FDAC 


0356B 


GRPRIN 


EQU 


s 




FDAC BEIB 


03570 




LD 


C,27 


[Turn on graphics mode 


FDAE CD52FE 


03580 




CALL 


LPRINT 




FDBl BEBB 


0359B 


WHATM 


I.D 


C,B 


jFillPd in Idter 


FDB3 CD52FE 


B3G00 




CALL 


LPRINT 




FDB6 BEBB 


03610 


L5B 


LD 


C,B 




FDB8 CD52FE 


0362B 




CALL 


LPRINT 




FDBB BEBB 


03630 


H5B 


LO 


C,B 




FDBD CD52FE 


B3GAe 




CALL 


LPRINT 




FDC0 3Ae3FE 


B3GSB 




LD 


A, {FLAG) 


;Save current flag byte 


FIX:3 FB 


B3e6B 




PUSH 


AF 




FDC4 AF 


B3670 




XOB 


A 


; Reset stiott seek Elag 


FDC5 3265FE 


03680 




LD 


(SEEKE) ,A 


;Do it 


FDC8 22E5FD 


03690 




LD 


(WHICH+1) ,HL 


;Store buff loc 


FIX:B ED5B66rE 


03700 




LD 


DE, (COUNT) 


jGet count 


FDCF EDS3fiBFE 


0371B 




LD 


(COUNTl) ,DE 


;Save to worker 


FDD3 DD216AFE 


0372B 
B3730 


) 


LD 


I)C,Z LETTS 


;Cet letter hull 


FDD7 


03740 


UJOPl 


EQU 


s 




FDD7 ED5B6 8FE 


B375B 




LD 


DE, (COUNTl) 


jCet letts left 


PDDB 7A 


B376B 




LO 


A,D 


;DE-B ?7 


PDDC B3 


B377B 




OR 


E 




FDDD 2B4 9 


837 B0 




JR 


Z,DONE 


jGO YES 


FDDF IB 


B379B 




DEC 


DE 


;DE-DE-1 


FDEB EDB368FE 


B3BBB 




LD 


(COUNTl) ,DE 


[Store count 


FDE4 21BeBB 


B3B1B 


WHICH 


LD 


HL,fl 


;Point buffer 


FDE7 3ABflE0 


B3B2B 




LD 


A, (BUFFER) 


;Get width 


FDEA 5F 


B3B3B 




LD 


E,A 


;DE = width 


FDEB IfiflB 


83 840 




LD 


D,B 




FDED □D7EB0 


03 650 




LD 


A,{IX) 


;Get letter 


FDFB [)D23 


03 860 




INC 


IX 


;NeKt location 


FDF2 


03 87 


LPl 


EQU 


s 




FDF2 B7 


03 860 




OR 


A 


;HIDTH • CHAR - LOCATION 


FDP3 2804 


03 890 




JR 


ZjHULTD 




FDF5 19 


03W0 




ADD 


HL.DE 




FDF6 3D 


03910 




DEC 


A 




FDF7 iaF9 


B392B 




JR 


LPl 




FDF9 


B393B 


MULTD 


EQU 


S 




FDF9 E5 


B394B 




PUSH 


HL 


;Save HL 


FDFA DDE5 


B395B 




PUSH 


IX 


,-HL-IX 


FDPC El 


B396B 




POP 


HL 




FDFD 1163BB 


B3970 




LD 


DE,99 


(■Point to flag 


FEBB 19 


03980 




ADD 


HL.DE 




FEBl 7E 


B3990 




LD 


A, (HL) 


iGet it 


PEB2 32E3FE 


040BB 




LD 


(FLAG) ,A 


jSet it 


PEB5 El 


04BIB 




POP 


HL 




PE06 3ABBEB 


04020 




LD 


A, (BUFFER) 


;Get width 


PEB9 47 


04030 




LD 


B,A 


!B=A 


FEBA 


B404B 


LP 2 


EQU 


S 




FEBA 4E 


B405S 




LD 


C,(HL) 


;Get byte 


FEBB 23 


04060 




IHC 


HL 


; ♦ a byte 


FEBC 3A65FE 


0407B 




LD 


A, [SEEKE] 


;Get test byte 


FEBF Bl 


B4BBB 




OH 


C 


;A(iti Byte 


FEIB 326SPE 


B4B90 




LD 


(SEEKE) ,A 


;E-E-C 


FE13 CD35FE 


B4100 




CALL 


INVUND 




PE16 CD52FE 


04110 




CALL 


LPRINT 


fPrlnt jt 


PE19 3EBB 


B412B 


WHATC 


LD 


A,B 


;Once or twice? 


PEIB B7 


B413B 




OR 


A 


;G0 a 


PEIC 2806 


B414B 




JR 


Z , NOTTWO 




PElE CD35FE 


B415B 




CALL 


INVUND 




FE21 CD52FE 


B4160 




CALL 


LPBINT 


! Print again 


FE24 1BE4 


04170 


NOnvio 


DJNZ 


LPZ 


; lJ3op till done 


PE26 18AF 


04180 




JR 


LOOPl 




FE2B 


041 9B 


DONE 


EQU 


s 


' 


FE2e PI 


e42BB 




POP 


AF 


jRestoce current flag 


FE29 3263FE 


0421B 




LO 


(FLAG] ,A 




FE2C AF 


04220 




XOR 


A 


(■Enable printer 


FE2D 3252FE 


0423B 




LD 


(LPRINT) ,A 




FE30 3A65FE 


04240 




LD 


A, (SEEKE) 


;Get test byte foi eval 


FE33 B7 


04250 




OR 


A 


;Set flag bits 


FE34 C9 


04260 
0427B 




BET 






FE35 


04 280 


INVUIID 


EQU 


s 




PE35 F5 


04290 




PUSH 


AF 


;Save AF ccgs 


FE36 3AG4FE 


B4300 




LO 


A, (SECOND) 


; Second printing? 


PE3 9 B7 


04310 




OB 


A 


;1£ then go 


PE3A 280 9 


04320 




JR 


Z,INV 




PE3C 3A63FE 


B433B 




LD 


A, (FLAG) 


;Under line or? 


FE3P CB57 


B434I 




BIT 


2, A 





100 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



Scanned by Ira Goldklang - www.trs-80.com 



Listing 4 continued 










FE41 


2802 


04350 




JR 


Z,INV 


FE43 


CBC9 


043G0 




SET 


1,C iSet underline 


FE45 


3A63FE 


04370 


INV 


LD 


A, (FLAG) jlnveiee 7 


FE4B 


CB4F 


043 B0 




BIT 


1,A 


FE4A 


2894 


043 90 




JR 


ZfZEND ;Go no 


FE4C 


79 


B4400 




LD 


A,C ; Inverse bits 


FE4D 


EEFF 


04410 




XOH 


255 jFlip 


FE4F 


4F 


04420 




LD 


C,A 


FE5B 


Fl 


04430 


ZEND 


POP 


AF 


FE51 


C9 


04440 
04450 




RET 








044G0 


; Remernbec that 


F0h - '1 1 1 1, 0' 


FE52 




04470 


LPRINT 


EQU 


S 


FE52 


id 


04480 




NOP 


iDlaable location 


FE53 


F5 


04490 




PUSH 


AF 


FES4 


3AEB37 


04500 


LP 3 


LD 


A, (14312) (Get print atats 


FE57 


E6F8 


04S10 




AND 


aPBH (Strip low bits 


FES 9 


FE3e 


04520 




CP 


48 i Ready ?7 


FE5B 


20F7 


04530 




JR 


NZ,LP3 


FE5D 


79 


04540 




LD 


A,C jG«t pclnt byte 


FE5E 


32E837 


04550 




LD 


(14312) ,A ("Print" it 


FE61 


Fl 


B45GB 




POP 


AF 


FE62 


C9 


04570 
04580 


1 


RET 








04590 


J Flags 


and general stocage of pcogcatn variablea - | 


FE63 


00 


04G0B 


FLAG 


NOP 


iFlaf bit storage for ALT's modes 


FEe4 


00 


a4GlB 


SECOND 


NOP 


;Second line in progress Elag 


FE65 


00 


04620 


SEEKE 


NOP 


J Short-seek flag - fl"Bhorteat 


FEGE 


BB 


B463B 


COUNT 


NOP 


(Letter count storage 


FE67 


00 


B4G40 




NOP 




FEG8 


BB 


04650 


COUNTl 


HOP 


;Seconi^ary storage 


FEG9 


0B 


04650 




NOP 




FE6A 


B0 


04fi7fl 
04680 
04690 


Z LETTS 


NOP 


(Printer buffer storage 


8000 




B47BB 




END 


ZSTAHT 


eae0B total 


ERRORS 








26597 TEXT 


AREA BYTES LEFT 
















End 




>*fc 



f8-t=^=l 





Tidbil 




If you constantly check the values 
of variables in a program, this tech- 
nique will save you a lot of time. For 
example, to be assured that the val- 
ues of X, Y, and W are within .the 
proper boundaries before a program 
continues execution, you'd probably 
use program statements similar to 
these: 

1750 IF X>50 OR X<0 THEN GOTO 

(subroutine) 

1760 IF Y>75 OR Y< - 5 THEN GOTO 

(subroutine) 

1770 IF W>16 OR W< I THEN GOTO 

(subroutine) 

You can easily condense these 
three lines, however, into one state- 
ment by adding the greatest possible 



value of the three variables, then 
adding the smallest possible value for 
each. The result is: 

1750 IF X-t-Y + W>141 OR X + Y + W<-4 
THEN GOTO (subroutine) 

If this statement Is true, shunt the 
program to a routine that checks 
each variable's value, making 
changes if necessary. 

The statement below saves you 
time if your range is dependent on 
other variables: 

1750IFY + W + AS>Q + CS + 32OR 
Y + W + AS<BE + 6 + E THEN GOTO 
(subroutine) 

'f^ff Squyres 
Glen Mills. PA 19342 




FASTER speeds up moat TRS-80 
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Customers agree: 

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S« U3t ol AOvtnisers on Pagt 102 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 101 




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ORDER NOW! 
TOLL-FREE 

800-527-3582 

Orders Only Please 

Call in your order or write to us at the address 
below Texas residents call us at 214-337-4346 
and deduct $2,00 from your order but you 
should remind me 'cause sometimes I forget. If 
you need technical information or service please 
call the Texas number as the Toll Free lines are 
just for orders only. Prices are subject to change 
wtthout notice and are mail order only I accept 
AMERICAN EXPRESS, MASTERCARD and VISA 
and I will not charge your card until I ship your 
goodies. You can send a check or a money 
order. I also accept COD orders but they require 
cash or a cashier's check upon delivery. If 
shipping charges are not shown please call for 
the correct amount. Add S5.00 handling charge 
if your order is less than $50.00. Shipping 
charges quoted in this ad are for the lower 48 
states only. Orders to Canadian address add 
$20,00 Documentation Fee if order is $500,00 
or more, Texans add State Sales tax No tax 
collected on shipments outside of Texas, Be 
sure you know what you are buying, 
SOFTWARE IS SOLD ON A REPLACEMENT 
BASIS ONLY - NO REFUNDS. If it is defective 
call us for instructions. Please order from me 
now— I need the money and 1 will not jack you 
around All merchandise carries the original 
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Cnpv'ulhl 1984 Ov Total Access 

IRS 8(1 IS ,j Trademark of the Tandy Cofpcation 

CP M li J Tr.,i)emark ot t>()rlal Reserfrth 



102 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



TOUCHDOWN! 





Touchdown gives you 

armchair football at its 

best — you develop the 

team strategy that keeps 

you in the game. 

by 

Wayne Blair 



Get out your stogie and do your best Vince 
'Lombardi pace. It's time for the Big 
Game. 
Touchdown is a Model III Basic football simula- 
tion that puts you and an opponent in command of 
your favorite teams. It requires strategy, quick 
thinking, and unwavering discipline to select the 
correct plays before the clock runs out. 

You and your opponent take turns calling offen- 
sive plays to gain yardage for a touchdown. Success 
depends on chance and your skill at selecting the 
right plays. 

Field Preparations 

To start playing Touchdown, type in and run the 
Program Listing. Enter names for the home and 
visiting teams at the prompt (names must be be- 
tween three and 15 characters). 

Touchdown displays a scoreboard at the screen 
top and a time-out indicator and countdown indi- 
cator in the center of the screen. When the count- 
down ends, Touchdown presents you with a menu 
of plays. 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 103 



Program Listing. Touchdown. 



1% POKB16S26,161:POKE16S27,2:X-USR(0) 

2B CLS:GOSUB290:CLEAR125:U-'53 9 :Xfl-429: RANDOM 

3B X3-143:X4-3 9fl:X5=17fl:X6=211:X7-233:X8=27 5:X9=297:QR-l:Q-5Bfl 

4B T1-1B:T2-«:CX=1:DN=1:YE=3:YU»3:G1-249:G2-313:YG=1B:YL-3B 

50 QR$-"lBf :C0=15533:C1-16 921:C2-=16 92B:C3=16 919:GOSUB730 

60 C4-15503:CS-15S04:C6-15506:C7-1550 6:C8-1550 9:C9=15e61 

70 PRINT'TYPE IN HOME ■ ; :GOSUB4550 I INPUTHT$: IFHTS=" "THEH4560 

80 IFLEN(HTS) >15THENHTS=LEFTS (HTS ,15) ELSEIFLEN (HT$) <3THEN456B 

90 PRINT'TYPE IN VIS " ; !GOSUB455fl : INPUTVT$i IFVT5=""THEN4560 

100 IFLEN(VT$) >15THENVT5-LEFT5(VTS,15) ELSEIFLEN [VT$) <3THEN4560 

110 CLS:GOSUB230:T«$-LEFT$(HT$,3) jTN$-LEFTS ( VT$,3) :OOS=TN$ 

120 Xl-8+LEN(HT$] :X2=33-t-LEN ( VT$) :FG-LEH [HT$] :FH-LEN [ VT$] 

138 PRINTTAB(7)HT$;TABC32) VTS;TAB{53} ■*TRS-80*" : PRINT 

140 PRINTTAB{7) 'TIME' (TAB (32) "DOWN" ; TAB ( 51) "TIME-OUTS: " 

150 PRINTTAB(7) ■QUARTER";TAB(32)'YDS TO GO" ;TAB ( 53) TMS; ' ";YU 

160 PRINTTAB(7) "ON OFFENSE: "; TAB(32) "YD LINE" j TAB{ 53) TNSi " "jYE 

170 PRINTSTRING$(63,'-') 

180 P0KE16916,6:CLS 

190 GOT0252B 

200 REM'DELAY SUBS" 

210 DE-18:GOTO310 

220 DE-80:GOTO310 

23B DE-27B:GOTO310 

240 DE-4BB:GOTO310 

250 DE--500:GOTO310 

260 DE-550:GOTO310 

278 DE-650:GOTO31fl 

280 DE-1B00:GOTO310 

290 I}E-120B:GOTO310 

300 DE-15B0 

310 F0RD»1T0DE:NEXTD: RETURN 

320 REM'RANDOM SUBS' 

330 R=RND( 45) +10: RETURN 

348 R»RND(29) -»-26:RETURN 

350 R-0:GOTOe30 

368 R-RND(3) :GOT063B 

370 R=RND{6) +2:GOTO630 

38B R-(RND(4) *3) -f2:GOT0638 

398 R-RND[1B)*RND(2) :GOTO630 

480 R-RND[35)'t-4:GOTO630 

410 R-RND(10) *RND(4) :GOT0638 

420 R-RND(4) *5:GOTO630 

430 R»RND(4)*15:GOTO630 

440 R-(RND(5) *2] +RND(2) :GOTO630 

450 F-RND(6) :IFF=lTHENR=100EL5ER-0 

460 GOT063B 

470 F-RND(3) : R=RND(6) +4: IFF=1THEN63B 

480 IfF-2THENR-=R*-lELSER-B 

490 B-1:GOTO630 

500 REM'RANDOM SUBS" 

510 F-RND(12) :GOTO4770 

520 F-RND(8) :ONFGOTO350, 360, 378,368,360, 350, 360, 360 

530 F-RND(IB) :ONFGOTO590 ,390 ,370 , 448 , 3 80 , 368 ,370 ,368 ,610 , 360 

540 F-RND(7) :ONFGOT0368 , 358 , 360 , 3 80 , 360 , 448 , 368 

550 F-RND[10} :ONFGOTO370, 350, 370, 590, 398, 370, 380, 448, 610,370 

560 F-RND(10) :ONFGOTO380,370,S90,350,390,360,440,ei0,378,358 

570 F-RND(10) :ONFGOTO440,350,368,440,450,420,350,440,370,478 

588 F-RNDilB) :ONFGOTO440 ,350 ,378 ,350 ,410 ,350 ,458,350 , 390 , 470 

590 F>RND(7) :IFF-1THENR>108ELSER=B 

fiBB GOT0638 

610 F=RND(4) :R-RND(5) : IFF=1THENH=R*-1 

620 GOTO630 

630 REM'STAT COMPUTATION" 

6 40 IFR-1B0THEN660EL5EIFC=1ANDR>YLTHENR°YL 

6 50 IFC-0 ANDR=6 0ANDYL>3 9THENR-1 8 8-YL 
668 iroOS-TN$THEN700 

670 IFB-1THENA1-A1+1:IFR<100THENA2-A2+R 

6B0 IFB-0THENA3-A3+1:IFR<>BANDR<1BBTHENA4-A4+1:A6=A6+R 

690 RETURN 

700 IFB-lTHEN51-Sl-fl:IFR<10BTHENS2-S2+R 

710 IFB=0THENS3-S3+l:IPR<>0ANDR<lBBTHENS4-S4+l!S6=S6+R 

7 20 RETURN 

7 38 POKECl , 8 : P0KEC2 , 8 : P0KEC3 , : RETURN 

740 POKEC4,49:POKEC5,48:POKEC6,S8:POKEC7,48:POKEC8,4S:RETURN 

750 CM-PEEK(C2) :CS=PEEK(C3} :RETURN 

760 P0KEC2,CM:P0KEC3,CS:RETURN 

770 PH-ljYZ=0:ER=0:ZZ=0:B=0:P5-2l!UL=RND(2) : IFUL=lTHENRANDOM 

7 80 ZZS-INKEYS:IFOOS-TMSTHENPPS-TNSELSEPPS-TMS 

790 RETURN 

600 REM "SCOREBOARD VIDEO" 

810 IFT1-10THENX3-142 

820 PRIHT@X1,HS;@X2,V5; 

830 PRINTeX3,Tl;":";T2; 

840 PRINTeX5,DNreX6,QR$ieX7, USING" It'iYGj 

850 PRINT@XS,00$;9X9, USING" t*';YL; 

860 IFDN-1THENPOKEC0,42ELSEPOKECB,32 

Lining conlinued 



Game Time 

Three clocks operate during the 
game: the internal clock, a scoreboard 
clock, and a 20-second clock. The com- 
puter's internal clock provides time- 
keeping and synchronization for the 
scoreboard clock and 20-second clock. 
The program disables the TRS-80 clock 
display and alters computer real time. 

Each quarter lasts 10 minutes. The 
scoreboard clock displays the time re- 
maining in each quarter and runs 
throughout the game. The ck>ck stops 
while each play executes, then updates 
the time following play completion. The 
clock also stops during time-outs, but 
starts again as soon as you execute a 
play. 

The 20-second clock gives you the 
time remaining to select a play. If the 
20-second clock reaches zero before you 
select a play, play stops and you incur a 
5-yard delay-of-game penalty. 

The 20-second clock resets itself after 
each play. As with the scoreboard 
clock, the 20-second clock stops during 
time-outs. 

The Plays 

Touchdown automatically handles 
kickoffs, free kicks after safeties, kick 
returns, punts, and interceptions. The 
home team kicks off at the beginning of 
the game, the visitors kick off in the sec- 
ond half, and kickoffs occur automat- 
ically after each score. The program 
randomly determines the amount of 
yardage gained on each kickoff. 

You can choose from eight offensive 
plays: four running plays and four pass- 
ing plays. Plays consist of the most 
common football strategics, including 
the quarterback sneak, halfback screen, 
and split end fly. Each play has an ele- 
ment of risk: Passes can be intercepted, 
rushers can fumble, and punts can be 
blocked. 

A menu of play options appears on 
the bottom half of the screen. To run a 
play, press the corresponding number. 
You don't need to hit the enter key; the 
play executes immediately. 

Other options include punting (P), 
attempting a field goal (9), offensive 
time-out (0), and defensive time-out 
(T). Touchdown displays the options 
menu after each play. 



The Key Box 

Model m 
16KRAM 
Cassette Bask 



L0*DIO 



104 • 50 Micro, December 1984 



Each play has a range of attainable 
yardage. Riskier plays can lose yardage, 
but have a higher maximum attainable 
yardage. Figure 1 summarizes the plays, 
and lists the yardage limits and possible 
adverse consequences for each. 

After each touchdown, the program 
gives you the option of kicking for an 
extra point (I) or trving for a two-point 
conversion (2). You must make a deci- 
sion in five seconds or lose your chance. 

Fumbles, interceptions, and blocked 
kicks occur randomly during the game. 
Penalties are also random, but arc limit- 
ed to two 5 yard penalties and one 
10-yard penalty per game. 

Keeping Score 

Touchdown's scoreboard remains at 
the top of the screen throughout the 
game. In addition to keeping score, it 
provides information on time remain- 
ing, current quarter, team on offense, 
number of dawns, yards-to-go, current 
field position, and (ime-outs left (see 
Fig. 2). 

When the offense crosses the 50-yard 
line or gains possession of the ball inside 
the 50. Touchdown displays an asterisk 
to the right of YD LINE. An asterisk 
also appears next to DOWN on the 
scoreboard on first down. 

The first three letters of the name of 
the offensive team appear above the op- 
tions menu when the clock stops, and 
change to the 20-.sccond clock when the 
game resumes. 

Game Statistics 

Touchdown displays cumulative play 
statistics for the home and visiting 
teams after each quancr. Figure 3 
shows a typical statistics display, and 
Fig. 4 shows the formal for that display. 

Statistics include averages for rushes, 
passes, and punts, number of fumbles 
and interceptions, and number of pen- 
alties and penalty yardage. 

Strategy and Wrap-up 

Touchdown simulates actual condi- 
tions experienced in a football game. 
Therefore, the best strategy is to make 
decisions based on your football experi- 
ence, taking ideas from games you've 
watched or played. 

As the game progresses you'll see that 
certain plays are more likely to succeed 
in a given situation. Due to the element 
of chance, success depends to a certain 
degree on luck — just like in the pros.H 

Wayne Blair has been writing pro- 
grams for seven years as a hobby. You 
can contact him at P.O. BoxSll, Dade- 
viUe, A L 36853. 







Varda}^ 




Option 


Play 


Lumis 


CunluiKencie^ 


1 


Quarlcrback sn«ak 


Oto8 


Can't fumble 


1 


I-ullhack dra'A 


0iol4 


Can't fumble 


3 


Halfback sweep 


- 5 to 20 


Can fumble 


4 


llanker reverse 


- 5 to 20 


Can fumble 


5 


Halfback H;reen 


-5io20 


Can fumble 


6 


Tighl end Hare 


- 10 10 20 


Can be intercepted 


7 


Flanker post 


-10 to 40 


Can be iiiiercepied 


8 


Split end n> 


-10 to 60 


Can be intercepted 


9 


Field goal 


Oio56 


Auiomatic pum 
behind 39' yard 
tine 


P 


Puni 


to 55 


Can be blocked 


T 


Time oui (offense) 









Tinit? out (defense) 








Figure J. Summary 


of plays for Touchdown. 





Home 7 

Time 10:00 
Quarter 1st 
On Offense: Vis 



Visitor a 
Down 1 * 
YDS To Go 10 
YD Line 46 



Time-Outs; 
Horn 3 
Vis 3 



Figure 2. Typical scoreboard display of ler first quarter. 





1st Quarter Statistics 




Home Visitor 


Rush 


9 -- 50 - 5.6 7 ~ 28 - 4.0 


Pass 


6 - 4 - 64 - 16.0 5 - 1 - 5 - 5.0 


Turnovers 


1 


Penalties 


1-5 0-0 


Punts 


1 - 35.0 2 - 42.5 


Fi^re 3. 


A typical slaiistlcs display ai the end of thefir^l quarter. 



Rush 


Number of rushes 


^'ards gained 


Average gain 


Pass 


Number of passes 


Number completed 


Average gain 


Turnovers 


Number of losi fumbles 


Number of interceptions 




Penalties 


Number of penalties 


Yards penalized 




Punts 


Number of punts 


Average gain 






Figure 4. Format of statistics display. 





Lisi:ne iiinliriii'fi 

87 RETURN 

880 IFC=flANDR-60ANDYL=40THENR-50+(50-YL) :RETURN 

890 IFC=0THENRETURN 

900 IFR>YLTHENR=YL 

910 RETURN 

920 REH'STATISTICS VIDEO" 

930 GOSUB290 :CLS:GOSUB230 

940 PRINTTAB (23) STS;" QUARTER STATISTICS" 

950 PRINTTAB (18) HTS;TAB ( 42) VT$ ; ONERRORGOTO10 50 

960 E1=A2/A1 :E2=A6/A4:E3=S2/S1:E4-S6/S4:U3=U2/U1:U6=U5/U4 

970 PRINT" RUSH';TAB(17) Al; " — " ; A2 ; "-" ;USING" «#.»";E1; 

980 PRINTTAB(41) SI; " — "; S2 ;"-"; USING" «#.»";E3 

990 PRINTgQ, -PASS" ; TAB ( 17 ) A3 ;"-"rA4;"-";A6;"-"; USING" »«.«"; E2; 

1000 PRINTTAB(41)S3;"-";S4;"-";S6;'-";USING" «#.#";E4 

1010 PR1NT§644,"TURN0VERS";TAB{17) A7!" " ; A5 ; TAB ( 41) S7 ; " ";S5 

1020 PRINT" PENALTIES"; TAB (17) A8; "-" ; A9; TAB { 41 ) 58; "-" ;S9 

1030 PRINT" PUNTS";TAB(171Ul;''-";USING" #*.*";U3; 

1040 PRINTTAB(41)U4;"-";USING" *#.»"; U6 iRETURN 

1050 REM"/0 ERROR TRAP" 

iMIing lonlinued 



m Micro. December 1984 • 105 




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Listing mniinued 

1060 RESUMENEXT 

1070 PRINTgU, "TOUCHDOWN 1 1 " : IPOOS=THSTHENPRINTTAB [T-FG/2) HTS; 

10 80 IF00S=TNSTHESPRINTTAB(T-FH/2)VTS! 

10 90 PRINT" 1 l"j:PK=l:GOSUB7 50:GOSUB2 90:CLS:RETURN 

1100 T=32:R$=") RUN - ":SS=') PASS - ":TS=" SCREEN" 

1110 PRINT"1";R$;''QUARTEHBACK SNEAK" ; TAB (T) "5" ; SS; "HALFBACK" ;TS 

1120 PRINT"2";RS; "FULLBACK DRAW" ; TAB (T) "6" jSS ; "TIGHT END FLARE" 

1130 PRINT"3";R$;"HALFBACK SWEEP" ; TAB ( T) "7" ;SS ! 'FLANKER POST" 

1140 PRINT"4";R5;"FLANKER REVERSE" ;TAB (T) " 8" ;SS; "SPLIT END FLY" 

1150 PRINT:PRINT"P) PUNT" ; TAB(T} " 9) FIELD GOAL (Inside 40*)" 

1160 PRINT"T) TIME-OUT " ; PPS ! TAB{T) " 0) TIME-OUT " ;00S; : RETURN 

1170 GOSUB930 :F0RIL=1T06 3:PRINT"-"; :GOSUB210 : NEXTIL : RETURN 

1180 REM'CONVERSION AFTER TD" 

1190 CLS:XP=PEEK(C3) : IFXP>53THEN11 90 

1200 PRINT"CONVERSION ATTEMPT ( 5-SECONDS ONLY !]": PRINT 

1210 PRINT"SELECT 1) EXTRA POINT KICK" 

1220 PRINT" or 2) TWO POINT TRY" 

1230 HHS=INKEYS 

1240 IN$=INKEYS:PX=PEEK(C3) : IFPX>XP+5THEN1360 

1250 IFINS="2"THEN1270 

1260 IFINS='1"THEN1390ELSE1240 

1270 CLS:GOSUB230 

1280 PRINT'THE QUARTERBACK ROLLS OUT" 

1290 PRINT'ON A RUN/PASS OPTION . . .": GOSUB230 : PRINT 

1300 CV=RND(3) :IFCV=1THENPRINT"HE DIVES FOR THE GOAL . . . " ; 

1310 IFCV=2THENPRINT"HE PITCHES TO THE HALFBACK . . ."; 

1320 IFCV-3THENPRINT"HE THROWS FOR THE FULLBACK . . ."; 

1330 GOSUB240 

1340 JM=RND(lfl) :IFJH>7THENPRINT" GOOD U":GOTO1370 

1350 PRINT' NO GOOD ! " :GOSUB23 :CLS ; GOSUB230 

1360 DN=1:YL=20:YG=10:C=0:POKEC9,32:KNS=INKEYS: RETURN 

137 IFOOS=TM$THENHS=HS-f2ELSEVS=VS-l-2 

1380 GOTO1360 

1390 REM"EXTRA POINT" 

1400 CLS:GOSUB230:LK=F!ND(15) 

1410 PRINT"THE QUARTERBACK TAKES THE SNAP" : GOSUB230 

1420 PRINT:PRINT"THE KICK IS UP . . AND . . . " ; :GOSUB240 

1430 IFLK=1THENGOSUB4570:GOTO1360 

1440 PRINT" GOOD ! !" 

1450 IF0OS=T«STHENHS=HS-t-lELSEVS=VS+l 

1460 GOTO1360 

1470 IFHS>VSTHENDS=HS-VS:LS=HT5ELSEDS=VS-HS-.LS=VTS 

1480 IFTY=1ANDHS-VSTHENPRINT0599,"THE GAME IS TIED" : GOTO1500 

1490 IFTY=1THENPRINT§598,LS;" LEADS BY";DS 

1500 IFtY=1THENGOSUB270 

1510 TY=liCLS:GOSUB230: RETURN 

1520 REM"KICK-OFF" 

1530 GOSUB23 0:CLS:YG=0:DN=0:YL=40:GOSUB800:PRINTgX8," ■; :CLS 

1540 POKt:,L9,32:GOSUB1470 

1550 IF00$=TMSTHENGYS=VTS:GZS=HTSELSEGYS=HTS:GZS=VTS 

1560 PRINT" "jGYS;" KICKS-OFF . . .": GOSUB260 : PRINT 

1570 K1-RND(4) : IFKl >2THENyL=RND ( 21) -t-9ELSEyL=RND ( 21) +28 

1580 K0=RND(4) : IFKO=3THEN1650 

1590 PRINTGZS;" SETS UP THE RETURN" : GOSUB230 

1600 PRINT"AND HE'S BRINGING IT OUT . . ." 

1610 GOSUB270 

1620 PRINT" HE'S DOWN AT THE";YL;: 

1630 DN=1:YG=10 

1640 GOSUB230 :GOSUB 800 :GOSUB270: RETURN 

1650 YL=30:YG=10:DN=1 

1660 PRINT"IT'S DOWNED IN THE ENDZONE" 

1670 GOTO1640 

1680 HEM"FREE KICK" 

16 90 YG-10:DN=l:PRINTgX8," ";@X5,' 
1700 GOSUB250:CLS:GOSUB1470:GOSUB230 
1710 PRINT"HERE'S THE FREE KICK FROM THE 20 . . ." 
1720 GOSUB230:GOSUB220:PRINT 

1730 YL=RND(20) ■^30 

1740 PRINT"IT'S RETURNED TO THE";yL;"ll" 

1750 GOSUB250:GOTO17 80 

1760 RETURN 

1770 REM"CHANGE OF POSSESSION" 

17 80 GOSUB270 

1790 1F00S=THSTHEN00S=TNSELSE00S=TMS 

1800 IFPEEK(C9) =32THENPOKEC9,42:C=1ELSEPOKEC9,32:C=0 

1810 DN=1:YG=10 

1820 IFC=1ANDYL<10THENYG=YL 

1830 GOSUB800 

1840 GOTO2760 

1850 REM"INTERCEPTION" 

18b0 GOSUB2 20 : IFC=0THENR=RND( 30 ) -fl 9ELSER=RND ( 45) +4 

18/0 PRINTe66 4, "INTERCEPTED !1":GOSUB220 

1860 IFC=0ANDR>YLTHEN1920 

1890 IFC-0ANDR<YLTHEN1930 

1900 IFC=1ANDR>YLTHEN1930 

1910 IFC=1ANDR<YLTHEN1920 

1920 PRINTTAB(26)"AT THE" ;R:GOTO1940 

1930 GOSUB230:PRINTTAB(22) "RETURNED TO THE";R 

1940 IFOOS"THSTHENA5=A5-t-lELSES5=S5+l 

l.islim: conimuctt 



IFYL<30THENPRINT" ! ! 1 " 



l";3X7-t-l,"l( 



106 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



Listing ronlinued 

1950 GOSUB230:YL=R:GOTO17a0 
1960 GOSUB230:CLS:GOSUB220 

1979 PRINT§598, "TURNOVER ON DOWNS' 

1980 GO5UB250: RETURN 

1990 IFOOS=TMSTHENOO$-TNS:RETURNELSEOO$-TMS: RETURN 

200fl REM"SCOREBOARD UPDATE" 

2010 IFC=0THENYL=YL+R 

20 20 IFC-lTHENyL=YL-R:IFYL>50THEN2110ELSEPOKEC9,42 

2030 IFYL>50THENYL=5fl-(YL-B0) :C=1 :POKEC9,42 

2040 IFC-0ANDYL<=0THEN2190 

2050 IFYL<=0THEN2120 

2060 YG=YG-R:IFYG<=0THENYG-10:DN-l!GOTO2880 

207 DN=DN+1:IFDN>4THENGOSUB1960:GOTO1770 

2080 IFC-1ANDDN=1ANDYL<10THENYG=YL 

2090 IFDN=1THENPOKEC0,42ELSEPOKEC0,32 

2100 RETURN 

2110 YL-50-(YL-50) :C«fl:POKEC9,32:GOTO2060 

2120 CLS:GOSUB1070 

2130 IFOOS=TH$THENHS=HS+6ELSEVS=VS+6 

2140 YL»3:DN-0:YG-0:GOSUB800 

2150 GOSUB147fl 

2160 GOSUB1190:GOSUB1990:GOSUB153 0:GOSUB800 

2170 GOTO2760 

2180 RE«"SAFETY" 

2190 IFOOS=TMSTHENVS"VS+2ELSEHS=HS+2 

2200 CLS:PRINTe598," SAFETY IM" 

2210 PK=1:GOSUB750:GOSUB230 

2220 YL=20:GOSUB800:POKEC9,42 

2230 GOTO1690 

2240 PRINT§590,"THE BALL ROLLS INTO THE ENDZONE II" 

2250 GOSUB250 

2260 RX=RND(2) : IFRX=1THENGOSUB2290 :GOT0213B 

2270 GOSUB250:IFOO$=THSTHENOOS"TN$:aS-HS+2ELSEOOS»TK$:VS-VS+2 

2280 GOTO2200 

2290 GOSUB230:CLS:PRINTg534, "RECOVERED BY ■;00$; 

2300 GOSUB230!CLS:GOTO1070 

2310 REM"PENALTlES" 

2320 CLS 

2330 PRINT§598, "DELAY OF GAME I " 

2340 PRINTTAB(22) ■5-YARD PENALTY" 

2350 YP=5 

2360 GOSUB23fl 

2370 IFC=0AND(ABS(YP) •2] >YLTHENYP-INT(yL/2) :GOSUB4590 

23 80 IFC=0THENYL=YL-YPELSEYL=YL+YP:GOSUB4600 

2390 IFOO$-TM$THENA8=A8+l:A9=A9+YPELSES 8=58+1 :S9-S9+YP 

2400 YG^YG+YP 

2410 GOSUB280 

2420 GOSUB800:GOTO2760 

2430 M-=25:NP=RND(3) :PRINT:PRINTTAB(M) "PENALTY ll":GOSUB230 

2440 IFNP=1THENYP-5:PRINTTAB(M) " 5-YARDS" :GOTO4610 

2450 IFNP=3THENYP=10:PRINTTAB{H} "10-YARDS" :GOTO4620 

2460 YP=5:PRINTTAB{M) "5-YARDS":PRINTTAB(21) "OFFSIDES-OFFENSE I" 

2470 IFOOS=TNSTHEN2500 

24 80 IFPH-0THENA3-A3-1:A4=A4-1ELSEA1=A1-1 
2490 GOTO2360 

25 00 IFPH=0THENS3=S3-1:S4=S4-1ELSES1=S1-1 
2510 GOTO2360 

2520 PRINTe535,"** OFFICIAL **" :PRINTTAB ( 26) "TIME-OUT" ; 

2530 PRINT#664,59-PEEK(C3}+l;"SECONDS "; 

2540 IFPEEK(C3)<>58THEN2530 

2550 IFQRS-"lst"ORQRS="3rd"THENGOSUB153 

2560 POKEC2,1:POKEC3,0 

2570 GOSUB800!X3=143:GOTO2760 

2580 GOSUB770:CLS:PRINTe403,"** SELECT PLAY •*";;PHINT 

2590 PRINT:GOSUB1100 

2600 IN$=INKEYS 

2610 VI=VAL(IN$) 

2620 P3=P1:P4=PEEK(C3) 

2630 P1=PEEK(C2) : IFP1>P3THENT1=T1-1 

2640 IFTK0THEN3000 

2650 IFP1-»ANDP3>P1THENT1-T1-1 

2660 T2=59-P4 

2670 PRINTgX3,Tl;":";T2; 

26U0 P5=P5-.3:REM"20-SECOND TIME" 

2690 IFINT(P5)=0TBEN232fl 

2700 IFVI>0THEN2750 

2710 PRINT0X4,INT(P5} ;eX0,INT(P5) ; 

2720 IFIN5="P"THEN4130 

2730 IFINS="T"ORINS="0"THEN2930 

2740 VI=VAL(INS) :IFVI<=0THEN260fl 

2750 ONVIGOTO3340, 3460, 3540, 3620, 3780, 3 890, 3990, 4060 f 4430 

2760 CLS:IFPK-0THENGOSUB750 

2770 PRINT§Gl,YU;eG2,YE; 

27B0 IFCM>10THEN3000 

2790 PRINTeX3,10-CM;"!";59-CS; 

2800 GOSUB770 

29ia PRlttTe391,OOS;TftB(19)"** SELECT PLAY **";TAB(45100$ 

2820 PRINTTABdS)"* CLOCK IS STOPPED •■;GOSUBll0B 

2830 IN$=INKEYS 

Lislmg continued 



POWER 

ISNT EAS: 




pf 5m List of Advertisers on Page 192 



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Nice properties fall out of this 
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Box 11721 San Francisco, CA 94101 



80 Micro. December 1984 • 107 



MULTI-BASIC 

The Compatible BASIC Compiler from Alcor 

(Supported Features Chart) 



@ 



XENIX 

MULTIUSER SOFTWARE 





IF ELSE/FOR NEXT 
WHILE WEND 
OPEN /CLOSE 






• 
• 
• 


• • 

• • 
■ « 


CREATE/DELETE 
PRtNT /PRINT USING 
LPRINT/LPRINT USING 






• 
• 


• * 

• • 


PRINTS 

INPUT /LINE INPUT 

INPUT »/LINE INPUT* 






• 


■ • 


READ «/REAO KLINE 
LOC.'LOF/EOFyERROfl 
flELD/GEI/PUT 






■ 


• ■ 


flSET'LSET/ERASE 
MKDS.'MKIS/MKSS 
CVI/CVS(CVO'SPC 










READ /DAT A /RESTORE 

TRON;TR0FF 

OEFFN'RANDOM/RND 








• • 
« ■ 


OEF USR;SWAP,'WA1T 
CALL lASSEMBLflANG) 
OEFSTR(OBL/SNG/INT 










DOUBLE /REAL 

INTEGER/STRING 

GOTO^GOSUB 










ON ERROR GOTO 
RESUME/RESUME NEXT 
ERL/ERR 










ON number GOTO/GOSUB 
NAME, RENAME 
PEEK.POKE/INP/OUT 




• 
• 






SrSIfM'SOUND 

SADDMATCH.UCASEJ 

VAL'TAB/STRS/VARPTR 




• 






SIN'COS/TAN/ATN 
LOG/EXP'ABS.'SQR 
COMMANK'IF END 




• 
• 


• 




INKEYS' INPUTS 
TIMES'DATEJ/HEXS/OCTS 
STRINGS.' SPACES 




• 
• 
• 




• 


LEFTS; RIGHTS. MtDS 
CHRE/ASC'LEN/SGN 
OPTION BASE 




• 
• 




• • 


ROW/POS/LPOS 

DIM/MEM/FRE 

MOD/MFRE 




• 




• • 


GET/PUT fCHARACTER) 
KILL'CLS/CLEAR;INSTR 
(NT/FIX /CINT 




• 
• 




• • 


CSNG/CDBL 

CHAIN 

CONSTATS /CONCH AR% 




• 




• • 

• ■ 


CONSOLE /LPRINTER 
BINARY RANDOM FILES 
ASCII RANDOM FILES 




a 




• • 

• • 


255 CHARACTER NAMES 
BEOIMENStONFD ARRAYS 
UNLlMiT ED STRING S'ZE 








■ • 

• * 

• • 


MULTI-LINE FUNCriCNS 
PROCEDURES -RECURSION 
FUNCTION TRACING 








• • 


LOCAL VAHtASLES 
NESTED FUNCTtONS 
OPTIONAL LINE NUMBERS 








• • 

• ■ 


DESCRIPTIVE LABELS 
■SINGLE PRECISION 
DOUBLE PRECISION 
LINK TO PASCAL & C 


• 


• 
• 




• • 



For TRS80 models I, M. Ill, 4, 12. or 2000 using TRSDOS, 
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290B IF005=THSTHEHVS-VS+3:005=TMS 

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292B GOSUBa00:GOTO2760 

2930 I?INS-"0"THEN48e0 

2940 IPINS-'T'THEN4e40 

2950 REM'TIHE-OUTS" 

2960 YE-B:GOTO2600 

2970 YU-BiGOTO2600 

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299B GOTO2580 

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3010 IFQRS-'4th"THEN3060 

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3080 POKEC9,32 

3090 C-0:CL5 

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3210 CLS:PRINTg6B0,"END OF QUARTER" 

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(Order Inquiries/Customer Service &) IN TEXAS: 817-573-4111 



--2U 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 111 



SAVE A BUNDLE 



WITH ONE OF 
OUR BUNDLES 



We haw put together special bundles ot software just m lime to save you a txjndle ol money Didn't you ever worxJer wtiy CP/M was so 
poptilar^ Tfw reason is the software availability All programs (except EP) are (or the Model 4/4P and have been optimized to install and tun 
without hassle For example we have memory-mapped WcxdStar' and it ains circles around the standard version available elsewhere We 
also added printer drivers (or the Daisywheel H and the DMP-2100 Our CP/M* 2.2 is the best around. Read the reviews Vou know the 
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Save A Bundle on these books and disks 

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Th« Tc* F'M ■•« me 'a ora«r» orWir 



CP/M . . .The Software Key 
That Unlocks Your Model 4 

CP/M is the standard 8-bit Z-80 operating system and many thousands of programs have been written to run under this 
system. With Montezuma Micro's CP/M you can run these programs on your Model 4/4P. Think about ail those nationally 
known programs you've wanted to use. Programs like WordStar dBASE II; SuperCalc; MultiPlan etc. With our version ot 
CP/M 2.2 all those public domain programs on bulletin boards across the USA are available for free downloading. CP/M is 
the missing link that joins all this software to your Model 4/4P. Montezuma Micro's CP/M comes ready to use and requires 
no hardware modifications. This product has been awarded the best and highest ratings in the reviews and we are 
continuously improving it with you in mmd. With our CP/M you get more than just a DOS, You get the other half of your 
Model 4/4P. 



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Less Hard Disk Drive Support $169 

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• Full range of floppy drive support. Dual-head and/or 80 
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on 128K machines, 

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program furnished at no charge, allows tor tile transfer and 
remote database access such as CompuServ and The 
Source. 

• CONFIG is our flexible utility that allows complete control 
of all operating parameters from menus. Format, read and 
write more than 30 different manufacturer's disk formats 
with more being added rapidly, 

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S64 Model 4P - No PAL 



Ttiis popular softvvare is available for the Model 4/4P 
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WordStar Fast memory-mapped version 3,3 $250 

MailMerge Multi-purpose file merging program , , , 125 
SpellStar 20.000 v^ford proof-reader on a stick , . . 125 
Starlndex Creates indices and Tables of Content . . 85 

DataStar Data entry and retrieval is yours 175 

ReportStarRepon generator and file manipulator 150 

InfoStar The above two programs 300 

dBASE II with Disk Tutorial 385 

CBASIC version 2 8 85 

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ORDER INFORMATION 

Calf now and your order will be shipped immediately We accept 
American Express. MasterCard and Visa plus we ship COD (cash o' 
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shipped Add $4 shipping pc item on orders withm Ihe 48 slates. 
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there are NO REFUNDS, Defective ilems will be replaced uponthei' 
return, postpaid. 



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Specifications subfect to change without notic* 



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SCIENCE 



by Michiel van de Panne 



Fractals: 

New Dimensions in Geometry 

Use a new geometric theory to create 
unique Model I/m graphics. 



Fractals" may sound like a new 
kind of breakfast cereal, but 
in fact they're a new category 
of geometric forms (see Photos 1-7). 
Fractals occur often in nature, and they 
have some strange properties. They 
aren't one-, two-, or three-dimensional, 
but somewhere in between. Odd as it 
may sound, they can be finite and in- 
finite at the same time. 

Fractals lend themselves to a variety 
of computer graphics applications, so 
I've written a Model l/IIl program that 
creates regular fractal shapes. But I'll 
start by explaining how to tell a fractal 
when you see one. 

The Truth About Fractals 

The mathematician Benoit Mandel- 
brot coined the term fractal about a 
decade ago. The word derives from the 
Latin for "broken." A fractal is an ob- 
ject or shape having pans that increase 
toward infinity in number as they de- 
crease toward infmitesimal in size, and 
the shapes of these parts echo the shape 
of the whole. 

Take, for example, a coastline as seen 
from a satellite. The large patterns on 
this scale, covering hundreds of miles, 
are often remarkably similar to the out- 
line of a section of coast covering only a 
few hundred yards or even a few hun- 
dred inches. 

As you reduce the perspective scale, 
the coastline becomes longer. To a 
plane flying overhead, a section of coast 
is one length. But if you're walking, 
that same stretch of coast is much 
longer, on account of dips and rises in 
the land. To an ant crawling over small 
rocks and into tiny crevasses, the dis- 
tance is even greater. As the scale gets 
smaller, the distance approaches in- 
finity. 

As another example, start with an 
equilateral triangle. If you add a smaller 
triangle to each side, you get a 12-sided 

114 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



star (see Photo I). Adding still smaller 
triangles to each side of the star produc- 
es a 48-sided figure (see Photo 2). Con- 
tinue the process and the figure ap- 
proaches a circle. 

The area of the figure is finite; it can't 
exceed that of a circle tangent to the ver- 
tices of the largest triangle. However, 
the perimeter approaches infmity as you 
add detail. 

Drawing Fractals 

The Program Listing is a short Basic 
program that draws fractals to your spe- 
cifications. These aren't true fractals; 
their perimeters aren't infinite. Howev- 
er, you can create figures as detailed as 
video screen resolution permits. The 
Table describes the program's most im- 
portant variables. 

When you type in and run the Listing, 
the program prompts you for the 
specifications of your figure. First you 
determine the number of sides of the 




Photo I. Three sides, no inverse, one ievei. 



The Key Box 

Models I and III 
Bask 



1^0*0 



basic figure. To create the figure shown 
in Photo 2, for example, you type in 3, 
because the basic shape is a triangle. 

Then you answer the prompt IN- 
VERSE? by typing in Y or N. This deter- 
mines whether smaller shapes are added 
(N) or taken away (Y) from the larger 
shape. Photo 1 shows a three-sided 
noninverse figure; Photo 3 shows a 
three-sided inverse figure. 

Finally, you control the complexity of 
the figure by specifying a number of lev- 
els. This determines the number of times 
the program repeats the process of ad- 
ding or taking away smaller shapes. The 
higher the number you type in, the more 
complicated the figure. Inverse figures 
decrease in area as the number of levels 
increases; noninverse figures increase in 
area. 

The accompanying photos are screen 
shots of figures drawn by the program. 
Photos 1-4 start with a triangle. Photo 1 
shows a triangle with a smaller triangle 
added to each side; you select three 
sides, no inverse, and one level to create 
this figure. Photo 2 adds one more level; 
the program adds smaller triangles to 
each side of the figure in Photo 1. 
Photos 3 and 4 show inverse three-sided 
figures. Photo 3 shows a triangle with 
smaller triangles taken out of each side; 
in Photo 4, the process repeats a second 
time. 

In Photo 5, the basic shape is a square; 
you specify four sides, no inverse, and 3 
levels to create this figure. Photo 6 shows 
a 5-sided, inverse, two-level figure. The 
figure in Photo 7 is six-sided, noninverse, 
and has two levels. You can draw a 
figure with 40 or 50 sides or more, but 
the number of levels is much more 
limited. 

The program creates regular fractals, 
rarely found in nature except in some 
types of perfect crystal growth. Howev- 
er, as 1 demonstrated in the begirming 



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80 Micro, December 1984 • 115 



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Photo 2. Three sides, no inverse, two levels. 

of this article, landiscapes can also be 
fractals, although they're irregular and 
asymmetrical. 

The idea of landscapes as fractals is 
behind the work of some computer 
gr^hics specialists who create artificial 
landscapes for flight simulators, movie 
sets, and other purposes. The fractals 
you draw with my program are less 



Photo 3. Three sides, inverse, one level. 

sp)ectacular, but they're a good place to 
start exploring the possibilities of these 
intriguing geometric forms. ■ 



You can reach Michiel van de Panne, 
an engineering student at the University 
of Calgary, at Box 13. Site 16, SSI, Cal- 
gary, Alberta T2M 4N3. Canada. 



VariaMe 


Description 


AS 


Contains letters indicating all turns in drawing 


Al 


Angle or line segment to be drawn next 


a 


Contains letter indicating Tirst turn for drawing 


CF 


Conversion factor between degrees and radians 


CX 


Starting X value for drawing 


CY 


Starting Y value for drawing 


IS 


Contains a 'Y' or 'N' depending on reply to inverse question 


L 


Number of degrees to turn left in a left turn 


LE 


Number of levels chosen 


LL 


Length of all line segments on the screen 


R 


Number of degrees to turn right in a right turn 


S 


Number of sides chosen 


XI 


Starting X value for drawing line 


X2 


Ending X value for drawing line 


Yl 


Starting Y value for drawing line 


Y2 


Ending Y value for drawing line 


W 


Number of degrees to turn initially, used in inverse drawings 




Table. Variables for Fraclt^ program. 




Photo 6. five sides, inverse, two levels. 



Photo 7. Six sides, no inverse, two levels. 



116 • 80 Micro. December 1984 




Photo 4. Three sides, inverse, two levels. 



Photo 5. Four sides, no inverse, three levels. 



Propwn Listing. Fractds gn^hics program. 



IB REM *** All remarks can be left out *** 

20 CLEAR 1000:CLS:CF=3. 1416/180 

3B REM *** Define point to start drawing •** 

40 CX=80:CY-38:X2-CX:Y2-49-CY 

50 INPl]T"NUHBER OP SIDES" ;S 

60 INPUT"INVERSE";I$:I$oLEFT$(I$,l) 

70 REM *** Define number of degrees for right and left turn *** 

80 R=-360/S:L=-R+180 

90 IFI$="Y"THENC$="A":W-RiR— LjL— H ELSE C$-'R' 

100 A$-C$ 

110 IFIS<>"Y"THEN14B 

120 A1$="R":S1-S-2;F0R1J-1T0S1:A1$=A1$+"L"!NEXTN:A1S=A1S+"R' 

13B G0T016B 

140 AlS-"L"!Sl-S-2iFORN-lTOSl:AlS=A15+"R":NEXTN 

150 A15=A1$+-L' 

16B INPUT-NUMBER OF LEVELS' ;LE: IF LE-1 THEN GOTO 230 

17B REM **• Build String containing right and left *** 

180 REM *** turns to be done. *** 

190 F0RN=2 TO LEiLN=LEN(A$) 

2B0 FORNl=l TO LN :B$=B$+HID$ (AS ,N1 , 1) +A1$:NEXTN1 

210 AS-B$:BS='"':NEXTN 

220 REM *** Lines 125-13B choose length of line segments *** 

230 CLS:IF S<5 THEN GOTO 250 

24B LL=15B/{S*3[LE) :GOT027B 

25% LL'=48/(3(LE} 

260 REM •*• Actual drawing loop begins here •** 

270 F0RZ=1T0S 

2B0 FORN-1 TO LEN{AS) 

290 B1$=MIDS(AS,N,1)+A15 

300 F0RN1=1 TO LEN(BIS) :BS-MIDS(B1$,N1,1) 

31B IFB$«"A"THEN A=A+W: GOTO330 

320 IFB$="L"TaEN A-A+L ELSE A=A+R 

33B A1-A*CF 

34B X=X+LL*C0S(A1) :Y=Y+LL*SIN(A1) 

350 XP=INT(X) :YP-INT(Y) :X1-XP+CX j Yl-4»-(YP/2+CY) IGOSUB46S 

360 X2=X1:Y2-Y1 

370 NEXTN1:NEXTN:NEXTZ 

380 REM •*• Done drawing *** 

390 PRINTeiB19,"DONE"; 

4BB REM *** Press any key to exit *•* 

41B AS=INKEYS 

420 A$-INKEY$:IFA$e""THEH 420 ELSE PRINT:END 

430 GOTO420 

44B REM *** Check to ensure that endpointa of *** 

450 REM *** Line are on screen *** 

4eB IF X1<0 OR Xl>127 THEN RETURN 

470 IF X2<0 OR X2>127 THEN RETURN 

480 IF YK0 OR Yl>47 THEN RETURN 

490 IF Y2<B OR Y2>47 THEN RETURN 

500 IF X1-X2 AND Y1=Y2 THEN SETtXl , Yl) :RETURN 

51fl REM *** Draw a line from point XI, Yl to X2,Y2 •** 

520 A5=ABS(X2-X1) :B5=ABS { Y2-Y1) : IFA5>B5THEN530 ELSE570 

53 B IFX2>XlTHENC5-Xl!D5=X2:E5=Yl:F5=Y2:GOTO550 

540 C5=X2:D5=X1:E5-Y2:F5-Y1 

55 B G5=D5-C5 1 H5- ( F5-E5 ) /G5 1 FORU5=C5TOD5 

560 SET(U5,E5) :E5-E5+H5 :NEXT:GOTO610 

570 IFY2>Y1THENC5=Y1:D5-Y2:E5»X1:FS-X2:GOTO590 

580 C5=Y2:D5-Y1:E5=X2;F5=X1 

59B G5«=D5-C5:H5={F5-E5)/G5 

6B0 FORU5=CSTOD5:SETCES,U5) :E5-&5+B5:)IEXT 

61B RETURN 



End 



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80 Micro, December 1984 • ^^^ 



TUTORIAL 



by David A. Williams 



PRINT 
STATEMENTS 



Things your Model 4 owner's manual never told you about printing- 
like how to prevent the 4 from aborting a printer operation, 
using the Forms command to design your documents, 
and running the 4's built-in spooler. 



Your Model 4 owner's manual 
isn't perfect; in fact, it doesn't 
tell you everything you need to 
know about using your system with a 
printer. If you've upgraded from a 
Model III to a Model 4, this tutorial will 
help you take advantage of the new 
Model 4 printer-interface features. 
You'll learn how to stop the 4 from 
aborting the printing operation when it 
receives a "printer busy" signal, how to 
use the Forms command to format 
printer output, and how to use the 4's 
built-in spooler so you can use the com- 
puter while it sends data to the printer. 

Busy Signals 

One difference between the Models 
III and 4 is their response to the "printer 
busy" signal. If the printer isn't ready, 
the Model III hangs up, while the Model 
4 waits 10 seconds and then aborts the 
operation. 

You can modify the Model 4 printer 
driver so that it hangs up, like the Model 
III, when a printer error occurs. To do 
this, you first must find the location of 
the printer driver. The Device command 
identifies this as starting at location OEOF 
hexadecimal (hex). The value that sets 
the lime delay is at locations 0E28 hex 
and 0E29 hex. The present val- 
ue is 07D0 hex. The following patch re- 
places the delay with code that freezes 
the computer: 

PATCH SYSO/SYS.LSIDOS (X'0E2P = 3E 06 

EFFE800000000000 00) 

118 • 80 Micro, DBcemberl 984 



Because the patch change the disk detect a buffer-full condition (printer 

and not memory, you have to reboot to not ready) in midstream, as it sends more 

make the change effective. This patch than one character at a lime, 

keeps the driver hung up until the printer Here's another way to lest for an error 

is ready or you press the break key. and branch if one occurs. This method 

If you want to lengthen the 10-second doesn't work with the patched version, 

delay period rather than hang up the however: 
system, increase the present value. If you 

clear the printer ai any point during this ** °^ ^^^^ "^^ ^ 
delay, the driver immediately starts work- 
ing again. Also, pressing the reset button ioolprint 
is the only way to interrupt the delay. 

Printer Status 200 if err = 57 then resume 220 

w;,-., ,™.'™,,^t-«« ^ D^.v „. o 21OEND OR aher RESUME aaiemcnl 

When you re wntmg a Basic program, ,„ , , „ . 

, , , ... -c ■ , 22() Input Pnnler not readv, conunue (Y or) 

you can check the pnnter to see if it s tsn-.(5 

ready before you send data to it. You do 230 if is = "Y'THFN lOOELSE 
this on the Model III by PEEKing 14312 

and testing the contents. This method, Assembly-language programmers 
however, doesn't work for the Model 4. have more options than Basic program- 
Instead, you can access the printer port r"ers, because they can control printer 
with the INP command. The following output by building the necessary delec- 
sequence prints an error message if the t'O" routines. The following sequence 
printer isn't ready and waits for you to '"^ads the printer port to determine 
respond: printer status: 

100 IF (INP(248) AND 240) = 48 THEN 200 ^ A,(()I-«H) 

1 10 PRINT "PRINTER NOT READY. ^'^ *"^* 

<ENTER> TO CONTINUE" ^ ^^ 

120 IS = INKEn :IF IS = ""THEN 120 ELSE ^ Z.OUTPUT 

100 



200LPRINT 



This technique works only before 
printing starts; it works with both the 
original driver and the patched version. 
Unfortunately, a Basic program can't 



The Key Box 

Model 4 
TRSDOS 6.1 
Prinler 



When the printer is ready, the Z flag is 
set and your program jumps to the out- 
put routine. 

Formatting with Forms 

The Forms command lets you format 
your printed documents. This command 
passes parameters to Forms/FLT, one 
of the three built-in filter programs, and 
controls the size of the printed page, 
number of lines per page, and number of 
characters per page. 

The only problem with Forms/FLT is 
that it doesn't reset the line counter after 
printing the first of several files sent to 
the printer. To remedy this in Basic, type 
in LPRINT CHR$(06) at the Basic 
Ready prompt. This command also 
works from within a Basic program. 

From the TRSDOS Ready prompt, 
pressing the reset button resets the count- 
er, but may also have negative side ef- 
fects. In keeping track of the number 
of lines printed in location lOOB hex, 
Forms/FLT resets the location to 00 af- 
ter you send ASCII 06 to the printer. 
This memory command is one of several 
ways to reset to 00: 

MEMORY (ADD = X' lOOB'.BYTE = X'OO') 

This is cumbersome, but you can use 
the keystroke muhiply filter (KSM), 
which requires only a single keystroke. 
Also, you can save the Forms/FLT con- 
figuration with the SYSGEN com- 
mand. Each time you boot up, the filter 
will be installed with the same parame- 
ters. 

The TRSDOS Spooler 

The Spool command sets up a built- 
in printer buffer that takes data generat- 
ed from your program and transfers it 
to your printer as it becomes free. The 
advantage of this command is that it 
makes your computer available for other 
uses. You can either use memory alone 
or combine it with the disk buffer. Spool 
works as described in the manual, but 
with one exception: SuperScripsit won't 
load properly if you used the MEM pa- 
rameter in the Spool command line. If 
MEM isn't specified, the default is 1900 
bytes in the memory portion of the 
buffer. 

The command SPOOL (DISK = 30) 
solves this problem by creating a 30K 
byte file on drive zero named PR/SPL. 
You can specify any size disk buffer as 
long as there's room on the disk. SYS- 
GEN won't save your Spool configura- 
tion, but AUTO lets you install it when 
you boot up your disk. ■ 

Write to David A. Williams at 2452 
Chase Circle, Clearwater, FL 33546. 

^ See Lisi or Advertisers on Page 792 



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80 Micro, Decern t}er 1984 • 119 



SCIENCE 



by Don DeJamette 



A CHILL 
WIND BLOWS 



Be prepared for the harsh winter wind. Chilly calculates 
the wind chill factor based on temperature and wind speed. 



BRRRR. That's the difference 
between the temperature and 
the wind chill factor. While 
temperature readings are important, the 
wind chill factor is the most accurate 
measure of human discomfort in cold 
weather. 

My Model I/11I/4 program, Chilly, 
calculates the wind chill factor for given 
weather conditions (see the Program 
Listing). The program incorporates the 
National Weather Service's Equivalent 



Temperature Chan and a formula de- 
veloped by Paul A. Siple and Charles F. 
Passel, the scientists who advanced the 
idea of wind chill while working in Ant- 
arctica in 1939. 

Siple and Passel developed their mea- 
sure of human discomfort based on 
both temperature and wind sF>eed. They 
determined the time required to freeze 
250 grams of water under various com- 
binations of wind and temperature and 
extraprolated their data to predict hu- 



20 CLS 

40 PRINT 'STAND 

68 DIM WC(lBrl9) 

80 FOR P - 1 TO 1 

180 FOR O - 1 TO 

120 READ WC(P,0) 

140 NEXT 0,P 

160 DATA 45,40,35 

180 DATA 43,37,32 

200 DATA 34,28,22 

220 DATA 29,23,16 

240 DATA 26,19,12 

260 DATA 23,16,8, 

280 DATA 21,13,6, 

16 

300 DATA 20,12,4, 

20 

320 DATA 19,11,3, 

123 

340 DATA 18,10,2, 

125 

360 CLS 

380 PRINT 

? (V/N) "; 
400 INPUT ANS 
420 IF ANS-"V" TH 
440 CLS 

460 PRINT -ENTER 
48B PRINT "».-.- 
500 PRINT '45 40 
520 PRINT ■--'== 
540 INPUT T: C^T 
560 IF C=45 THEN 
580 IF C=40 THEN 
600 IF C-35 THEN 
620 IF C-30 THEN 
m IF C=2^ THES 
660 IF C-20 THEN 



Program Listing. Wind chill cakutalor. 



BY - ARRAY LOADING" 



19 



,30,25,20,15,10,5,0,-5,-10,-15,-20,-25,-30,-35,-40,-45 

,27,22,16,11,6,0,-5,-10,-15,-21,-26,-31,-36,-42,-47,-52 
,16,20,3,-3,-9,-15,-22,-27,-34,-40,-46,-52,-5 8,-64,-71,-77 
,9,2,-5,-11,-18,-25,-31,-3 8,-45,-51,-5 8,-6 5,-7 2,-7 8,-85,-92 
,4,-3,-10,-17,-24,-31,-39,-46,-53,-60,-67,-74,-81,-88,-95,-103 
1,-7,-15,-22,-29,-36,-44,-51,-5 9,-66,-7 4,-81,-88,-96,-103,-110 
-2,-10,-18,-25,-33,-41,-4 9,-56,-64,-71,-7 9,-86,-93,-101,-189,-1 

-4,-12,-20,-27,-35,-43,-52,-58,-67,-74,-82,-89,-97,-105,-113,-1 

-5,-13,-21,-29,-37,-45,-53,-68,-69,-76,-84,-92,-100,-107,-115,- 

-6, -14, -22, -30,-38,-46, -54, -62, -70, -7 8, -85, --93, -102, -109, -117,- 

"IS THIS CALCULATION TAKING P[.ACE ON A CLEAR DAY WITH THE SUN SHINING 

EN GOTO 440: IF ANS-^^N" THEN GOTO 440: IF ANS""" THEN GOTO 360 

TEMPERATURE IN FARENHEIT FROM CHART" 

35 30 25 20 15 IB 5 B -5 -IB -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45" 



C>1: IF T-45 THEN GOTO 960 

C-2; IF T-4a THEN GOTO 960 

C-3: IF T-35 THEN GOTO 960 

C-4: IF T=30 THEN GOTO 960 

C=S: IF T=25 THEN GOTO 56B 

C-6; IF T-2B THEN GOTO 960 



I islitf ^.I'nl^nued 



man heat loss from radiation, conduc- 
tion, and convection. 

The result of their study is the formu- 
la H=(A+B V^ + Cv)i (see the Figure 
for a definition of the formula sym- 
bols). This equation remains the stan- 
dard measure of wind chill. 

The National Weather Service inter- 
prets the information from Siple and 
Passel's calculation. They realized that 
the general public wouldn't understand 
units of kilogram calories/square me- 
ter/hour, so they use wind-chill temper- 
ature equivalents to describe the wind 
chill factor. The wind-chill equivalent is 
based on a 4-mile- per-hour (mph) wind, 
the wind velocity of a person walking 
briskly. 

Chilly's equivalent temperature chart 
array (array WC) provides data in 
5-degree (Fahrenheit) and 5-mph incre- 
ments. Chilly calculates wind chill heat 
loss using Siple and Passel's formula 
after wind velocity and temperature 
conversions. If the sun is shining, the 
program adds 200 kilogram calo- 
ries/square meter/hour to compensate 
for heat absorption. 

Using ChiUy 

Once you boot up the program, Chilly 
asks you if the sun is shining. It then 



The Key Box 

Models I, m, and 4 
16K RAM Cassette Basic 
32K R4M Disk Basic 



LOADSO^ 



120 ' 80 Micro, December 1984 



prompts you for the temperature (in de- 
grees Fahrenheit) and the wind velocity 
(in miles per hour). After it makes its 
calculations, Chilly displays the current 
temperature and wind velocity and the 
equivalent wind-chill temperature. It 
also tells you the convective heat lost 
due to wind chill in kilogram calories/ 
square meter/hour. 

Wind chill conditions should be 
taken seriously, and this program will 
help you determine when you should 
take precautions against severe weather 
conditions. ■ 



Write to Don DeJametie at 1913 6th 
Ave. £., Tuscaloosa, AL 35401. 



H= wind chiU heat loss in kilogram calories 
per square meter per hour 
V = velocity of wind in meters per second 
t = difference in degrees Celsius between skin 
icmperaiurc (33 degrees) and air temperature 
A= 10.45 
B>= 10.0 
C= -I.O 

Figure. Definition of formula. 



LiaiHg conlinurd 

681 IF C-15 THEN C-7: IP T-15 THEN GOTO 96i 

7BB IF C"i0 THEN C-8: If T-IB THEN GOTO 961 

728 IF C-5 THEN C-S: IF T-5 THEN GOTO 96B 

748 IF C-8 THEN C-lfl: IF T-B THEN GOTO 968 

76B IF C"-5 THEN C-11 : IF T — 5 THEN GOTO 968 

788 IF C — 18 THEN C-12i IF T--18 THEN GOTO 96fl 

608 IF C— 15 THEN C-13: IF T— 15 THEN GOTO 968 

B2B IF C--2fl THEN C-14: IF T— 28 THEN GOTO 968 

648 IF C— 25 THEN C-15: IF T— 25 THEN GOTO 968 

868 IF C— 3B THEN C-I6 [ IF T— 39 THEN GOTO 968 

BB8 IF C— 35 THEN C-17 : IF T— 35 THEN GOTO 968 

9B8 IF C— 48 THEN C-18: IF T— 4B THEN GOTO 96fl 

928 IF C--45 THEN C-19: IF T — 45 THEN GOTO 968 

94B GOTO 368 

96B CI^ 

9Bfl PRINT "ENTER WIND VELOCITY IN M.P.H. FROM CHART" 

lB8fl PRINT ■-,.. — ..•.....--- — »- — ---—-——-——■ 

1B28 PRINT -4 5 IB 15 29 25 38 35 4B 45' 

1048 PRINT ■——•—- — ..- — »- — »—»-."»-.-»-»-■ 

186B PRINT: INPUT V: R-V 

IBBB IF R'4 THEN R"! : IF V-4 THEN GOTO 1388 

1188 IF R-5 THEN R-2 : IF V»5 THEN GOTO 13BB 

1120 IF R-IB THEN R-3: IF V-10 THEN GOTO 1300 

1140 IF 8-15 THEN R-4 : IF V=15 THEN GOTO 138B 

1168 IF R-20 THEN R=5 : IF 7-28 THEN GOTO 1380 

IIBB IF R=25 THEN R-6 : IF V-25 THEN GOTO 138B 

12B8 IF R-38 THEN R-7 : IF V'38 THEN GOTO 1380 

122B IF R-35 THEN R-8: IF V-35 THEN GOTO 13B8 

1248 IF R-48 TREtl R-9: IF V-48 THEN GOTO 1388 

1268 IF R-45 THEN R-lB: IF V-45 THEN GOTO 1388 

1260 GOTO 960 

1388 CLS 

1328 PRINT "TEMPERATURE "jTi'DEGREES FARENHEIT" 

1340 PRINT ■----.-------...------»..-..-»«-.-»-" 

1368 PRINT "WIND VELOCITY ■;Vi"N.P.H." 

1388 PRINT ■-----.-... .- ...... = .■ 

1488 PRINT "WIND CHILL EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURE "; WC ( R,C) ; "DEGREES FARENHEIT" 

1428 PRINT" ----"^ ^.. = ^ = = ^ = = = = =. = = ^ = = = = = = = = = = ^ = = = = = = ^. = ^^- 

144fl TP-T: TP-lTP-32) *. 555555551: TP=33- ( TP) : VL=V: VL-VL»26 . BZ ! VL-VL/68 

146B A'IB.45: B-IB: C— 1 

1498 H-(A*(B* [SQR(VL) ) ) +(C*VL) ) "TP 

1588 IF ANS-"Y- THEN H-H-2Be 

152fl PRINT "WIND CHILL CONVECTIVE HEAT LOSS IS :" 

1548 PRINT Hi 'KILOGRAM CALORIES PER SQUARE METER PER HOUR" 

1568 PRINT ■---- = = -- = -» = = .- = ---«-- = -.».«-. = -"---.---"-- === = = .'■--■ 

1580 PHINT:PRINT:PRINT 

1688 PRINT "HIT ENTER TO RECALCULATE": INPUT Z: GOTO 360 



ALWAYS AT 
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TRS-80 



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PROJECT 80 / by Roger C. Alford 



General-Purpose I/O Board 
Make the Connection 



There are times when Tve wanted 
to connect a simple LED (li^t- 
emitting diode) display to my TRS-80, 
or to interface a TTL (transistor-to- 
transistor logic) device to it. Some 
readers have also asked for a general- 
purpose input/output (I/O) board 
that interfaces with CMOS devices. I 
decided to kiU two birds with one 
stone in this month's column by buikl- 
ing a board you can use for either ap- 
plk:ation. 

The board's main component is an 
8255A parallel peripheral interface 
(PPI), with an 8253/8254 program- 
mable interval timer (PIT) also in- 
cluded (see the Photo). You can use 
the MOS versions of these compo- 
nents (available from Intel and other 
manufacturers) or you can use the new 
CMOS versions available from Harris 
and OKI Semiconductor (see the ad- 
dresses at the end of this column). 

In addition to a connecting cable 
for your TRS-80, you'll need one for 
I/O. The 50-pin socket connector I use 
has 16 general-purpose I/O lines, as 
well as counter inputs and outputs. It 
also provides a seven-segment di^lay 
to display the digits from zero through 
nine. I'll describe the features and op- 
eration of the entire board in more de- 
tail later. 

CMOS venus TTL 

CMOS is the up-and-coming logic 
family because it offers low power and 
fast speeds . The new high-speed 
CMOS logic family— the 74HO00 se- 
ries — offers performance matching 
that of low-power Schottky (74LS00 
series), with a fraction of the power 
consumption. Other CMOS advan- 
tages include excellent noise immuni- 
ty, high immunity to alpha particle at- 
tack, wider possible supply voltages, 
reduced system cooling requirements, 
r«luced IC packaging requirements. 




Photo. Completed 

and lower busing and regulating re- 
quirements. 

While CMOS chips have many us- 
es, you can't easily connect them with 
TTL devices. CMOS outputs tend to 
stay close to the power supply "rails" 
(ground and +5V in most systems). 
The guaranteed minimum high-level 
output voltage for a typical CMOS IC 
is generally within 1 percent of the 
supply voltage, here at least 4.95V us- 
ing a + 5V supply. Likewise, the guar- 
anteed maximum low-level output 
voltage is 0.05V when using a +5V 
supply. 

The outputs of TTL devices do not 
stay so close to the power rails. The 
minimum high-level output voltage 
for a TTL devkx is generally specified 
at 2.4V, while the maximum low-level 
output voltage is 0.4V. 

The input voltage requirements for 
CMOS devices are generally within 20 
percent of the supply voltage for each 
rail. Using a + 5V power supply, the 
minimum high-level input voltage is 
4V, while the maximum low-level in- 



inpul/oulpul board. 

put voltage is IV. Comparatively, the 
minimum high-level input voltage re- 
quirement for TTL devices is 2V, 
while the maximum low-level input 
voltage is 0.8V. 

You can see by looking at the specs 
that CMOS outputs can drive TTL in- 
puts, since the guaranteed output volt- 
age fdls within the requirements of the 
TTL inputs. Also, TTL low-level out- 
puts can drive CMOS inputs, since the 
TTL output (0.4V maximum) is lower 
than the CMOS input requirement of 
0.8V. A problem arises, however, 
when you try to drive a CMOS input 
with a high-level TTL output. The 
minimum guaranteed high-level TTL 
output voltage of 2.4V doesn't meet 



The Key Box 

Models I and HI 
32KRAM 
Disk Basic 



122-00 Micro, Dacember 1984 



PROJECT 80 



the minimum 4.0V input requirement 
of the CMOS device. 

You can overcome this in several 
ways. A simple pull-up resistor on the 
TTL output will raise the voltage 
enough to accommodate the CMOS 
device. Or, a number of converter 
chips are available that convert TTL 
to CMOS levels (and back when you 
use other than + 5V on the CMOS de- 
vice). A third alternative is to use 
CMOS devices that accept TTL-level 
inputs. The new 74HCT00 family 
does this, as well as the CMOS chips I 
will consider shortly (the 82C53, 
82C54, and 82C55A). The TTL inter- 
face on these chips is identical to that 
of the TRS-80 MOS-equivalent devices, 
the 8255A and the 8254 (or 8253). 

The TTL-level interface isn't with- 
out a trade-off, however. The reduced 
input requirements also reduce the de- 
vices' noise immunity. 

A Look at the 8255A (82C55A) PPI 

The 825 5 A parallel peripheral inter- 
face requires four locations in I/O ad- 
dressing space: one for the control reg- 
ister and one for each of three I/O 
ports (ports A, B, and C). The control 
register is write-only, while the other 
three registers are read/write. The 
read/write registers have slightly dif- 
ferent functions depending on the 
8255A's operating mode. 

The 8255A has two primary ports, 
A and B. They're 8-bit ports, and the 8 
bits of either port are all inputs or all 
outputs; you can't assign the in- 
put/output configuration on a bit-by- 
bit basis as with some other I/O chips. 

A third 8-bit port, port C, is actual- 
ly two half-size (4-bit) ports. When 
you're in the Basic 1/0 mode (de- 
scribed below), you can set the direc- 
tions of the upper and lower halves of 
port C independently. When you're in 
any other mode, most of the bits take 
on special handshaking functions, 
leaving only a couple of bits left for 
I/O purposes. The general structure of 
the 8255A is shown in Fig. 1. 

The 8255A has three operating 
modes: Basic I/O (mode zero), 
strobed I/O (mode 1), and bidirec- 
tional bus (mode 2). Each is useful for 
different types of applications. 

Mode zero is probably the 8255A*s 
most commonly used mode. It pro- 
vides 24 1/0 lines as basic input or 
output lines, and it's useful to turn de- 



vices on or off, configure them, or 
read their status. 

When either port A or port B (or 
both) is programmed as an output, the 
port internally latches the binary value 
written to it and it goes to that port's 
eight output lines. 

Port C is slightly different in that 
you can individually program each 
half (4 bits) as input or output. If you 
write to Port C, it internally latches all 
of the bits (if any) pertaining to output 
lines, and the values go to the respec- 
tive output lines. You can also read 
b^k bits written to ports configured 
as outputs. 

Port C has another feature unavail- 
able with port A or B: By sending a 
special command byte to the 8255A 
command register, you can set or clear 
any of the output bits individually 
(without affecting any of the other 
bits). 

When you configure any of the 
above ports (or half-ports) as inputs, 
the computer gets the current bit val- 
ues simply by reading the respective 
port. The bits aren't latched in the 
8255A, so the computer reads only the 
current state of the bits. 

Mode 1 (strobed input/output) uses 
several port C lines for handshaking 
and interrupt functions, leaving only 
two lines free for general-purpose 
I/O. I used this mode in my printer 
buffer project (September and Octo- 
ber, p. 102 and p. 146), and it's useful 
for transferring information between 
two devices. 

Data input to the 8255A is latched 
internally using the handshaking lines 
and can optionally cause an interrupt 
to the processor to occur. Likewise, 
output data to another device is 
latched, with the ^propriate hand- 
shaking taking place. The 8255A can 



DllTl BUI A 



\ COHTHnL 6 LIMES / 



825Sa 
eZCSSA 



KPOUT k A 

I I/O L1MC5 / 

/ POUT t \ 

V » IIP LIMfS / 

4 I/O LIMES J 

KPOm C LOWE«\ 

* I/O uMtt y 



Figure 1. General structure of Ike 8255A/PPI. 



optionally interrupt the processor 
when the remote device accepts the 
output value. 

The 8255A lets you select the modes 
for ports A and B separately. If port A 
is in mode 1, for example, you could 
put port B in mode zero, but you'd 
lose the respective port C handshaking 
»gnals. 

Which port C lines are available for 
basic 1/0 depends on the direction 
you choose for port A. If port A is an 
output, PC4 and PC5 will be free. If 
port A is an input, PC6 and PC7 will 
be free. In either case, you can assign 
the free port C pins as both inputs or 
both outputs. (The printer buffer 
project has a timing diagram showing 
the mode 1 timing.) 

Mode 2 (bidirectional bus) is per- 
mitted for port A only, and also uses 
several port C bits for handshaking 
(PC3-PC7). You use this mode to 
communicate with another device over 
a common 8-bit bus. Using the hand- 
shaking lines, two devices can send in- 
formation back and forth, with the 
bus direction changing as needed. Like 
mode 1, interrupt lines are available, 
which you can use to notify the pro- 
cessor of certain communication con- 
ditions. 

When port A is in mode 2, you can 
specify port B as mode zero or mode 
1 . When specified as mode zero, you 
can use port C bits 0-2 as basic I/O 
lines (all inputs or all outputs). When 
specified as mode 1, you can use 
PC0-PC2 as handshaking lines for 
portB. 

Configuring the 8255A 

Figure 2 shows the mode control- 
word format. You must set the high- 
order bit (bit 7) to indicate a mode set- 
up; otherwise, a port C bit sct/resct 
function takes place. 

Bits 5 and 6 select the mode — zero, 
1, or 2 — for port A. Bit 4 determines 
the direction of port A (1= input, 
= output). Bit 3 determines the direc- 
tion for the upper half of port C (or 
the free port C bits when in mode 1). 
Bit 2 selects the mode — zero or 1 — for 
port B. Bit 1 selects the direction of 
port B, and bit zero selects the direc- 
tion of the lower half of port C (or the 
lower 3 bits when in mode 2). For more 
information on the operation of the 
8255A, see the manufacturer's data 
book (see the reference list at the end 
of this column). 



80 Micro, December 1994 • 123 



PROJECT 80 



The 8253/8254 (82CS3/82C54) PIT 

The 8254 programmable interval 
timer is essentially an improved 8253, 
providing higher clock speeds and sta- 
tus register read-back. You may notice 



in the photogr^h that I used the 8253 
instead of the improved 8254. That's 
because I had several 8253s on hand 
and didn't need the 8254's extra fea- 
tures. 







POBT c Lowen 

1 ■ INPUT, 0' OUTPUT 
PORT B 




l>7 


DS 


Ds 


°* 


°z 


D; 


D| 


Do 








I 1 










1 
















!■ INPUT, 0' OUTPUT 
GROUP B MODE SELECT 






0-MODE 0, I- MODE 1 
PORT C UPPEfi 






1' INPUT. 0-OUTPUT 

POflT a 






1 > INPUT, 0" OUTPUT 






OO'HODE 

1 ■ MODE 1 

1 X ■ »00€ i 

MODE SET FLOG 






Figure 2. 8255A control word Jonnat. 


1- ACTIVE 

0-BIT SET/BESET MODE 



01 Tl BUS 







-GATE 
-CLOCK 
■ OUTPUT 



■ COUMTEP 



■GATE I 1 

-CLOCK I ) COUNTER 

■OUTPUT I 



-GATE ? 
-CLOCK 2 



■* OUTPUT S J 



Figure 3. Base structure 0/8253/8254. 



CLOCK 








VKfi ln-4) 
OUTPUT 




4 J Z 1 












IGATE'HJGMl 


F^re 4. 8254 mode zero timing example. 





CLOCK 
WR In- 4) 


-J 1 i 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 








GATE ITBlGGERl 








* J J 1 


OUTPUT 






Tigure S. 8354 mode 1 timing exwnple. 



Like the 8255A, the 8254 requires 
four locations in the Z80's I/O ad- 
dressing space: one for the control reg- 
ister and one for each of the three 
16-bit counters on the chip. Unlike the 
8253, the 8254 has a control register to 
and from which you car both write 
and read. 

The 8253's control register is write- 
only. The 8254's read-back feature 
gives the processor status information 
about the chip that would otherwise be 
unavailable or, at least, would require 
additional external hardware. The 
three counter registers are read/write 
registers, although they should latch 
time values before reading (as de- 
scribed below). 

As mentioned, the 8254 has three 
16-bit counter/timers. These are a)imt- 
down counters: They count down from 
an initial value and perform a particu- 
lar operation when they reach zero. 
Their operation varies depending on 
the mode you're in. E^h counter has 
an associated clock input, gate input 
(for on/off control), and output. 

The basic structure of the 8254 is 
shown in Fig. 3. It has sbc possible op- 
eration modes, and you can set each 
counter individually to operate in any 
of them. The modes are interrupt on 
terminal count (mode zero), hardware 
retriggerable one-shot (mode I), rate 
generator (mode 2), square wave 
(mode 3), software-triggered strobe 
(mode 4), and hardware-triggered 
strobe (mode 5). 

In mode zero (interrupt on terminal 
count), the counter goes low when you 
initially write the count value to it. The 
chip then decrements the count value 
for each pulse of the clock input to the 
counter, as long as the gate signal is 
high. Counting doesn't take place 
when the gate is low. When the count 
value reaches zero, the output goes 
high. You could use the high output to 
interrupt the processor or to trigger an 
external event. A timing diagram for 
mode zero is shown in Fig, 4. 

In mode 1 (hardware retriggerable 
one-shot), the output initially goes 
high when you set the mode. When the 
chip receives a trigger pulse on the gate 
input, the count value is put into the 
counter and the output goes low on 
the next clock pulse. The output then 
remains low until the counter reaches 
zero. At that time, the output returns 
high and the counter waits for another 
trigger pulse, which makes it restart 



124 • 80 Micro, December 1984 






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80 Micro, December 1964 • 125 



See List ot Advertisers on Page 192 



PROJECT 80 



the process. The gate signal doesn't af- 
fect the counter output in this mode. 
Figure 5 shows a sample timing dia- 
gram for mode 1 operation. 

Mode 2 (a programmable rate gen- 
erator) is a divide-by-N counter. The 
chip divides the input clock frequency 
by the count value sent to the counter, 
with the output pulsing at the divided 
frequency. The output goes low for 
one clock period, then high again. The 
gate input must be high to enable 
counting. This mode is often used to 
generate a periodic interrupt or timing 
for a regular, periodic event. A sample 
timing diagram for mode 2 operation 
is shown in Fig. 6. 

Mode 3 (square wave mode) is typi- 
cally used for baud-rate generation. 
Unlike mode 2, the output changes 
(toggles) at each half-count of the 
counter. For example, if the count val- 
ue is 100, the output goes high for 50 
counts, then low for 50 counts. If the 
count value is odd, the output goes 
high for one count longer than it is 
low. The gate input must be high for 
counting to take place. Figure 7 shows 
a sample mode 3 timing diagram. 

In mode 4 (software triggered 
strobe), the chip's output initially goes 
high when it loads the counter. When 
the counter reaches zero, the output 
goes low for one clock cycle, then goes 
high again. To retrigger the counter, 
you must write a new count value to it. 
Counting is enabled only when the 
gate goes high, but the gate has no ef- 
fect on the output. Figure 8 shows a 
sample timing diagram for mode 4 op- 
eration. 

Mode 5 is similar to mode 4, except 
that the rising edge of the gate input 
triggers the counting, instead of a soft- 
ware write of the count value. When 
the count value reaches zero, the out- 
put goes low for one clock cycle, then 
returns high, awaiting another gate 
trigger. Thus the counter is relrigger- 
able. If the gate input has another ris- 
ing edge, the chip automatically loads 
the initial count value into the counter 
on the next clock, thereby starting the 
countdown all over. A sample timing 
diagram for mode 5 is shown in Fig. 9. 

Configuring and Operating 
The 8253/8254 

The control-word formal for the 
8254 is shown in Fig. 10. The high-or- 
der 2 bits (bits 6 and 7) specify which 
of the three counter/timers you're set- 



ClOC« 




1 — II — II — II — II — 1 " 





«H in^s, 






1 




• 1 ; 




1*1 


OU'PUT 










Figure 6. 8254 mode 2 timing example. 








CLOCK 


1 1 


J 


WR (r>-4l 




4 1 ; 1 












OUTPUT 










Figure 8. 8254 mode 4 timing e^arnipk. 







CLOCK 






t 

4 J ? 1 


GATE 




















(n.O) 
OUTPUT 










Figur 


e 9. 8254 mode 5 liming example. 















o? 


Ce 


c. 


Ci 


. 


°? 


D, 


^0 






















etD 






















1 = BCD, 0- BINBOY 
MODE 










000' MODE D 

001 =MODE ( 
' lO'MODE 2 
r \ 1 -- MODE J 
1 00 ■ MODE * 
1 1 -MODE i 

REftD/ IKHIIE CONTROL 






00 'COUNTER LiTCH OPERATION 

1 ■ B'W LSB ONL' 
1 ■ a/W MSB ONLY 
1 1 ■ H/W LSe IhEH MSB 

COUNTED SElECI 








Figure 10. 8254 control Mord/on 


OC -. COUNTER 
1 ■■ COUNTER 1 

■■ C = COUNTER 2 

• =READ-BAC> COWHAND 



126 • ffO Micro, December 1984 



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- Check/MO D MC C AE T VISA C Bdl me $19,97 for 12 issues 



cardjC. 



exp. date , 



signature 



address. 



city_ 



_5tale_ 



Jip. 



Ciinaaa & Meiicv 12297 Foreign Surfme J jy 97, 1 ytiir onJ>. US funds drawn on US 
bank Fureign Jjmjai/. pieoM imfuire Fteait aliow r, lo H ^^teks for dtbvtry 

RUN • Box 954 • Farmingdale. NY 11737 

?iEfiJ 



PROJECT 80 



ting up. In the 8254, these bits may al- 
so specify a "read-back command" 
mode, which is unavailable on the 
8253. Bits 4 and 5 detennine the 
count-value read/write mode. You 
have the option to read or write the 
most significant byte only, the least 
significant byte only, or the least sig- 
nificant byte followed by the most sig- 
nificant byte. Bits 1, 2, and 3 ^)ecify 
the tinier operation mode (zero to 5), 
and bit zero specifies either straight bi- 
nary or binary-coded decimal (BCD) 
counting. 

You may want to read the value of a 
particular counter. Since the counter is 
a dynamic register, it may change as 
the processor reads it. To prevoit this, 
a read latch option is available. If bits 
4 and 5 of the control byte are both ze- 
ros, the 8253/8254 latches the current 
count value of the specified counter 



Address selection takes 

place at the two inverters 

at the 74LSI38 inputs. 



into a temporary register, letting you 
read it without the count value chang- 
ing. You should use this approach 
when you read a counter. 

Building the I/O Board 

Figure 11 shows the I/O board 
schematics (see Table 1 for a parts 
list). Address selection takes place at 
the two inverters at the 74LS138 in- 
puts. The dotted lines show the config- 
uration I used (*** shown bek>w). The 



possible addresses are as foUows: 



A6/ A5/ 

A6/ A5 

A6 A5/ 

A6 A5 



40-47 hexadecimal 
60-67 hexadedma) 
00-07 hexadecimal 
20-27 hexadecimal •'• 



The firet four addresses of the range 
(20-23 hexadecimal IhexJ) belong to the 
8255 A, while the remaining four address- 
es (24-27 hex) belong to the 8253/8254. 

A 50-pin header connector is used 
as the I/O connector, letting you con- 
nect this board to other boards as 
needed. The connector has 16 1/0 sig- 
nals from the 8255A going to it — all of 
ports A and C — as well as the three 
counter outputs, the three gate inputs, 
and one clock input (to counter 2). 
The gate input signals are pulled up 
with resistors so you can still use the 
respective counters without connect- 
ing a device to the expansion connec- 



(?5) 
(JJ) 
I? 1 1 



fill 



IITI 




ji ^ CO*IP>UTtfl 
j;. EIPANS'OM 



'0 CDHNECTOft 



HOtES 

II M.L RESISTORS AK 1/4 WATT, 'i^ 

ZIML EVEN LINCS OF Ji JUtE OnOUNOED 

})F>IH NUHBCnS KM JI *NE FOR COMNECTION 
TO TM£ COMPUTER. THOSE IH OAttENIHESES 
Sflt fOU MODELS m MC 4 OTHERS ARE 
FOR MODEL I 

*l JI WD PINS FOR MODEL I ABE PINS 8. 2S. 
Sir GMD PIMS FOR MODELS Ul AMD 4 ARE 
ALL EvtNS 



Figure I la. Schematic for general-purpose I/O hoard Pan I (p. I). 



128 • W Micro, December 1984 



PROJECT 80 



tor. Two lines also go to + 5V, so an 
external board can have a logic sup- 
ply. The chips should draw no more 
than SOmA of current from each line, 
and the external board should have a 
local filtering capacitor to reduce noise 
if you used the + 5V supply. 

The crystal oscillator generates a 
reference frequency for counters zero 
and 1 of the 8254, which the 74LS193 
divides down to shunt various fre- 
quencies to the 8254 counters. With 
the 4 MHz crystal shown, the 8254 re- 
ceives a maximum frequency of 2 
MHz. While this is the maximum al- 
lowed by the 8253, the 8254 permits up 
to 8 MHz. You can lower or raise the 
crystal frequency as necessary to meet 
your own requirements. 

The 2 MHz clock seems to ^ve a 



good general-purpose set of frequen- 
cies, since this makes available to the 
8254 coimters four "average" fre- 
quencies: 2 MHz, 1 MHz, 500 kHz, 
and 250 kHz. 

The I/O board also has a sin^e-dig- 
il seven-segment display. This lets you 
display a one-digit status indicator, if 
needed. Between the counter frequen- 
cy selection and the seven-segment dis- 
play, the 8 bits from the 8255A port B 
are used. 

In addition to the parts shown in the 
schematic, you will also need a power 
supply. T\\e current requirement de- 
pends upon whether you use CMOS 
devices and whether an external board 
draws current from the I/O board. 
Worst-case current draw is around 
500mA. 




,1^ T«L 



(PACE II 

intQE I) 



PB? 




CLKI ITAGE 



CISC (*«6C O 




E«T10S£L 14J1-J 
IMOD in I* ONLT 



COMMON ANOOE 
T-SEGWENT [1ISPI.*T 
as •?76-(Hl 



Figure lib. Schematic for gertend-purpose I/O board Part 2 (p.2). 



The parts list specifies the standard 
MOS parts. The 82C55A and 82C54 
are made by both Harris and OKI 
Semiconductor, while the 82C53 is 
made only by OKI. For information 
on availability, distributors, and price, 
contact the respective companies. 

Using the I/O Board 

As indicated, the port A and port C 
bits are available at the 50-pin I/O 
connector. This lets you use any of the 
three possible 8255A operation modes. 
Also, the I/O board uses all 8 bits of 
port B on the 8255A to control on- 
board functions and options. 

The four high-order bits (bits 4-7) 
control the seven-segment display. 
These go to the input of a 74LS47 
BCD-to-seven-segment decoder chip. 
The 74LS47 converts the BCD value at 
its inputs into proper segment-on/-off 
conditions at its outputs, thus display- 
ing the appropriate digit. 

Since the board requires BCD digits 
in the decimal range zero to 9, binary 
values outade this range (10-15 deci- 
mal) cause other, predetermined, pat- 
terns to ^pear on the display. These 
patterns are described in the data ^eet 
for the 74LS47. 

Don't be alarmed if the digit 
doesn't light up when you apply pow- 
er to the board. When the board is 
first initialized, the 8255A places all of 
its I/O lines into the input mode. The 
inputs to the 74LS47 float high (all I's) 
and the 74LS47 causes all segments to 
be off when all four inputs are high. 

Only one of the three counter clock 
inputs goes to the I/O connector, with 
the remaining two used on-board. 
You can change this if necessary for a 
particular ^plication. For added ver- 
satility, I designed the board to give 
counters zero and I a choice of four 
possible ckx:k input frequencies, aU 
under software control. Using the 4 
MHz crystal shown in the schematics, 
the four frequencies are 2 MHz, 1 
MHz, 500 kHz, and 250 kHz. 

The 8255A uses port B to choose the 
frequency for each counter. Bits zero 
and 1 select the frequency for counter 
zero, while bits 2 and 3 select the fre- 
quency for counter 1. The 74LS193 is 
a 4-bit binary counter, which divkles 
the 4 MHz input frequency into the 
four possible counter frequencies. 
Each 74LS153 then selects one of the 
four available frequencies (based on 
the 2-bit selea code at its SO and SI in- 



80 Micro. December 1984 '129 



PROJECT 80 



puts from the respective port B bits) to 
transfer to the appropriate 8254 clock 
input. The select codes and the corre- 
sponding output frequencies are: 






2 MHz 


1 


1 MHz 


1 


500 kHz 


1 1 


250 kHz 



By programming the proper port B 
output values, you can individually set 
the frequency input to counters zero 
and 1 at any of these four frequencies. 
You can use both the 8255A and the 



8254 to interrupt the processor. If you 
have an application requiring inter- 
rupts, you can wire the appropriate in- 
terrupt signal to the TRS-80 interrupt 
line throu^ an open-collector gate, 
such as the 7406 (inverting). Make 
sure the interrupt ix)larity is correct so 
that an active interrupt signal is low. 

You could cormect any of a multi- 
tude of different application boards to 
the I/O cormector for your computer 
to control. One simple board mi^t 
have terminal bkx;ks with the 16 I/O 
lines connected for easy input and out- 



Quuilily Description 

1 8255A programmable peripheral inter- 

face IC • 
I 8253 programmable interval timer IC • t 

1 74LS138 3-to-8 decoder IC 

1 74LS04 hex inverter (LS TTL) IC 

1 74LS193 binary up/down counter (LS 
TTL)IC 

2 74LS153 dual 4-line to l-line MUX (LS 
TTL)IC 

1 74LS00 quad two-input nand gate (LS 
TTL) IC t 

i .3 inch seven-segment red LED display 

(com. anode) 
7 330 ohm resistor ('/* watt) 

7 Ik ohm resistor {'A watt) 

2 22 pF capacitors 

3 4.7k ohm resistor (V* watt) 
50-pos. cable header (w/w) 
4.0 MHz crystal 

l(X) ;iF/35V electrolytic capacitor (PC 

mount) 

. I ^F/50V disk capacitor 

. 1 inch matrix grid proto board (dual size) 

40-position cable header (w/w) § 

40-position ribbon cable edge OHiDector § 

40poglion ribbon cable socket connector § 

ft. 40-conductor ribbon c^le § 

50-position cable header (w/w) } 
50-po9tion ribbon cable edge ctxmector t 
5C^po9tion ribbon cable socket oonnector t 

ft . 50-conductor ribbon cable X 



* CMOS pjarts also available 
t 8254 part also available (see text), 
t Models 1II/4 only. 
§ Model 1 only. 

Addresses 

JDR Microdeviccs, 1224 S. Bascom Avenue. San Jose. CA 95128, 800-538-5000 or 408-995- 
5430 outside California; 80CW62-6279 inside California 

Radio Shack (RS), Naiional Parts Division. 900 East Northside Drive. Fort Worth, TX 
76102. 817-870-5662 

Digi-Key Corp. (DK), Highway 32 S., P.O. Box 677, Thief River Falls, MN 56701, 800-346- 
5144 or 218-681-6674 





P»1 


Price 


Distribalor 


Number 


(e«rh) 


JDR 


8255 


4.49 


JDR 


8253 


6.95 


JDR 


74LS138 


.55 


JDR 


74LS04 


.24 


JDR 


74LSI93 


.79 


JDR 


74LSI53 


.55 


JDR 


74LS00 


.24 


RS 


27M)53 


1.79 


RS 


271-1315 


.08 


RS 


271-1321 


.08 


JDR 




.05 


RS 


271-1330 


.08 


DK 


R247-ND 


6.93 


DK 


X006 


2.95 


RS 


272-1028 


.79 


RS 


272-135 


.25 


RS 


276-161 


2.95 


DK 


R241-ND 


5.58 


DK 


R503-ND 


3.80 


DK 


R306-ND 


3.73 


DK 


R007-ND 


0.00 


DK 


R247-ND 


6.93 


RS 


276-1566 


4.95 


DK 


R307-ND 


4.65 


DK 


R008-ND 


0.00 



Table I. Pats lisl and ordering informaion. 



put to TTL-type (or CMOS-type) de- 
\'ices. This type of board is particular- 
ly useful for prototyping circuits, 
where I/O is needed. I think I'll build 
such a board for myself. 

Controlling Software 

Models III and 4 users must be par- 
ticularly careful to write a 10 hex value 
(16 decimal) to I/O port OEC hex (236 
decimal) to enable access to the exter- 
nal TRS-80 I/O port. 

While most applications will have 
specifjc set-up commands for the board 
within the controlling software, I've 
written a general program that sets up 
all the devices and options on the I/O 
board (see the Program Listing). 

First you select the desired 8255A 
mode. The program then asks you for 
the input/output configuration of the 
8255A ports. After the 8255A is con- 
figured, you're prompted for the digit 
you want to appear on the seven-seg- 
ment display, which the program then 
sets up. 

Once the board completes the pro- 
cessing, you enter the counter/timer 
portion of the program. You can set 
any or none of the 8253/8254 count- 
ers. If you configure any counters, 
you enter the counter mode as well as 
the initial count value. For counter ze- 
ro or 1, you also enter the input fre- 
quency to the timer. 

Power Consumption 

If you're interested in the power 
consumption difference between the 
MOS and CMOS parts, here are the 
specs: The maximum power consump- 
tion for the 8255A and the 8254 are 
600 mWs and 700 mWs, respectively. 
The maximum jwwer consumption 
for both the 82C55A and the 82C54 is 
rou^ly 55 milliamps, vvith each hav- 
ing a 55 mKrowatt maximum standby 
power consumption. ■ 



IC 


Ground 


-t-SV 


74LS04 


7 


14 


74LS138 


8 


16 


74LS47 


8 


16 


74LS153 


8 


16 


74I.S193 


8 


16 


74LS00 


7 


14 


8253 


12 


24 


8255 


7 


26 


Tabte 2. Power and ground connections for 


the I^O board. 







130 • 50 Micro, December 1984 



PROJECT 80 



REFERENCXS 


1983 Intel Microprocessor and Peripheral 


The TTL DaU Book for Design Engineers 


Handbook 


Texas Instnunents Inc. 


Intel CorporaticHi 


6000 Denton Drive 


3065 Bowen Ave. 


P.O. Box 5012 


Sanu Clara, CA 95051 


Mail Stop 366 


1984 HaiTis CMOS E>igita] DaU Book 


DallRS TX 75222 


Harris CMOS Digital Products Division 


OKI SenuconductCM* 


Maa Stop 53-035 


Suite 401 


P.O. Box 883 


1333 Lawrence Expy. 


Melbourne, FL 329O2-0(W3 


Santa Clara. CA 95051 



Program Listing. ConlroUing soft'^are. 



This piogiAB allovs the usei to aasily configure Uie 
geneiBl-puipoae I/O card tot sany appllcationB. The 
piogcaa will prOKpt the uaei fint tot the aode and 
configuration of the 825SA (oc 82C55A) and will aet up 
the 8255A accordingly. The progian will then allow the 
uaer to optionally aet bip any or all of the three tiaeia 
in the 8253. Mhen selecting tinecs >ero or one. the uaer 
Is alao aaked which of the four poeaible fcequenclea he 
' wiahea to go into the tinat's clock input line. The 
' pcogras will then set up the ceapective 8253 timers, as 
' appropriate. 



■)AS 



II < 

28 ' 

38 ■ 

48 ■ 

58 ■ 

68 ■ 

7B • 

88 ' 

98 ■ 

188 

118 

121 

138 

148 ' Created by Roger C. Alfoid 

150 ■••■•••••••••• • •••• ••• ••••• 

161 ' 
178 ' 
288 '•---=.====== MAIH CCWTROLLIHG CODE SECTION — ■ ^-" 

218 GOSUB leee 'COIIFIGUIIE TSE e25SA PPI 

215 CLS 

220 INPUT "DO YOU WISH TO SET UP AMY OF TflE TIMERS (S/M) 

238 IV AS-'N' TBEN 268 

248 IP ASO'y- THEM 228 

258 GOSUB 5808 'OWFIGUHE THE 8253 PIT 

268 EDD 

278 ■ 

288 ■ 

1888 ■•--^^.==== 8255A COHFIGURATION CODE =======»==• 

1118 CLS:PRI»T "THE 8255A MODE OPTIONS ARE:' 

1821 PRIMT ■ B) MODE 8 - BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT" 

1838 PRINT ■ 1) NODE 1 - STROBED INPUT/OUTPUT" 

1848 PRINT ■ 2) HODE 2 - BI-DIRECTIONAL BUS" 

1858 IHfUT 'SELECT DESIRED (PORT A) NODE 'iK 

1868 M-N*l 

1878 IF N<1 OR |ii>3 THEN 1010 

leei ON M GOSUB 2808,3000,4008 

10B5 GOSUB 12088 'SET-UP T-SBGKENT OIS?LAT 

1898 RETURN 

llii ' 

llli ' 

2808 ■•"- ——" 8255A NODE COMFICURATION CODE >-'=^=>=>= <->' = '=• 

2il8 CLS:PRINT '8255A NODE 8 CGH FIGURATION' 

2815 PRINT ' (PORT B IS AUTOMATIC ALLY HADE OUTPUT)' 

2028 PRIHTiPRIIIT 

2838 INPUT 'WOULD <0U LIKE PORT A TO BE INPUT OR OUTPUT (I/O] 'jIS 

2048 IF ISO'I" AND ISO'O' THEN 2131 

2858 INPUT 'WOULD YOU LIKE PORT CL TO BE INPUT OR OUTPUT (I/O) "(JS 

2868 IF J$<>'I' AND J$<>'0' THEN 2050 

2878 INPUT 'WOULD YOU LIKE PORT CH TO BE INPUT OR OUTPUT (I/O) ')RS 

2BB8 IF KSO'I' AND KSO'O' THEN 2878 

2098 CW-12B 

2180 IF I5-"I' TBEN CW-CW+16 

2110 IF J$-'I' THEN CW=CW+1 

2128 IF K$-'I" TBEN CW-CH-*- 

2130 OUT 35, CH 

2148 RETURN 

2158 ' 

2160 ' 

3808 '•""""--- B255A NODE 1 COMFICURATION CODE -"■-•-■— 

3010 CLSiFRIHT ■8255A HODE 1 CONFIGURATION* 

3B13 PRINT " (PORT B IS AUTOMATICALLY MADE NODE fl OUTPUT! " 

3015 PRINT ■ (PORT C BITS 4&5 OR 647 WILL BE FREE FOR G.F. 

3028 PRINTtPRINT 

3838 INPUT 'WOULD YOU LIKE PORT A TO BE INPUT OR OUTPUT (1/0) 

3848 IF ISO'I' AND ISO'O" THEN 3B3B 

3BS0 IF IS-'O" THEN TS"" 4*5 " ELSE T(-" 6*7 " 

3860 PRIST "WOULD YOU LIKE PORT C BITS';TSi"TO BE IKPUT OR OUTPUT (I/O) "l 

386 5 INPUT j; 

3870 IF JSO'I" AND JSO'O' THEN 3861 

3880 CW-16B 

3890 IF I5-"I' THEN CW=CW*16 

3108 IF JS-'l' THEN CW=CW+B 

311B OUT 35, CM 'SEND THE 8255A CONTROL WORD 

3128 RETURN 

3138 ' 

4888 ■•- ——-— B255A NODE 2 COM P I GO RAT I tW CODE -- ===== ==. = • 

Listing contmuea 



■son) THE a25SA CONTRCH. WORD 



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5m Uat of AOnrtl—n on Page 192 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 131 



PROJECT 80 



Listing continued 



4B1B 

4026 

ma 

4B4B 

4B50 

4063 

4B70 

40 SB 

40 96 

410B 

41IB 

5fl0B 

5B1B 

5020 

5030 

5040 

5050 

5060 

5070 

5080 

5090 

5100 

5110 

5120 

5130 

5140 

E000 

6010 

6020 

6025 

6030 

6040 

6050 

6060 

7000 

7010 

7020 

7025 

7B30 

7B40 

705B 

7060 

8000 

8010 

8020 

8030 

8040 

8050 

8060 

9000 

9003 

9005 

9010 

9020 

90 30 

9040 

9050 

9060 

907B 

90 B0 

9090 



CLS:PRINT "8255A MODE 2 CONFIGURATION" 

PRINT ■ (PORT B IS AUTtMATICALLY MADE OUTPUT)" 

PRINT " (PORT C BITS B-2 WILL BE FREE FOR G.P, I/O)" 

PRINT: PRINT 

INPUT "WOULD YOU LIKE PORT C BITS 0-2 TO BE INPUT 

OR OUTPUT (I/O) ";IS 

IF ISO'I" AND IS<>"0" THEN 4050 

IF IS""I" THEN CW-193 ELSE CW=192 

OUT 35, CW 'SEND THE B255A CONTROL WORD 

RETURN 



•*^.^ = ,.c...>= 8253 CONFIGURATION CODE 

CLS:PRINT "YOUR OPTIONS ABE:" 

PRINT ■ 0) SET TIMER fl" 

PRINT ■ 1) SET TIMER 1" 

PRINT • 2) SET TIMER 2" 

PRINT " 3) EXIT" 

INPUT "ENTER YOUR SELECTION 'iK 

M-M+1 

IF M<1 OB M>4 THEN 5060 

IF M»4 THEN 5120 

ON H GOSUB 6000, 7000, BBBfl 

GOTO 50 IB 

RETURN 



k^^^ = = = = ==== 8253 TIMER B CONFIGURATION CODE .= = - = = -----: 



T=0:TS-"0" 
GOSUB 9000 
GOSUB 13000 
GOSUB 10B00 
RETURN 



'SET TIMER MODE 

'SET TIMER INPUT FREQUENCY 

■SET INITIAL TIMER COUNT 



'•=^========= 8253 TIMER 1 CONFIGURATION CODE 



T-liTS-"!' 
GOSUB 90 
GOSUB 130B0 
GOSUB 10000 
RETURN 



'SET TIMER MODE 

'SET TIMER INPUT FREQUENCY 

'SET INITIAL TIMER COUNT 



.^1.^== === = = 8253 TIMER 2 CONFIGURATION CODE = = ==== ===- = ' 



T=2:TS«"2" 
GOSUB 9000 
GOSUB 100B0 
RETURN 



'SET TIMER MODE 

'SET INITIAL TIMER COUNT 



I •^......=..c. 8253 TIMER MODE SELECTION CODE ====== 

CLSiPRINT "8253 TIMER ";TS;" CONFIGURATION" 

PRINTiPRINT 

PRINT "THE AVAILABLE TIMER MODES ARE:" 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 



MODE B - INTERRUPT ON TERMINAL COUNT" 



MODE 1 

MODE 2 

MODE 3 

MODE 4 

MODE 5 

INI'Lt -ENTER THE DESIRED MODE ".■MD 
IF MD<e OR MD>5 THEN 90 80 



- PROGRAMMABLE ONE-SHOT" 

- RATE GENERATOR' 

- SOUARE WAVE RATE GENERflTOH" 

- SOFTWARE TRIGGERED STROBE" 

- HARDWARE TRIGGERED STROBE" 



i >............ 6253 INITIAL COUNT CODE ===========-■ 

CLSiPRINT '8253 TIMER -;TS;'' CONFIGURATION" 

PRINTiPRINT 

INPUT "ENTER INITIAL TIMER COUNT VALUE (-1 FOR NONE) 

IF IC-=-l THEN 10150 

IF IC<0 THEN 10030 

IF RL<>3 AND I0255 THEN 10030 

IF I065535 THEN 10030 



IF RL-3 THEN 10110 
OUT 36+T,IC 
GOTO 1015 
IH-INT(IC/256) 
IL-IC-[IH'256) 
OUT 36*T,IL 
OUT 36+T,IH 
RETURN 



910B GOSUB 11000 

9110 CW'=T*64+RL'16+MD»2 

9120 OUT 39, CW 

913 RETURN 

9140 . 

9150 ' 

10000 

10010 

10020 

10030 

10040 

10050 

10Z6B 

10070 

10080 

10090 

10100 

10110 

10120 

1B13B 

10140 

1B150 

10160 

10170 

11000 

11010 

11020 

11030 

11040 

11050 

11060 

11070 

11080 

11090 

11100 

11110 

12000 

12010 

12020 

12030 

12040 

12050 

12060 

12070 

12BB0 

1300B 

13010 

13020 

13030 

13040 

1305B 

130ee 

13070 

13080 

13090 

13100 

13105 

13110 
13120 
13130 
13140 
13150 



'GET READ/LOAD MODE 

'SEND THE TIMER CONTROL WORD 



",IC 



'SEND INITIAL TIMgp COUNT 

'GET HIGH BYTE OF COUNT VALUE 
'GET LOW BYTE OF COUNT VALUE 
'SEND LOW BYTE OF INITIAL COUNT 
'SEND HIGH BYTE OF INIT. COUNT 



'•===,======== B253 READ/LOAD MODE CODE »."-• 

CLSiPRINT "8253 TIMER "jTS;" CONFIGURATION" 

PRINTiPRINT 

PRINT "THE AVAILABLE READ/LOAD MODES ARE:' 

PRINT " 1) READ/LOAD LSB ONLY" 

PRINT " 2) READ/LOAD MSB ONLY" 

PRINT " 3) READ/LOAD LSB FIRST, THEN MSB" 

INPUT "ENTER DESIRED READ/LOAD MODE "/RL 

IF RL<1 OR BL>3 THEN 10170 

RETURN 



i>=.=.»>^^.^c SET 7-SEGMEfIT DISPLAY CODE = === = = = = = = = * 

CLS: PRINT '7-SEGMENT DISPLAY SET-UP" 

PRINTiPRINT 

INPUT "ENTER DIGIT TO APPEAR ON THE DISPLAY (0-9) "jDG 

IF DG<0 OR DG>9 THEN 12B30 

OUT 33,DG*16 'SET DISPLAY DIGIT 

RETURN 



<■»..=..... SET TIMER INPUT FREQUENCY CODE ==========' 

CLSiPRINT "8253 TIMER "jTS;" CONFIGURATION" 

PBINT:PRINT 

PRINT "THE AVAILABLE TIMER INPUT FREQUENCIES ARE:" 

PRINT ■ 1) 2 MHZ" 

PRINT ■ 2) 1 MHZ" 

PRINT " 3) Saa KHZ" 

PRINT ' 4) 250 KHZ" 

INPUT 'ENTER THE DESIRED TIMER INPUT FREQUENCY ";TF 

IF TF<1 OR TF>4 THEN 13080 

TF=TF-1 

IF T=l THEN AV=243 ELSE AV«252 

TM-INP(33) AND AV 
IF T'l THEN TF-TF*4 
OUT 33,TM+TF 
RETURN 



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.^347 



132 • 80 Micro. December 1984 




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BBS EXPRESS / by J. Stewart Schneider and Charles E. Bowen 



Using an Index 
For More Flexibility 



The message board is the heart of 
any BBS. Not only is it where 
callers communicate with one anoth- 
er, it's the sysop's forum for providing 
information about the BBS. We've 
concentrated on storing messages for 
the last few months; now we'll show 
you how to read and scan the message 
board. 

Your main priority in developing a 
program to read the message board is 
flexibility. This month's programs let 
you read messages forward, back- 
ward , individually, selectively, and 
those marked specifically for your 
mailbox. 

Indexing 

Reading messages marked for a 
mailbox isn't too difficult in terms of 
programming. When the caller logs 
on, the BBS Express looks for mes- 
sages directed to the caller, saves the 
message's record number in an integer 
array, and retrieves the message indi- 
vidually in a For. . .Next loop. 

Reading t he message board for- 
ward, backward, individually, or se- 
lectively, however, requires a different 
technique. The BBS software must 
find a specific message on the board so 
that it can go directly to that message, 
rather than waste time searching 
through the entire message file (Mes- 
sages/BBS). You need to develop an 
index of all the messages that pin- 
points the location of a message by 
record number so that the BBS Ex- 
press can retrieve it quickly. 

The BBS's index holds all the mes- 
sages' record numbers; it*s labeled 
MN$. Program Listing 1 develops 
MN$; it's written in machine language 
because Basic would work too slowly, 

MNS stores a message's record 
number accordit\g to a mathemalical 
formula. You develop the index with 
the MK1$ command, which does all 




the record-number cakulations for 
you. By setting MNS - MKl${message 
number), MN$ becomes two charac- 
ters that represent the record number, 
in least significant byte/most signifi- 
cant byte format. To maintain the in- 
dex, MNS = MN$+MKI${message 
number) is set as users add messages to 
the board. 

This saves you time because you can 
quickly scan the index for a message 
number and then get its record num- 
ber. Once you know the locations and 
numbers, you can specify the manner 
in which you want to read the board. 

Program Listing 1, the Assembly- 
language code, locates the message 
number, while Program Listing 2, in 
Basic, manipulates this information so 
that you can read the board in a vari- 
ety of ways. 

How the Index Works 

Line 1760 calls PARAM, which re- 
turns the staning address for MNS to 
the HL register and the length of MNS 
to the B register, provided Basic calls 



this routine with a statement like 
USR3(VARPTR(MN5)), found in 
line 430 of Program Listing 2. 

While it may seem that line 1770 
loads the DE regjfler pair with zero, the 
Basic program actually POKEs the num- 
ber of the message you want, in least 
significant byte/most significant bvie 
format, over the zeros. For example, 
if you're looking for message 210, line 
1770 responds with LD, DE, 210. 

The program transfers the index's 
starting address to the IX register by 
PUSH HL, POP IX in lines 1780 and 
1790. The C register in line 1800 acts 



The Key Box 

Model m 
48KRAM 
Disk BasK 
Assembly Language 
Two I^sk Drives 
Editor/ Assembler 



lAUM 



136 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



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BBS EXPRESS 



Program Listing I 


BBS module thai creates an 


index for the message board. 




81750 


; 










01768 


FSRCH 


CALL 


PARAM 


;GET VARPTB(MNS) 




01770 


SEARCH 


LD 


DE.0088 


; SEARCH STRING 




117 60 




PUSH 


HL 






017 90 




POP 


IX 






01600 




LD 


C,255 


jSTR. POS, COUNTER 




81610 


FSROie 


LD 


L, (IX+6) 






01620 




LD 


H, (IX+1) 


jGET FIRST FAIR FOR CMPR 




0163B 




INC 


C 






81640 




INC 


C 


;BUMP STRNG POINTER 




01658 




BIT 


7.H 


(CHECK FOR NEGETIVE 




01S60 




JR 


NZ.REVR 


rNEGETIVE - DEAD FILE 




01678 




SST 


16K 


.-COMPARE HL/DE 




01860 




JR 


Z,FSR100 


; FOUND 




81898 




JR 


NC,FSRie8 


jTABGET>SOHRCE 




01900 


REVR 


INC 


IX 






01910 




INC 


IX 






01920 




DEC 


B 






01930 




DJN2 


FSR018 


J LOOP TIL FOUND 




01940 


FSR100 


INC 


C 


;STRP0S+1 




01950 




SRL 


c 


J lSTHPOS+l)/2 




01960 




LD 


B,0 






01970 




PUSH 


BC 






01988 




POP 


HL 






01990 




JP 


BASIC 


(PASS TO BASIC 




82000 










hint 



Program Listing 2. BBS module to read the message board. 

300 IF LEN(CM$)<-1 THEN C$=CMS :CM$="" iRETURN 

310 C$=LEFT${CMS,1) iCM$=FNSS(CMS) :IF (CS<=CHRS ( 32) ) OR (CS="l") TH 

EN 300 

320 IF CHS=""THEN RETURN 

330 IF (ASC(CHS)<"32) OR (ASC(CM$) =59) THEN CM$=FNS5 (CM$] !GOTO320 

340 RETURN 

350 ES"INKEY$:N=VAL(RIGHTS(F2S,4) ) :TS=.T1S:TT$=F15:S8$=S1$: 

S9S-CHR$(ASC(S2S) AND 15} :S7S=CHR5(ASC(S2$) AND 24») iS6S=MIDS ( "012 

3456789ABCDE",ASC(S9$) ,1) 

360 RD— 1:IF FN P(RN,HNS)<0 THEN RD=0 

380 IF INSTR(SE$,S6$)-0THEN RD=0 

390 IF ({ASC(S7S) AND 32)-=32) AND {LEFT${T$,LEN{NA$) ) ONAS) AND (L 

EPT$(TT$,LEN(NA$})<>NA$) AND NOTSY THEN RD=0 

400 IP {SP$="T" AND INSTR{TS»SSS)=0) OR (SFS-'F" AND INSTR (TT5 ,SSS 

)=0) OR {SF$="S" AND INSTR(S8S»S5$)-0) THEN RD=fl 

410 IF (D$-"M") AND (ASC{S7S) AND 16)=16 THEN RD-fl 

415 IF ES-CHRS{3)THEN RN"E 

420 RETURN 

430 POKE PD+l,INT{MN/256) iPOKE PD,HN- (INT(MN/256) *256) 1S-USR3 ( VARP 

TR(HN$)) iRETURN 

440 IF (SP) THEN RETURN ELSE RC-=0:IF { (LEFTS (TS ,5} ='SYSOP") AND SY 

) OR (LEFTS{T$,LEN(NA$))=NAS} THEN RC»=-1 

450 K=RC!lF (LEPTS{TT$,LEN(NA5))=NA$) OR (SY) THEN K=-l 

460 IF RC THEN S7S-CHR? {ASC{S7S) OR 16) !LSET S2$=CHRS (ASC CS7S) OR 

ASC(S9S)) :PUT 1,RN 

465 IF (BM) OR (PR) THEN RETURN 

470 PRINT"(C RE T)";:IF K THEN PRINT"(D = DELETE)"; 

480 IF SY THEN PRINT" (P - PRINT IT) " ; 

4 90 GOSUB130!PRINTCHRS(17) ) 

500 IF SY AND ASC{I$)«80 THEN PR— 1 JGOSUB4720 iPR=0 !GOTO470 

510 IF LEFT$(I$,1)-"T" THEN RN=E:RETURN 

520 IF LEFT$(IS,2)«"RE" THEN 3380 

530 IF N0T((LEFTS(I5.1)-"D") AND K) THEN 545 

540 PRINT'Please confirm delete (y/n) " ; :GOSUB130:PRINTCHR$(17) : IF 

ASC(I$)-89 THEN MIDS (MN$,2*RN-1 ,2) -MKI$ {-FNP(RN,MN$) ) i 

PRINT"Deleted"!MIDS(I$,l,l)-"C" 

545 IF LEPT$(IS,1)»="C"THEN RETURN 

550 PRINT"C = Continue" :PRINT"RE = REply to message":PRINT"T = Top 

(Exit Read Function) "iIF K THEN PRINT"D = Delete message" 
560 GOTO470 

600 PRINT"Section (Tap ENTER for all, ? for list) " j iGOSUBl30:PRINT 
CHRS(17) ) 
810 IF CT-0 THEN SE5-UA5iRETURN * 

820 IF ASC(IS)=63 THEN GOSUB830 :GOTO800 

821 SE$=LEFTS(IS,CT) :POR Z-1T0CT:IP INSTR(UAS,MID$ (SES,Z,1) ) =0THEN 
PRINT"Unauthotized to section " iHIDS{SES,Z ,1) iGOTO8fl0 ELSE NEXT:RE 
TURN 

Listing 2 <oniinueil 



You can read through 

the message board 

in six ways, and 

you can chain the 

commands to save time. 



as a counter, and starts out at 255. 
Line 1810 loads the HL register with 
the first two bytes of MN$, represent- 
ing the number of the message in the 
first position. The program then incre- 
ments C twice; the first increment 
moves C from 255 to zero, the second 
from zero to 1 . 

Line 1850 uses the Bit command to 
fmd out if bit 7 of the message number 
is set. If it is, it's a negative number, 
which means that the BBS has deleted 
the message. The program ignores this 
and jumps to line 1900. If the number 
is positive, it must be compared with 
the number in the DE register. Line 
1870 calls a Restart command, RST 
18H, which compares the HL and DE 
registers, then sets the proper flags. 

If the Restart sets the Z flag, it has 
found the target message number and 
the program jumps to FSRIOO. If the 
carry flag isn't set, you've passed the 
target, and the program again jumps 
to FSRIOO. Otherwise, you bump IX 
twice to point to the next message 
number, decrement B, and loop until 
the program finds the number. 

FSRIOO bumps the character count- 
er, register C, by 1 , then shifts one po- 
sition to the right and divides by 2, 
loading the B register with a zero. 
Lines 1970 and 1980 transfer this to 
the HL register and pass the value of 
the target message on to the Basic code 
in Program Listing 2. If the target 
message doesn't exist, the next-largest 
value is returned to Basic. 

Reading Mess£^e$ 

Program Listing 2 lets you read 
through the message board in six 
ways: forward (the RF command), in 
reverse (RR), indi\adually (RI), marked 
messages (RM), new messages (RN), 
and selectively (RS). 

You can chain these commands, 
too. This is a real time-saver; for ex- 
ample, if you want to read from mes- 
sage 210 on, issue the R command and 
wait to be prompted for the direction 



138 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



BBS EXPRESS 



and message number. If you prefer to 
skip the prompts, just type in RF210. 

CMS, in line 2870, contains whatever 
the caller entered at the command 
prompt. If CMS is a null string, the 
program prompts for a subcommand. 
Otherwise, GOSUB 300 transfers the 
second character of CMS to D$. 

Line 2900 checks to see if DS is an 
authorized command. If it's not, an 
authorized command summary is 
printed. If, for example, D$ Ls N, the 
caller has asked to read new messages. 
The program then sets MN, the start- 
ing message number, to HM + 1 (HM 
is the caller's high message number on 
his last visit). D$ becomes F because 
you read new messages forward. 

CMS still contains the message 
number, which line 2940 sets as 
MN = VAL{CM$). If the value is less 
than one, the program prompts for 
the starting message. Otherwise, it 
jumps to line 2970. Line 2970 sets SES 
to UA$, the user's authorized access, 
while GOSUB 200 opens Mes^ 
sages/BBS. Unless a caller requests to 
read individually or marked, the 



GOSUB 800 prompts for the section 
numbers to read and validate the 
caller's choice. 

Line 2980 directs each command to 
its proper routine. Line 2990 is the 
Read Forward section where the 
GOSUB 430 sets S equal to the record 
number containing the requested 
starting message. E is set to SN, the 
number of messages on the system. 

Line 3000 gets each record in Mes- 
sages/BBS. starting with Record S. 
The GOSUB 350 initiates a routine to 
check whether or not the caller has ac- 
cess to the message. If the message is 
private, the program prints a period 
and checks the next message. If the 
caller does have access to the message, 
GOSUB 4720 prints it. 

If the requested message number is 
greater than HI, the highest message 
number on the caller's last visit, HI 
becomes the present mes.sage number. 
The BBS writes this new HI to disk 
when the caller closes out. 

GOSUB 440 prints four options: 
continue with the C command, return 
to the top menu (T), delete the mes- 



sage (if he's the sysop, sender, or ad- 
dressee), or print the message (if he's 
the sysop). These closing prompts can 
be eliminated with brief mode (BM = 
- 1), or if the SYSOP calls for a hard 
copy (PR = -1). 

AH of the Read commands are built 
on the same structure. The one excep- 
tion is Read Individual, where the ex- 
act message must be specified. Line 
3090 checks this; if it's not MN, the 
message doesn't exist on the system. 
Line 2860 sets SF = - 1 , which lets you 
scan the message board. ■ 



The BBS Express, 80 Micro 's bulle- 
tin board system, is open 24 hours a 
day. Call us at 603-924-6985 to see the 
finished product. UART parameters 
are 300 baud, 7-bit words, one stop 
bit, and even parity. 

You can reach J. Stewart Schneider 
and Charles E. Bowen either through 
their bulletin board at 606-739-6088 or 
c/o Saturday Software, P.O. Box 404, 
Catlettsburg, KY 41129. 



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compMolv uikhin ong top* or disit bosod 
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Superior Sofhuor*. The board comes 
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5«« List ot AOvtrilsers on Page 192 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 139 



BBS EXPRESS 







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WHEN it is loaded, and WHERE it is loaded. 
THE NITTY GRITTY. 

BASRUM was designed specifically for the models 1 and III 
for use with any DOS that is compatible with TRSDOS®. It's 
overlay strucrure requires only the top 1600 byies oi memory. 
There is NO LIMIT on the number of working copies. 
SIMPLE ESOVGH hVR THE BEOIWER. \ERS.mLE ESOICH FftR 
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•37 



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TRSDOS IS a regisieied Irademark of the Tandy Corp 

BASRUM IS a trademark ot Wiley. IrK. 



80 Micro. December 1984 '141 



^^ 67 AR 5 MEG 
^ 9 i 9W HARD DRIVE 

^^^ Comes complete with cable and your choice of 

^ ^^^^^^m software driver* (CP/M, LOOS, TRSDOS) 

V Wt^K^^^^ 10 Megabyte Hard Drive $995 

1 5 Megabyte Hard Drive 11 95 

SYSTEM FEATURES 4 ^oc 

30 Megabyte Hard Drive 1 499 

• For TRS-oO Model 3-4-4P ^^^^ ^^^ ^ reasonable price, you can enjoy the benefits of 

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A Ci-»« 1 1 C" V 1 O «;" V C; n" -MoOel 3 fegu^s LDOS 

V OI^C I I .O A I ^.O A 0.\J ModeU requires TRSDOS 6 2 o( Monteiuma M era CP/M 3 2 Plea!>e addSlO handling & stiiopino 



See opposite pagei ^ ^ i ^ » 



\\ 



i i 




Double Density Controller 



Add 80% more capacity to your disk 
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The Story 




Some. products have what it takes to seem to last torever. Our ■'DDC" is 
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density 



The Facts 



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«DDC" by itself $99 

"DDC** and LDOS 159 

"DDC** and NEWDOS 80 v2.0 1 89 



I 



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1-80tk DS half-high FD-55F in dual case 269 

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1-8" SS Tandon TM848-1E & case $389 

2-8- SS Tandon TM848-1E's & case 649 

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8 SS halt high Tandon TM848-1E 260 

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' Sm List ol Advartisers on Pag* 192 



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TRS-80 Model III & 4 

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pick the drives you want from the 
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1 DRIVE SYSTEM 349 

2 DRIVE SYSTEM 499 

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MOUNTING KIT & 

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RS-232 BOARD 69 



MISCELLANEOUS GOODIES n uh 

Model 1 TRSOOS 2 3 disk & manual S 25 

Model III TRSDOS 1 3 disk & manual . .25 

LDOS (specify Model I or III) 69 

NEWDOS BO v2,0 (specify Model I or III).. .119 
10 disks in srrxAe lib box, Lifetime Guar .. .19 

5.25" drive power supply & enclcsure 59 

8" drive power supply, erx^, & tan, 

5V-24V 150 

5.25" 2-dnve cable 24 

5 25" 4-dnve cable 34 

5.25" Extender cable with gold contacts . . .13 



FREE TRIAL OFFER 

Use your Aerocomp hardware product lor jp to 14 days 
tt you are not satisfied lor ANY REASON (except misuse 
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less shipping Sorry, thii ofter doei not applv 10 
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we have confxlence m oui products and we know you will 
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WARRANTY 

We offer a one year warranty or parts and labor against 
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Yours lor only iQ ^09 

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319 Mivered 

You can add our rerrown OOC " double 
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$ 



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Cal ixx tot-free number service and ptace your order Have 
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your order You may order t>y ma* usng your credn card, 
check or money order Personal and compariy cTiecks are 
weicome and cause no shtppng delay as )ong as iTiey are 
bank pnnled and ttie signature exactty agrees with ttie 
name prwited on ttie check. We win stup surface COO with 
no deposit but ajl COD's require cash or a cashiers ctieck 
on delivery Texas residents add 6% State Sales Tax. No 
tax collected or out ol slate shipments. Canadians add $20 
to your orders if over $500 tor customs 
doCurtier^tation 



call toll-free 
800-527-3582 usa 
800-442-1310 TEXAS 

For inquiries or infoimation 

or to check on or change an order 

call 214-339-6324 

Redbird Airport, Bidg. 8 
P,0. Box 24829 
Dallas, TX 75224 ^h, 

80 Micro, December 1984 • 143 



BASIC TAKES / by Richard Ramella 



Pixel Graphics: 
A Point-by-Point Description 



A pixel is what you see on your 
computer's screen when you type 
in a period. It's the smallest picture 
element on the \ideo screen, equiva- 
lent to I bit of memory. 

Your computer has prepro- 
grammed instructions for creating 
ASCII characters. When you type in 
the letter A, your computer plots a 
combination of pixels to display it. 
Similarly, by using certain Basic state- 
ments, you can program pLxel displays 
and thereby create new graphics 
shapes. 

Model l/III PLxel Graphics 

Using computer pixel graphics is 
similar to plotting a graph with a pen- 
cil and paper. On graph paper you 
start by drawing an X and Y axis, 
thereby assigning and identifying ev- 
ery square on the paper with X,Y co- 
ordinates. 

You identify pbteis in the same way. 
The Model I/III has 128 pbcel posi- 
tions across the screen (0-127), and 48 
positions down (0-47), for a total of 
6,144 pi.\el positions. The first posi- 
tion, in the upper left-hand comer, has 
the coordinates 0,0. 

Pixel graphics use two Basic state- 
ments and one function. SET(X,Y) 
turns on a pixel at screen position 
X,Y. You can also use literals, such as 
SET{50,20), variables such as 
SET(W,R1), or combinations such as 
SET(23,Y). 

The statement RESET(X,Y) turns 
off the pixel at position X,Y. The 
POINT(X,Y) function tests whether a 
pixel is on or off at a given position, 
and is handy in writing games. 

Here are a few examples. Clear your 
screen (t\pe in CLS and press the enter 
key) and type in SET(62,23). A pixel 
light appears near the screen middle. 
Type in RESET(62,23) and hit the en- 
ter key, and the light turns off. 




Clear the screen again and type in 
SET(62,23): PRINT P01NT(62,23) 
and press the enter key. The answer is 
- 1 . This means that the light at posi- 
tion 62,23 is on. When it's off, the 
Point function returns a zero. 

Pixel Programs 

I combined most demonstration 
programs this month into one master 
program. Type in and run the Pro- 
gram Listing. You'll see a menu of 
five options. 

Choose option 1 at the menu prompt 
to run Four Comers. This program 
displays flashing pixels in the comers 
of the screen. The Set statements in 
lines 220-250 contain their limits. Hit 
the break key to exit the program. 

Now remn the program and select 
option 2, Where Now? This program 
displays a blinking pixel at the screen 
position you specify. Enter numbers 
for the X and Y coordinates. If either 
number is too small or too large, the 
program prompts you to enter another 



number. Where Now? asks you for 
new input after a brief liming loop. 

The following program combines 
pLxel settings and Basic commands to 
show how you can change variables 
within a program or Set or Reset pixels 
at different places. It creates a snow- 
storm by setting pixels randomly: 

100 RtM • SNOW • 

1 10 CLS 

120 SET(RN[}(U7),RND{47)) 

130 GOTO 1211 

140 END 

This statement draws a line across 
the screen; 

100 CLS: V = 23: FORX-OTO 127. 
SET{X.Y): NEXTX 

The For . . . Next loop above incre- 



The Key Box 

Models I and m 
Bask 



144 • SO Micro, December 1984 



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BASIC TAKES 



By using Set and Reset 

together, you can create 

animation and simulate a 

bouncing ball. 



ments the X value by one with each 
pass. Try inserting STEP 2: after 127 
and run the statement again. Now it 
draws a line of dashes. 

^'ou can also draw backwards, 
down, and diagonally in lines 100, 
200. and 300: 

H)()<1.S: lOR \ i:7TO0STEP -1: 

SET(X.20): NEXT X 

200 CLS: \ Kill: FOR Y - TO 47: 
SRT(\.Y): N[ XT 

300 CLS: H)R X TO 40: SK1(\.Y): 
Y-Y. I: NL.XI 

Try u rii ing a program line that 
draws in other diagonal directions. 
You need a For... Next loop (FOR 
X = 1 TO 27) tor one variable, and an 
incremeni or decrement (Y = Y-1) 
for I lie other. 

Pixel Animation 

B\ using Set and Reset together you 
can create animation: 

100 CI S:K)R X OTO 127; SHT{X,Y): FOR 
1 = n O 20: NFXT T: RbSFI(X.V): NEXT X 

riiis program line sets each X value 
in the loop, keeps it lighted for a brief 
liming loop (FOR T = 1 TO 20). erases 
it with the Reset statement, and con- 
tinues. 

You can use this technique to simu- 
late a bouncing ball. Run the ball pro- 
gram by selecting option 3 from the 
main menu. I ines 620-640 draw a sur- 
face against which the ball bounces. 
Line 650 gives B a value of .2. With 
each bounce, the zenith decreases by 
20 percent . 

Line 660 sets X equal to position 64. 
located mid-screen. I wo program 
loops control the mechanics of the 
bounce; The drop is in lines 670-720, 
and the bounce in lines 740-780. 

Variable Z in line 730 represents the 
zenith of the bounce. The zenith de- 
creases with each bounce. During each 
loop, the program sets the ball, 
GOSUBs to a timer loop at line 800, 
and resets. The ball runs out of steam 
when variable Z reaches 46, and the 
program ends. 



Program Listing. Master listing of example programs. 



100 REH • BASIC TAKES #5 - PIXEL GRAPHICS 
110 HEM • MASTER LISTING FOR MODELS I AND III 
120 CLS 

130 PRINT "MEHU: " 

H0 PRINT "1 - POUR CORNERS" 

WHERE NOW?" 

BALL" 

GRAPH" 

RAMBLER" 



145 PRINT "2 

150 PRINT "3 

155 PRIWT "4 

160 PRINT '5 

165 INPUT 

170 CLS 

175 ON Q GOTO 208,400,600,90 0,13 00 

1B0 GOTO 120 

199 REH 

200 REM * fOUK CORNERS * 
210 CLS 

220 SET(0,8) 

238 SET(127,0) 

240 SET(D,47) 

250 SET[127,471 

260 GOSUB 300 

270 CLS 

280 GOSUB 300 

290 GOTO 310 

300 FOR T-1 TO 100 

310 t;EXT T 

320 RETURN 

330 END 

399 REM 

400 REM • WHERE HOW? * 
410 CLS 

420 PRINT "WHERE NOW?" 

430 INPUT "ACROSS POSITION - X";X 

440 IF X<a THEN PRINT "TOO LOW" ELSE IF X>127 THEN PRINT "TOO iilGH" 

450 IF X<0 01! XM27 THEN 430 

460 INPUT "DOWK POSITION - Y";Y 

470 IF Y<0 THEN PRINT "TOO LOW" ELSE IF Y>tl THEN PRINT "TOO HIGH" 

480 IF Y<0 OR y>47 THEN 460 

490 CLS 

500 SET(X,Y| 

510 IF Y>6 THEN 2=0 ELSE Z=256 

520 PRINT e Z,"X"X" Y"¥; 

530 FOR T=l TO 20 

540 IF T/2<>INT(T/2) THEN RESET(X,Y) ELSE SET(X,y) 

550 FOR V=l TO 100 

560 NEXT V,T 

570 GOTO 410 

580 END 

599 REM 

600 REM • BALL • 
610 CLS 

620 FOR X-e TO 127 

63 SET (X, 47) 

640 NEXT X 

650 B=.2 

660 X=64 

67 FOR V=Z TO 4 6 

680 SET(X,¥) 

690 IF V-Z THEN FOR T^l TO 25: NEXT T 

730 GOSUB 800 

710 RESETIX.Y) 

NEXT Y 

:=2*147-Z) *B 
740 FOR Y.46 TO 2 STEP -1 
750 SeT(X,Y) 

760 IF Y':42 THEN GOSUB 800 

770 IF Z<46 THEN RESET(X,Y) ELSE PRINT g 0,"BALL IS O'JT OF BOUNCE" 
: END 

780 NEXT Y 
790 GOTO 670 
800 FOR T'l TO 2 
810 NEXT T 
820 RETURN 
B30 END 

899 REH 

900 REH • GRAPH • 
910 CLS 

920 CLEAR 500 

930 DEFSTR A-B 

940 DIM G(12) 

950 A="JANFEDHARAPRHAYJUNJULAUGSEPQCTNOVDEC" 

960 INPUT "NAME OF GRAPH" ;CS 

970 D=l 

980 FOR E^l TO 12 

990 PRINT HIDS(A,D,3)" FIGURE"; 

1000 INPUT G(E) 

1010 IF GlEj:'100 THEN PRINT "100 IS LIMIT. TRY AGAIN.": GOTO 990 

1020 D=D*3 

1030 NEXT E 

1040 CLS 

1050 PRINT CS 

1060 PRINT STRINGS(LEN{CS) ,"-■) 

1070 X.7 

1B8B Y»=7 

109B E-1 

Lining conlinued 



121 
730 



146 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



BASIC TAKES 



Mixing Text and Graphics 

Combining graphics with text re- 
quires more care when positioning pixels 
and involves some experimentation. 
Pixel and PRINT® graphics are simi- 
lar. Each PRINT® graphics character 
comprises six pixels, two across by 
three down. 

Pixel graphics set and reset 6,144 
screen positions. PRINT@ graphics 
print character strings from CHR$ 
(128) to CHR$(I91) in 1,024 screen 
positions. 

To mix text and graphics you must 
determine the relationship among the 
different elements. You can do this by 
experimenting. Try running this 
listing: 

100 REM • EXPERIMENT * 

110 CLS: SET(58,21) 

120 INPUT "PRINT® NUMBER";B 

130 PRINT® B, CHR$(60);"HERE" 

140 PRINT® 0,"";: END 

This program sets a pixel on the 
screen, then displays the prompt 
"PRINT® NUMBER". Enter a nu- 
merical guess for the pbcel's PRINT® 
position. The program displays a right 
arrow followed by the word HERE. 



You can use Point in 

game programs to 

determine when a 

character runs into 

something. Rambler is a 

challenging game that 

should give you some 

ideas for using Point. 



Try to make the arrow point at the 
pixel. Hit the break key and run the 
program again to make another guess. 

The Gr^h program (option 4) in 
lines 9(X)-1220 shows an application 
using pixels and text. Answer the 
prompt "Name of Graph?" and enter 
numbers between zero and 100 for the 
12 prompts for each month of the 
year. The program then prints the fig- 
ures for each month and graphs them. 

Refer to the Program Listing to see 
how I made the pixel lines. The loop in 



Listing continued 



IIBB D=l 

lllB FOR F-12e TO 632 STEP 64 
112B PRINT e F,MIDS(A,D,3) ; 
113B PRINT e Ft5+<;CE)/2,G(E) ; 
114fl FOB Xl-X TO X+G(E) 

use sET(xi,y) 

1160 NEXT XI 
117B X=7 

iiee E=E+i 

1198 D=D+3 
12Bfl Y=Y+3 
121B NEXT F 
1220 END 

1299 REM 

1366 REM • RAMBLER * 

1310 CLS 

1320 DEFSTR Z 

1330 INPUT "DIFFICULTY LEVEL - 50 TO 1B0";A 

1340 IF A<50 OR A>100 THEN CLS: PRINT "ILLEGAL LEVEL. AGAIN, PLEAS 

E': GOTO 1336 

1356 CLS 

1369 rOR B=l TO A 

1370 PRINT 9 70+RND(952) ,CHR$(128+RND{63)); 
1380 NEXT B 

1390 FOR X=e TO 127: SET(X,0): SET(X,47): NEXT X 

1460 FOR Y=l TO 46: SET(B,Y)! SET{127,Y}: NEXT Y 

1410 X=3! Y=3: B=4: S=-l 

1420 Z=INKEYS 

143B SET(X,Y) 

1446 IF B-1 AND POINTl X, Y-1) =-1 OR B=2 AND POINT(X, Y+1) — 1 OR B=3 

AND POINT(X-l,y)=-l OR B"=4 AND P0IBT(X+1 , Y) =-1 THEN 155B 

1450 IF Z=" THEN 147B 

1460 IF Z="A" THEN B=l ELSE IF Z'="Z" THEN B=2 ELSE IF Z="," THEN B 

=3 ELSE IF Z="." THEN B=4 

1470 IF BlOB THEN S = S+1 

1460 ON B GOSUB 1510,1526,1536,1546 

1496 B1=B 

1566 GOTO 1420 

151B Y=Y-1: RETURN 

1526 Y=Y+l! RETURN 

1530 X=X-1: RETURN 

1540 X=X+1: RETURN 

1550 If Y>20 THEN V=fl ELSE V=832 

1566 FOR T=l TO 560: NEXT T 

15TB PRIST % V,'FIHhL SCOBE'iSj 

1560 END 



lines 980-1030 asks you to enter a fig- 
ure. The entry becomes G(E), with E 
running from 1 to 12 months. 

The loop in lines 1110-1210 prints 
the month at the left and the figure to 
the right of the graph. A loop within 
this loop (lines U40-1160) prints the 
pixel line representing the figure. 

Getting to the Point 

The Point statement can test any 
pixel position and direct control of 
your program based on whether the 
pixel is on or off. The statement IF 
POINT(62,43) = THEN GOSUB 
1000 executes a GOSUB when the pix- 
el at 62,43 is off. 

You can use Point in game pro- 
grams to determine when a character 
runs into something. Rambler (option 
5 in the main menu) demonstrates this 
use of Point (lines 1300-1580). 

The game starts with a growing trail 
from the top left of the screen. Press 
the A key to direct the trail up, the Z 
key for down, the comma key for left, 
and the period key to move right. 
Make as many turns as possible with- 
out letting the growing trail run into 
anything. 

Each change of direction scores one 
point. When you run into a character 
graphic, the screen frame, or your 
trail, the game ends and displays your 
score. 

Rambler begins with a difficulty 
level prompt. Type in a number be- 
tween 50 and 100. Rambler then sets 
character graphics on the screen in a 
mine field situation and draws a pic- 
ture frame. 

The value of variable B is 1 , 2, 3, or 
4, depending on which directional key 
you press. Lme 1440 contains the 
POINT tests that control game move- 
ment. 

If B = 1 (the trail is moving up) and 
POINT(X,Y- 1) = 1, then the light is 
on just above the last pixel position set 
and the game ends. The line contains 
four Point tests, one for each direction. 

Rambler is an example of a chal- 
lenging game put together in just 28 
program lines. It should give you some 
of yoiu* own ideas for using Point. 

In my next column I'll discuss 
arrays. ■ 



You can reach Richard Ramelia at 
1493 Mt. View Ave., Chico. CA 95926. 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 147 



PASCALCULATIONS / by Bruce Powel Douglass 



Summing It Up: 
An Advanced Math Program 



This is the final installment of Pas- 
calculaiions. In the last seven 
months I've covered the fundamentals 
of the Pascal language. You've learned 
how Pascal's flexible data types and 
modular structure make programming 
easier. This month, I'll discuss an ad- 
vanced program that exploits these 
features. 

Math Media 

The Calculate program evaluates 
arithmetic expressions and maintains 
a list of variables and their values. It's 
based on a program in the excellent 
book Pascal for Basic Programmers, 
by Charles Seiter and Robert Weiss. 
They developed their program from 
one in Pascal User Mam/al and Re- 
port. 

The program has two sections. The 
first part does most of the houseclean- 
ing work. It maintains the variable list 
and passes expressions off to the sec- 
ond part, which does the evaluation. 
The second section has no program 
body, and uses the {SNullbody} com- 
piler option to ensure that no program 
body is created. 

Store the first section in a file called 
CALC/PCL and the second in a fde 
called EVAL/PCL. You must com- 
pile the second part with extra stack 
space on account of the deep nesting 
of procedures. The command line 
PASCAL <6> EVAL tells the com- 
piler to use 6K for the stack space. 
After you've compiled both sections, 
link ihem together (using the Linkload 
command) along with the Strings/ 
OBJ string library. Then build the 
program CALC/CMD. The program 
is then ready to run. 

1 wrote the program for a Model I 
or 111 DOS, which permits the up-ar- 
row character t (a left bracket, [, on 
the Model 111 screen) to indicate expo- 
nentiation. Model 4 users should sub- 




stitute another character, such as @, 
for the power operator. 

The Anatomy of an Expression 

To evaluate expressions, the EVAL 
function uses recursion, meaning that 
a procedure or function calls itself. 
This works on account of the recursive 
structure of arithmetic expressions. 

For example, 3 + 4 * 5 is an expres- 
sion. The operator (-t-) operates on 
two operands, 3 and 4*5. These oper- 
ands are called terms. The second 
term, 4*5, cont^ns another operator, 
*, which operates on 4 and 5. The 4 
and 5 are called factors. 

Now, consider the expression 3 -(- 4 
* (1 -t- 2). It contains the same opera- 
tors as the first expression, and there- 
fore must be divided into terms and 
factors. The second factor of the sec- 
ond term, (1 + 2), is a parenthetical 
expression. So expressions can contain 
terms and factors which in turn can 
contain expressions. 

The sequence for evaluating the 
first expression above (3 + 4 * 5) is: 



expression = tcnn (3) + term (4 • 5) 

= term (3) + term (factor (4) • fac- 
tor (5)) 

= 3 + term (20) 
= 23 

The EVAL function of the program 
uses this basic scheme. 

Adding It AU Up 

When you run the program, you 
can enter an expression to be eval- 
uated, assign a value to a variable, or 
list the variables. 

The program tests names to deter- 
mine if they're supported functions. 
The function SQRT, for example, re- 
turns the square root of its argument . 
If the name is not a supported func- 
tion, the pro^^m assumes it's a vari- 
able and searches the variable list. 

The variable list is a linked list of 
record types; in a linked list, each item 
points to the next. The record type 
consists of a next pointer, a variable 
name, and the value of the variable. 
Initially, the program has three vari- 
ables. #ANS holds the value of the last 



148 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



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80 Micro. December 1984 • 149 



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result. #PI has the value of pi 
(3.14159). #E has the value of 3, the 
base for natural logarithms. You can 
use assignment statements to add vari- 
ables; the statement SUM = 3 + 4 + 
5 assigns the value 12 to the variable 
called Sum. 

If you type in an expression to be 
evaluated, such as 3 + 4, the program 
prints the answer, 7, and assigns that 
value to the variable ^ANS. If you 
enter an expression such as SQRT 
( SUM ), the program searches the 
variable list for Sum and uses its value 
in the expression. 

The first field in the record type, the 
next pointer, maintains the variable 
list. The pointer has the value nil when 
a variable is the last item on the list; 
otherwise it points to the next variable. 



You can add as many variables as 
memory allows. 

The program has a few bells and 
whistles. You can display a variable 
list by typing in an exclamation point 
(!). A colon (:) displays a help menu. 
The command Quit lets you terminate 
the program. 

A couple of caveats. The program 
works better if you leave blanks on 
both sides of a number or variable 
name. For example, instead of typing 
in S\N{ffP]/2) type in S1N( ^ft'I / 2 ). 
Also, you should use uppercase char- 
acters. ■ 



Write to Bruce Powel Douglass c/o 
80 Micro. 80 Pine St., Peterborough. 
NH 03458. 



Program Lining. Calculate program. 



label 
type 



varlen = Sj eiclen " 12; 



v_ptr 
v„iteiii 



V_ptr; 

Valta; 
REAL; 



OF 



program calculator; 
const nanelen ■■ 4i 

lee; 

alfd = array Il..er[lenJ of CHAK; 

Valfa - array [1..VARLEN1 □£ CHAF; 
funcnam - (ABSnam, EORTnam, EXPnam, 
SINnam, COSnam, TANnan, 
ATANnatn . AS INnan , ACOSnan , LNnav , 
LOGnam, INTnap, PACnan, SINHnan, 
COSH nam) ; 
- #v_itein: 
= RECORD 

nextVar 
Vname 
value 
end; 
N_Array - ARRAY Ifancnara] OF ARRAY U, .nainelen] 
CHAR; 
var 

BooBoo 1 boolean; 
statement : stiing; 
i , p ! Integer; 
result : real; 
first, ptr.ptrl : V_ptci 
names : N_ar lay; 
name : Val£a; 

{ ! 

function LEN(S: string) : integer; external; 

function LEFTS(S:Btring; POSiinteger) i string; external; 
function RIGHT$(S; string; POS: integer) : string; external; 
function HIDS (Sistringj POS, LENGTH; integer): string; external; 
function DECODER(S; string) :ieal; external; 
function CHARACTER(S:string; POSiinteger ) iCHAS; external; 
function CPYSTB{ S : string) istring; external; 
function C0NC(Sl,S2:8tring) istring; external; 

function DELETE[S:Btr ingi POS, LENGTH: integer) istring j external; 
function FIND(SUBS, S:Etring)i integer; external; 
function INSERT(SUB,S:stringj POS:inteqer) istring; external; 
function REPLAC L [ OLDS, NEWEE,S istring) ; string; external; 

i 1 

function EVAL[EXPR:stt ing; VAR BooBoo i boolean ; 

first: V_Ptc; VAR names: N_Acray) : real; external; 
{ ) 
procedure initiali zeNanee ; 
begin 

i give names to arithmetic functions 



names ] ABSnam) 
names [ EXPnam] 
names [COSnam] 
names [ ATANnam] 
names [ACOSnam] 
names [LOGnaml 
names [ INTnamj 
names [SINHnaml 
end; 



'ABS 
' EXP ' ; 

'COS '; 
' ATN ' ; 
■ACOS'; 
'LOG ' ; 

'INT '; nameB[FACnaBiI := "FAC '; 
'SINH'; names ICOSHnaal i- 'COSH'j 
( end initialize } 
{ } 

function DONE : boolean; 
begin 

if find(bldstr('OUIT') .statement) >0 then DONE 

else DONE :- FALSE; 
end ; 

( ] 



names ISQRTnam] 
names [SINnam] 
names [TANnam] 
names lASINnaml 
names [LHnam) :■■ 

names [FACnamI 
names [COSHnanl 



'SQRT'; 
'SIN ■; 
' TAN ' ; 
'ASIN' ; 
'LN ' ; 



L isling conlinufd 



150 • 80 Micro, December 1964 



PASCALCULATIONS 



Listing continurd 

functicn LIST(S :sttinql : boolean: 
begin 

if FIND(BLDSTRC ! '1 ,S)>e then LIST i- TRUE 
elEC LIST :- FALSE; 

end) 

( ) 

procedutp tielp; 
begin 

wr iteln ( ' You r options are: 'It 

writelnl' Enter an expiossion Co be evaluated; e.g, 
wiiteln[' Agsian a variable a valuej e.g., 
writeln[' List the variables by enteting 
writeln [ ' Terminate the program by entering 
uriteln(' See the help menu by entering 
end I 

{ ! 

procedure PBT«ATH(fi:redl) ; 

VAR 

T I integer! 

begin 

i£ ft=0 then KaiTELN(' 8.0 ') 
else btgin 

T :- TRUNC(LNIABS(R) )/:.303) ; 
if (T'-4) AND [T>-31 then WRITELN [R: 9: 5-T) 
else WRITELNtR) 
end; 
end; 



SIN( 2 • 3 I'll 

SUM - SORT ( B9 ) '1 I 

!■) ; 

QUIT'); 



procedure LiELVai i i £i rst : V. ptt ) i 
var 

i ! integer; 
item : V_ptr j 
begin 

item := firstj 

WHITELNI' Current Variable Liet '); 
WHII.t itenONIL DO 
Leqin 

WHITEdteTTig.Vnane, ' = '); 
PRTKATHdtemg. value) ; 
itein :- itemg.nextVar ; 
end; 
end; 

( 1 
function ASSICNKENT(VAfi Sistring) : boolean! 
begin 

if FrND[aLDSTR[ ■-■) ,S) >0 then 
ASSIGNMENT :- TRUE 

else 

ASaiGNMENr := FALSE; 
end; 

( ) 
procedure State.Error; 
begin 

WRITELN ( 'Invalid aE5ignmt.-nt Statement'); 
BooBoo :» TRUE; 
end I 

I ) 
function GETVALL;e(S : Etringl ; tcol; 
VAR 

ptt : V_ptri 
teir.p : string; 
betjin 

P :- PI[1D(BLDSTRC-') ,E)*1; 

if P-.-LEN(S) then 
bejin 

temp :- RIGHTStS.P) ; 
if NOT(BorDBool then 

GETVALUE :- EVAL[teirp, BOOBOO, first, names); 
end 
else 
begin 

State_Erriiri 
ESCAPE; 
end ; 
end; 

\ } 
procedure GETNAHEIS : string; tirat i V pttli 
VAP 

ptr.ptrl : V_ptr: 
name i Val£j; 
newvar ; boolean; 
begin 
p :- FI»D(BLDSTB( '-' ) ,S) ; 

if p>l then 

GetSTR(LEFT5[5,p-ll .name) 
else 

begin 

State_Error I 

ESCAPE; 

end ; 
{ check to see if new name ] 
ptr :- first; 
newvar := TRUE; 

WHILE name < .' ptr^.Vname AND ptr g . nextVar ONIL DO 

pti :- ptre.nextVar J 
if name • ptre.Vname then newvar i- FALSE; 
if newvar then 
begin 
new ( ptr 1) ; 



Lai inn continued 



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- So» List ol Advertisers on Page 192 



SO Micro. O'ecembei 19H4 • 151 

Scanned by Ira Goldklang - www.trs-80.com 



PASCALCULATIONS 





Liiiing caitimued 












ptrS-neitVar ;= ptrl; 


begin { main program } 


if LIST{6tatenient) then ListVarsl first) 








ptrlS.Vname := name; 


initializeNanes; 


else 








ptrie.nextVat := NIL; 


result :- 0; 


il find{bldstr( ':■) .statement) >fl then 


help 






ptt :- ptcl; 


new(f irst) ; 


else 








end J 


firsts. VnaBe := 'HANS '; 


begin 








result I- GetValue(State»ent) ; 


firsts. value := 8.0; 


if ASSIGNMENT(STATEMENT) then 








if NOT(BooBoo) then 


new(ptr ) ; 


GetNamel Statement, first) 








ptrS. Value := result 


ficatS.nextVar i= ptr j 


else 








else { lenove new variable } 


ptrS.VnaFie ■- 'IfPI ■; 


result:- GETVALUE(stateinent) j 








if newvar then 


ptrS. value :- 3.14159265j 


if NOT BooBoo then 








begin 


new(ptr 1) ; 


begin 








ptr 1= first; 


ptcg.nextVar :- ptrl; 


PRTMATH(result) ; 








WHILE ptre.nextVarONIL DO 


ptrie.Vname ;- '**£ 'j 


firsts. value := Result; 








begin 


ptrie. value :- 2.7182 818284; 


end; 








ptrl :» ptrj 


ptrlg.neKtVar :- NIL; 


end ; 








ptr :> ptr S.nextvari 


help; 










endr 


REPEAT 


UNTIL DOMEf 








ptrie.neitVar := NIL; 


BooBoo := FALSE; 


end. 








dispOse{ptr) ; 


WRITE( ' >') ; 










end r 


READLN(STATEMENT) ; 










end; { end GetNaae ) 

i ) 


if DONE then GOTO 1B0; 




En,l 

















Tidbil 




Thanks to your articles on bar coding (November 1983, 
October 1984), I've developed some useful applications for 
the 2 of 5 code listed here. 

This program lets you print 2 of 5 bar codes, either se- 
quentially or singly, using the Model 100 and the DMP 
2100 or Toshiba 1350 printer. 



Daniel Burstiner 
Bridgewater, NJ 



5 REM 

10 REH 

15 REM 

20 REH 

25 REH 

30 REM 

3 5 REM 

100 CLS:CLEAR1I900:DEFSTR B,L,N,S :GOSUB1000 

105 PRINT'If single #'s are desired, 

do not input a stop •." 
110 INPUT" Enter start #(>=0 : ';R:E-0 : 

INPUT'Enter stop #.' 
120 IFR<DORR>999990RE<DORE>99999THENPRINT" 
Try again stupid! !" :GOTO105 

125 IFE<RTHENRT=-1ELSERT=1 

126 IFE=3.14159THENE-B 
200 FORA-RTOESTEPRT 

205 NU=STR$(A} :Q-LEN(NU) :RIGHTS(NU,Q-1) 

210 TL-LEN{NU) : IFTL<5THENNU-"0" ; NU: ELSEGO220 

215 GOTO210P 

220 BC=B+S+B+S!REM START BIT 

225 FORK=1T05:T-VAL{MID$(NU,K,1) ) :BC-BC+L{T) 

NEXT :BC=BC+BW+S+B; REH STOP BIT 
320 LPRINi„HR$(18) ; :LPRINBC!BC="" : 

LPRINTCHR$(30) ; " " jNUiLPRINTCHRS 

(18) :NEXT:LPRINTCHR${30) 
400 IFE-RGOT0195ELSEEND 
1000 B=CHR5{255) :S=CHR5(128) 
1005 BW=B+B 

1010 L(0)"B+S+B+S+BW+S+BW+S+B+S 
1020 L(1)-BW+S+B+S+B+S+B+S+BW+S 
1025 L(2) -B+S+BW+S+B+S+B+S+BW+S 
1030 L(3)-BH+S+BW+S+B+S+B+S+B+S 
1035 L(4] ^B+S+B+S+BW+S+B+S+BW+S 
1040 L(5)-BW+S+B+S+BW+S+B+S+B+S 
1045 LC6)=B+S+BW+S+BW+S+B+S+B+S 
1050 L{7) =B+S+B+S+B+S+BW+S;BW+S 
1055 L(8) =BW+S+B+S+B+S+BW+S+B+S 
1060 L{9)=B+S+BW+S+B+S+BW+S+B+S 
1065 RETURN 



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80 Micro, December 1984 • 155 



THE NEXT STEP / by Hardin Brothers 



Function Key Feats 
On the Model 4 



Last month, I presented a program 
that changes the values returned 
by the Mcxlel 4's function keys. If you 
want to permanently apply one set of 
characters to the function keys, that 
program is sufficient. But the function 
keys are much more valuable if you 
can reassign them at will. This 
month's program shows how, and at 
the same time demonstrates several 
more TRSDOS 6.X supervisory calls 
(SVCs). 

Program Listing 1 (Selkeys) fulfills 
two functions. First if you merely 
want to see the current function key 
values, type, from TRSDOS Ready, 
SETFKEYS. Second, if you want to 
change the function key values, use 
the optional parameter and type SET- 
FKEYS (Q). The screen displays the 
value of each key and prompts you for 
a new value. 

As with last month's program 
(Three Keys), this month's runs under 
the EDAS assembler. You may have 
to make minor variations in the source 
code to use another assembler. Also, I 
have again used a simple macro in- 
stniction, SVC. 

How the Programs Work 

When TRSDOS runs any program, 
it (along with most Model l/IIl DOS- 
es) enters the program with the HL 
register pointing to the first nonspace 
character after the program name in 
the DOS command line. In Setkeys, 
HL points to the parameter, if any, 
that you enter when you call Setkeys 
from DOS. 

Line 600 of Selkeys saves the con- 
tents of the HL register on the stack, 
and the @GTMOD SVC finds the 
memory location of Three Keys. If it 
finds the module, DE points to the 
first byte of the module name. If it 
doesn't find the module, the Zero flag 
is reset, and Setkeys ends with an error 
statement. 




Assuming that Three Keys is in- 
stalled in high memory, Setkeys moves 
onto line 690, where it uses the 
@PARAM SVC to parse the possible 
Query parameter. The @PARAM 
SVC is extremely powerful, but takes 
some care to set up. Before it is called, 
the DE register must be pointing to a 
special data structure called a param- 
eter table (PARTBLS in the program 
at line 1910). The first byte of the 
parameter table must be 80 hex, the 
last byte must be a zero. 

In between, several bytes must rep- 
resent each possible parameter. The 
first is a bit record of the type of re- 
sponse expected (numeric, flag, string, 
abbreviation) along with the length of 
the parameter name. The parameter 
name follows that byte. Then comes a 
response byte that @PARAM uses to 
show what type of response (if any) 
you made. Finally, there must be a 
2-byte pointer to the address where the 
parameter response is to be stored. 

In Setkeys, you want the response 
to be loaded into the BC register at line 



8^, so the pointer is set to FARM + 1 . 
After the SVC to @PARAM, the pro- 
gram goes through a series of error 
checks (lines 730-810). If @PARAM 
returns with the Z flag reset, you've 
made a gross parameter error (such as 
an attempt to set an undefmed param- 
eter). If you make no parameter re- 
sponse, then the response byte still 
contains a zero; if bit 6 of the response 
byte is not set, the parameter specified 
was not a YES/NO, ON/OFF flag. In 
all three cases, the program reports a 
parameter error and ends. 

If you specify a legal parameter, the 
program places it at PARM+l. The 
result of a flag parameter is either 
zero, meaning NO/OFF, or OFFFF 



The Key Box 

Model 4 

Assembly Language 

EDAS 



UWDW 



156 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



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THE NEXT STEP 











Program Listing. Setkeys. 








00100 




***** 


****•*■*>■*<*•***** 


********* 






00110 




• Function Key Reset Pcoqca» * | 






00120 




* 




* 






00130 




• Written by Hardin Br 


Others • 






00140 






********•***•■*•**• 


********* 






00150 














00160 


This 


program works in conjunc 


tion with FKEY/FLT 






00170 


to 


allow 


changing F-Key definitions while that | 






001B0 


filter is 


installed. 








00190 














00200 


Assemble as SETFKEYS/CMD 








00210 














00220 


Allowable 


parameter i 








00230 














00240 


QUERY- YES or NO 








00250 


(QUERY may be abbreviated to 01 1 






00260 














00270 


If 


0-OFF, 


then current F-Key 


values are displayed 






00260 


IF 


Q-ON, 


the F-key values are displayed and user i 






00290 


is prompted to enter new values. | 






00300 














00310 


*••■* 












00320 




Equal 


es Table: 








00330 


**■•■ 








aasA 




00340 


-F 


EQU 


10 ;Line Feed character 1 


Bteu 




00350 


;r 


EQU 


13 jCartiac 


e return 


0003 




00360 

00370 


!TX 


EQU 


03 jUsed to 


mark nsg end 


0002 




00380 


IQSP 


EQU 


02 (Display 


single character 


0009 




00390 


aKSYIN 


EQU 


09 ;Accept 


a line of input 


000A 




00400 


aCSPLY 


EQU 


10 .-Display 


a message line 


1011 




00410 


IPARAM 


EQU 


17 1 Parse a 


pararaetec string 


0016 




10420 


'EXIT 


EQU 


22 jReturn 


to TRSDOS 


0053 




00430 


GTMOD 


EQU 


B3 ]Find memory module address | 


0060 




00440 


DECK EX 


EQU 


96 jConvert 


decimal ASCII to binary 


B0fil 




00450 
004E0 
00470 
B04B0 
00490 


HEXDEC 


EQU 
Macro 


97 (Convert 
Instruction: 


binary to decimal ASCII 


0000 




00500 


vc 


MACRO 


•NUMBER 




■ 000 




00510 




LD 


A, (NUMBER 


;Gel SVC number 


0000 




00520 




RST 


28H 


; Execute SVC 


0000 




00530 
00540 
00550 
00560 
00570 
00580 


***** 
***** 


ENDM 

Initi 


fllization Routine 




3000 




00590 




ORG 


300011 




3B00 


E5 


00600 


tEGIN 


PUSH 


HL 


;Save pntc to command line 


3001 


11B&30 


00610 




LD 


DE , HODNAM 


(DE-->Hodule name 


3004 




00620 




SVC 


SGTMOD 


;Find FKEY in memory 


3007 


2800 


00630 




JR 


J.PARAM 


;Go if module found 


3009 


21C330 


00640 




LD 


HL,NOFKEY 


;HL>-> Message 


3e0C 




08650 


RHXIT 


SVC 


9DSPLY 


iDisplay it 


30iF 


210000 


00660 




LD 


HL,0 


;No system error 


3012 




00670 
006B0 




SVC 


SEXIT 


(Return to TRSDOS 


3015 


El 


006 90 


'ARAM 


POP 


HL 


;HL='^>Poas. param string 


3016 


D5 


00700 




PUSH 


DE 


;Save Filter address 


3017 


111F31 


00710 




LD 


DE,PARTBL$ 


IDE ==> Parameter table 


301A 




00720 




SVC 


SPARAM 


;Parse the parameter 


301D 


2B0 5 


00730 




JR 


Z , PARSE 


;Go if no error 


3B1F 


21E330 


00740 


'ERROR 


LD 


HL, PARMER 


;HL=->Paraineter message 


3022 


IBES 


007S0 
00760 

00770 




JR 


ERRXIT 


(Display and leave 


3024 


3A2631 


'ARSE 


LD 


A, (RESP) 


;Get response byte 


3027 


B7 


00780 




OR 


A 


jWas there a response? 


3026 


2B04 


00790 




JR 


Z,PARM 


) Go If not 


3B2A 


CB77 


00800 




BIT 


6, A 


;Wa9 it a flag response? 


302C 


2BF1 


00810 




JR 


Z.PERROR 


iParameter error if not 


302E 


010000 


00820 


'ARM 


LD 


BC,0 


(Parameter in BC 


3031 


Dl 


00630 




POP 


DE 


(Recover filter address 


3032 


210400 


00640 




LD 


HL,4 


(Offset from name to data 


3035 


19 


00650 




ADD 


HL,DE 


(HL ==> start of data 


3036 


E5 


00860 




PUSH 


!iL 


(Transfer pointer to 


3037 


DDEl 


00870 




POP 


IX 


( IX register 


3039 


21F530 


00880 




LD 


HL.KEYNAM 


(HL =-> F key names 


303C 


0606 


00 890 




LD 


B,6 


(6 times through loop 


303E 


79 


00900 




LD 


A,C 


(A - flag 


303F 


B7 


00910 




OR 


A 


(Is it [OFF) 


3040 


200F 


00920 

00930 




JR 


NZ, PROMPT 


(Go if Q=ON 






00940 




Kece 


to Show current settings only | 






00950 


***** 








3042 


C5 


00960 


iHOW 


PUSH 


BC 


(Save loop counter 


3043 


CDS230 


00970 




CALL 


DISPLAY 


(Show next key t value 


3046 


0E0D 


00980 




LD 


C,CR 


(Carriage return for next 


304B 




00990 




SVC 


§DSP 


(Move cursor to next line 


304B 


CI 


01000 




POP 


BC 


J Recover counter 


304C 


ieF4 


01010 




DJNZ 


SHOW 


(Loop until done 


304E 




01020 
01030 


***** 


SVC 


gEXIT 


(And leave 






01040 




Here 


to show current settings | 






01050 




and p 


rorapt for changes 








01060 


***** 








3051 


cs 


01070 


PROMPT 


PUSH 


BC 


(Save loop counter 


3052 


CDB23B 


010B0 




CALL 


DISPLAY 


(Show next key & value 


3055 


0E3F 


01090 




LD 


C, '7' 


J '? ' for prompt 


3057 




01100 




SVC 


9DSP 


(Show it 

Listing coniinutd 



The Display routine 
makes extensive 
useofSVC'sto 
show the values 
assigned to the 

six function keys. 



hex, which indicates YES/ON. The 
program, after setting the correct val- 
ues in the DC, HL, and B registers, 
uses the parameter value to determine 
whether to use the Show or Prompt 
routine. 

Show merely makes repeated calls 
to the E>isplay routine in order to show 
the current values of the six function 
keys. Prompt does the same, but also 
lets you enter new possible values. The 
Prompt routine uses the @KEYIN 
SVC to get a response from the user 
and then the ©DECHEX SVC to 
change a decimal response into a sin- 
gle binary byte. Whether a new value 
is entered as a single quoted character 
(for example, "A") or the decimal 
value of such a value (65), that new 
value is placed in the data area of 
Three Keys. If you just press the enter 
key instead of entering a value, the 
function key is left unchanged. 

The Display routine (starting at line 
1460) makes extensive use of the SVCs 
@DSP, @DSPLY. and ©HEXDEC 
to show the value assigned to each of 
the six function keys as both a charac- 
ter and a decimal ASCII value. It finds 
the name of e^h key from the KEY- 
NAM table in the program (line 1820) 
and the value of that key from the data 
table at the beginning of Three Keys. 
It uses only one piece of tricky coding 
at line 1580. 

Normally, the ©HEXDEC SVC 
takes a binary value in the HL register 
and returns its 5-byte ASCII/decimal 
representation in a special receiving 
buffer, followed by a carriage return 
character. Since this program doesn't 
want to print that carriage return, it 
immediately substitutes an ETX char- 
acter (03 hex) for the carriage return. 
Then it skips the first two spaces that 
must be at the beginning of the ASCII 
buffer before displaying the result. 



158 • 80 Micro, December 1984 




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80 Micro, December 1984 • 159 



THE NEXT STEP 



3 



Listing cwiliirued 














3B5A E^ 


0111B 




PUSH 


HL 




;Save kty-naMe pointer 


3e5B e6B3 


0112B 




LD 


B,3 




jPcepace to get aax. 


3e5D DEBB 


01130 




LD 


C,B 




; of 3-chai:. input 


30i>F 212A31 


01140 




LD 


HL.IHBUF 




1 stoced In IHBUF 


3062 


91150 




SVC 


gKEYIN 




iGet response 


3065 3B14 


01160 




JR 


C,PRI1PT3 




fGo If <:break> 


3867 78 


01170 




LD 


A,B 




iCet length of response 


3068 B7 


B1180 




OR 


A 




iSet flags 


3869 2eie 


B1130 




JR 


Z,PIWPT3 




;Go if <EMTER> only 


3068 7e 


B1200 




LD 


A, (HL) 




list chacacter in A 


3B6C FEZ2 


B121B 




CP 


I ■ 1 




iWas it a string? 


3B6E 2eB4 


B1220 
01230 ; 


• ■••< 


Jtt 


NZ.PRHPTl 




iGo If not 




B124B ; 




Process stclnq cssponse 






B12Se ] 












3B7B 23 


01260 




IHC 


HL 




iHL-'>characteE after "" 


3071 7E 


0127B 




LD 


A,[HL) 




jCharactsc In A 


3B72 1B04 


B12S0 
B1290 




JR 


PRI(PT2 




tCo save responsa 




01300 




Hece 


f nuneric (deciaal) lesponae | 




B131B 












3B74 


B132B PRNPTl 


SVC 


iDECHEX 




(Change to binary 


3fl77 79 


0133B 
0134B 




LD 


A,C 




iGet LSB of lesult 


307B DD77FF 


01350 PRMPT2 


LD 


[IX-D ,A 




jSav« In filter nodula 


307B El 


01360 PRHPT3 


POP 


HL 




tRecovsc Bsg pointer 


3B7C CI 


0137B 




POP 


BC 




(Recover counter 


307& 1BD2 


B13B0 




DJNZ 


PROMPT 




iLoop until done 


387? 


01390 

014BB 
01410 





SVC 


SEX IT 




iReturn to TRSDOS 




01420 




□iaplay routine — 


Displays key nane | 




B1430 




and 


curcent key 


value 


as both character 1 




B1440 




and 


ASCII. 1*180 


updates HL i IX pointers | 




0145B 


t ***> 










3082 


01460 


nSPLAi 


SVC 


?DSPLY 




jDisplay current key nane 


3085 E5 


B1470 




PUSH 


HL 




fAnd save pointer 


3086 DD4EB0 


B148B 




LD 


C,[IX) 




;Get current value 


3089 


B1490 




SVC 


?DSF 




(Display It as char. 


30BC BE20 


0150B 




LD 


C," ' 






308E 


0151B 




SVC 


SDSP 




■Display a space 


3B91 BE28 


ei52B 




LD 


C,' (' 






3B93 


01530 




SVC 


iDSP 




(Display parenthesis 


3B96 DDGEBB 


01540 




LD 


L,(IX) 




;Cet current key value 


3099 2600 


0155B 




LD 


H,0 




; in HL 


309B 112E31 


01560 




LD 


DE,ASCBUF 




,DE">r«celving buffer 


309E 


01570 




SVC 


iHEXDEC 




(Change to deciaal value 


3BA1 3E03 


B158B 




LD 


A.ETX 




(replace cr with etx 


3BA3 12 


B159B 




LD 


[DE) ,A 




] at end of number 


3BA4 212E31 


016B0 




LD 


HL.ASCBUF 




jHL">recelvlng buffer 


30A7 23 


01610 




INC 


HL 




(Bump past two 


30AB 23 


01620 




lUC 


HL 




1 ASCII spaces 

liiling autiinued 



Using the Prognuns 

After you experiment with Three 
Keys and Setkeys for a while, you 
should feel quite at home with them. 
The real question then becomes how 
you can best use them. 

If you're using a program that de- 
fines the function keys for itself, be 
sure the FKEY filter is not installed. If 
it is, and if the function key values are 
anything other than the standard de- 
faults, the program will probably 
never see the function keys and will 
^pear to be working incorrectly. 

I've found that Three Keys is most 
useful when I'm writing a Basic pro- 
gram. I define one key as the exponen- 
tiation sign (C:HR$(94)), because I can 
never remember that on the Model 4 
this sign is defined as the clear and ; 
keys. I'm also likely to assign one key 
the vahie for an underline (CHRS(95)). 

More important, by combining 
Three Keys with TRSDOS's keystroke 
multiplier (KSM), you can generate 
simpte, one-key entry of such com- 
mon commands as Edit, List, and 
Run. Of course, you can use the KSM 



without the function keys, but I find it 
more convenient to combine the two. 
To see the process in action, use the 
following series of commands to in- 
stall the Fl key as Edit, the F2 key as 
List, and the F3 key as the exponentia- 
tion sign (these commands don't 
change the values of the shifted func- 
tion keys). These commands assume 
that you begin with the keyboard driver 
(•KI) unchanged and that you're work- 
ing from the TRSDOS Ready level. 
•First build a KSM file by typing the 
command BUILD FX/KSM:0 and 
presang the enter key. Then, answer 
the system prompts as follows: 

A = >EDrr press the space key and then the en- 
ter key. 

B = >LiST press the space key and then the enter 
key. 
C-XBREAIO 

♦Now that the KSM list is built, you 
need to install both filters. 

SET 'FK TO F»CEY/FLT 

SET 'KS TO KSM/FLT USING FK 



♦Use Setkeys to set the values in Three 
Keys by typing SETFKEYS (Q) at 
TRSDOS Ready and answering the 
prompts as shown in the Fig. 
♦Finally, you must link Three Keys 
and the KSM filter to the keyboard 
driver. The order of these next opera- 
tions is extremely important. 

FILTER •KI USING 'KS (inslaD KSM) 
FILTER 'KS USING 'FK (install FKEY) 

If all has gone well, the function 
keys should return the appropriate 
values. Also, the DEVICE (B) com- 
mand should show the following rout- 
ings (assuming that you had nothing 
else stored in protected high memory). 

•KI<#[*KSlX'FF3r 
•FK < = X'08F0' 
•KS<*>[*FK]X'FFBB' 

After you're sure you've installed 
everything correctly, you can save the 
results with SYSGEN if you want the 
function keys configured this way ev- 
erytime you reboot. Whenever you 
wish to run an applications program 
that also uses the function keys, you 
can discoimect the entire filter chain 
with the command RESET ♦KI. 
Though the two filters will still occupy 
space in high memory (they only take 
about 2(X) bytes together), they wiU no 
longer interfere with any program that 
expects the function keys to have their 
default values. ■ 

Readers who subscribe to Compu- 
Serve can take part in discus^ons of 
topics covered in The Next Step. GO 
PCS-ll? to the Software and Authors 
Special Interest Group (SASIG). and 
leave your questions addressed to 
Hardin Brothers. Feel free to join in 
conversations started by others. 

You can also write to Hardin 
Brothers at 280 N. Campus Ave.. Up- 
land. CA 91786. Enclose a stamped, 
self-addressed envelope for a reply. 



Fl = 


(129) ? 193 (the vahie of the clear 




and A keys) 


F2 = 


(130) ? 194 (the value of the clear 




and B keys) 


F3 = 


(131) ? 94 (exponentiation sign) 


SFl 


= (145) ? press the enter key 


SF2 


= (146) 7 press the enter key 


SF3 


= (147) ? press the enter key 


Figure. 


Here's how you must answer the 


prompts generated by typing SETFKE YS (Q) 


at TRSDOS Ready. 



160 • dO Micro, December 1984 



THE NEXT STEP 



Listing continued 














i0A9 




01630 




SVC 


§DSPLV 




;Pot it on screen 


SBAC 


BE29 


01640 




LD 


c,') ■ 




;Closing parenthesis 


3BAE 




0I6S0 




SVC 


@DSP 






30B1 


BE2e 


01660 




LO 


C ' 




[And space 


30E3 




01670 




SVC 


eosp 






3BB6 


EI 


016^0 




POP 


HL 




ifiecovei pcintei 


30B7 


110700 


01690 




LD 


DE,7 




fOffset to next Itey name 


3 0BA 


19 


01700 




ADD 


HLrDB 




tHL«»> next name 


30BB 


DD23 


01710 




INC 


IX 




!lX=-> neit data entry 


303D 


C9 


01720 
01730 
01740 
01750 


1 


RET 

Message 


s 






3eBE 


46 


01760 


HODNAH 


DB 


■FKEY" ,CR 


;Name o£ FKEY Filter 






01770 












3ac3 


0A 


017B0 


NOFKEY 


□ B 


LF, ' Function 


Key Filter not foundl'jCR 






01790 












3eE3 


0A 


D1B00 


PAHMER 


DB 


LF, 'Parameter 


Error 1 ' ,CR 






01810 


; 










30F5 


20 


01620 


KEYNAM 


DB 


■ Fl = 


,ETX 




30FC 


20 


01630 




DB 


' F2 - 


,ETX 




31B3 


20 


01640 




BB 


' F3 - 


,ETX 




31 0A 


53 


01B50 




DB 


■SFl = 


,ETX 




3111 


b3 


01660 




DB 


'SF2 - 


,£TX 




311B 


53 


01670 
01880 


...... 


DB 


'SF3 - 


,ETX 








B1890 




Pardmeter Table 










01900 


. ***** 










311F 


ee 


01910 


PARTBLS 


DB 


80H 




;Hark start of table 


312B 


S5 


01920 
01930 




DB 


5aH + 5 




lAccept flag, abbreviation 
; and 5-character name 


3121 


51 


01940 




DB 


'QUERY' 




;Paranieter name 


3126 


00 


01950 


KESP 


DB 


a 




jReS[)onse byte 


3127 


2F30 


01960 




DW 


PARH+l 




;-'=>storage area 


3129 


B0 


01970 
01960 
01990 
02009 


; 


DB 
Storage 



buffers 




;Mark end of table 


eaai 




02010 
02020 


INBUF 


DS 


4 




; Input 3 or less chars. 


aaas 




02033 


ASCBUF 


DS 


5 




;5pace for @H£XDEC Store 


3133 


BD 


02040 
02050 




DB 


CR 




;mark end with cr 


30B» 




02060 




END 


BEGIN 






eaaaa Total 


ecrots 


























End 



Turn Your Model 4 into a 

SUPERCOMPUTER 



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vd ANY Mattel 3 DOS tsu cw raw have. 



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LETS TALK is a simple. straightfonA/ard pro- ^ i .^ 

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5Ct=TLijnne COOP 



BASIC and VisiCaJc"^^, from one computer to 



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another. Precisely Easily Without professional, expen- 
sive data processing expertise. 

LET'S TALK allows two computers to communicate 

directly with each other in a "conversational mode" 

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can send or retrieve files of any size from unattended 

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GROWTH AND EXPANSION REQUIRE 

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Making dollars and sense out of information. 

TRS-80 IS A registered tiademark of Tandy Corporation Tandy ZOOO is a trademark of Tancty Corporation Visi Calc is a registered trademark of VisiCorp. 
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LtT STALK includes all diskettes tor eatti of the above computers Suggested retiulprKe of JI4900 - iSOOshipping 



See Lisl of Aiivenisers on Page 192 



80 Micro, Decemberl 984 • 161 



2000 PLUS / by John B. HarreU m 



Getting More Color 
Into Your Programs 



To close out the year I'll discuss 
two commercial programs for the 
Model 2000, Lotus 1-2-3 and Conven 
2000. I'll also present a short program 
that lets you use full-screen color with 
dBase 11 and other software. 

Bask Convei^n Reviated 

In my October column, 1 listed my 
own routine for converting Mcxlel 
1/111 Basic programs to Model 2000 
Basic. Convert 2000 (see the Table for 
product information) does essentially 
the same thing— it takes a Model I/III 
program that's been transferred to the 
2000 in ASCII format and translates it 
into Model 2000 Basic. The software 
comes with a small pamphlet describ- 
ing its use and listing various traps 
where the program might not convert 
code correctly. 

Although you can duplicate the dis- 
tribution disk, the Convert 2000 pro- 
gram is stored in Microsoft Basic's 
protected format. You can't make any 
changes to it or even list the program. 

1 used Conven 2000 to translate a 
simple Basic program of approximate- 
ly 100 lines. The conversion took two 
minutes and 48 seconds on the Model 
2000; the converted program was 
4,424 b>les long. 

1 noted some problems. The pro- 
gram converted the statement "Re- 
store" to "Rest or e". It did not 
change the Clear command to remove 
the string-space request. It didn't con- 
vert several Print @ statements to 
the concsponding I.cKate 1,1 state- 
ments, and several Print @ statements 
involving variables or expressions 
weren't properly identified as errors 
requiring investigation. Additionally, 
Convert 2000 ignored any line con- 
taining the characters "REM" (e.g., 
the statement PRINT "REMARK- 
ABLE"). 




Convert 20(X) suffers from two ma- 
jor problems: It's slow and it intro- 
duces errors into the program by im- 
properly recognizing Basic keywords. 

The speed problem is due to the 
huge amount of string processing re- 
quired to manipulate the source pro- 
gram in ASCII character format. Re- 
quiring the source program to be in 
ASCII also causes the errors. The 
Model I/III interpreter does a fine job 
of token recognition and presents a 
compact and easy-to-manipulate in- 
termediate program. When you con- 
vert the program back to ASCII, you 
lose all of this information. Convert 
2000 must redo all of this work and 
manipulate the ASCII character 
strings to recognize the keywords. 

Unlike the commercial program, 
my conversion routine (October 1984, 
p. 178) uses the compressed, tokeni/ed 
form of the Basic program created by 
the Model I/III interpreter. This sig- 
nificantly reduces the program's over- 
head. On a Model 4P operating under 
TRSDOS 6.x, my program converted 



the same 100-line routine in one 
minute and 51 seconds, almost a min- 
ute fa.sler than Convert 2000. The pro- 
gram produced was shorter (4,170 



Conven 2000 
The OutpoM Group 
Doxf)8 Route 631 
Mamiora, NJ 08223 
$49.95 

Loius 1-2-3 
Tandy/Radio Shack 
One Tandy Center 
Fort Wonh. TX 76102 
S495 

Open Access 

Sotiwarc Produas, Imemalional 

10240 Sorrento Valley Road 

San Dicgo.CA 92121 

S595 

Also available through Radio Shade's 

Express Order Software 

TaMe. Model 2000 software product injor- 
maiion. 



162 • fiO Micro, December 1984 



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^ Smm Uwt ol MwvrtlMfm on P»g0 132 



SO Micro, December 198^ • 163 



2000 PLUS 



bytes) and the conversion introduced 
no erroneous statements. 

The Outpost Group, manufacturer 
of Convert 2000, is firmly committed 
to supporting the Mode! 2000. How- 
ever, I don't feel that this program is 
worth its price. 

The Protection Game 

I don't like protected software — I'd 
make some changes to Convert 2000 if 
I could. While software protection 



may help prevent piracy, it does a 
great disservice to those of us who are 
honest. 

B.L. Price of Newark, OH, offers a 
technique for removing protection 
from Basic software. His method also 
works if you erase an unsaved pro- 
gram with the New command; it re- 
covers everything but the first line. 

To use the procedure with protected 
software, load the program and type 
in NEW. Next, type in PRINT 



Program Listing. Colors.COM routine. 

Use this sequence oE conraands with Debug to create a machine- language routine 
to set the foreground, background, and cursor colors. This routine uses some 
low-level Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) calls documented in the Programmer's 
Reference Manual (Radio Shock 26-5403) and direct I/O to the color palette 
ports documented in the Technical Reference Manual (26-5404). Parts in 
parentheses () are computer prompts; type in what follows exactly as listed. 
Each line is terminated with the enter key [identified by <> in the text). 
Don't enter the comments that follow these end-of-Hne markers. 

(A>)DBB(}G<>Invoke the dynamic debugging monitor 

(-) AieaoBegin assembling machine-language commands into address 180H of the 
current code segment 

[0E56:0100) HOV AH,0<>Function code for set CRT mode 

(0E56!0102) MOV ALfSOFunction code for 640 X 400 color graphics 

(0E56:01041 INT IBOCall HSDOS BIOS for video function 

(aE56!B106) HOV AK ,B<>Function code for set color palette 

[0E56iBlBe) MOV BH,0<>Function code for set background color to the color in 
register BL 

(8E56:eiBA) MOV BL,6<>Screen bactcground color to dark yellow 

(BE56ifllBC) IIW IflOlssue video function call 

(0E56:B1BE] MOV AH.BOSame as above 

(0E56!Blle) MOV BH.lOSet default color palette to the number specified in 
register BL 

(0ES6!flll2) MOV BL,0<>Select palette 

(BE56:flll4) INT 10<>issue function call 

(BE56!flll6) MOV DX,182<>Set port number II — port numbers for the color 
palette begin at port 018BH (background) and extends through 018EH for palette 
color n 

(8656:0119) MOV AX.lOSet foreground color to dark blue; this will be the color 
used for text 

(eE56!011C) OUT DXfAXOOutput the value in register AX to the port pointed to 
by register DX 

(flE56t011D) MOV DX,lB4<>Set port number #2 for inverse video used by dBase-II 

[8E56:012B) MOV AX,4<>Set inverse color dark red 

10E56:0123) OUT DX.AXOOutput color to palette 

(0E56!B124) MOV DX.lBEOPort address for palette 17 used for cursor color 

[BE56iai27) MOV AX.FOSet cursor white 

[0E56!B12A) OUT DX,AX<>Output value to port 

{0E56!B12B) MOV DX,18A<>Port address [palette #5) for character color when the 
cursor is positioned over a character 

[0E56!B12E) MOV AX,0<>Set color black 

(0E56iei31) OUT DX.AXOOutput value Co port 

(8E56ifll32) INT 20<>Quit and return to HSDOS 

[eE56!B134) OExit assembler to DEBUG 

(-)RCX<>Change and modify the CX register 

[CX 0000) iBBOSet CX to 80 (12B decimal) bytes 

<-)NCOLORS,COH<>Set file name for DEBUG 

(-JWOWrite file to disk Writing 0888 bytes 

[-)Q<>Quit and return to MSDOS 



CHR$(14) and press the enter key. 
You'll see a character resembling a 
double musical note on the screen. Po- 
sition the cursor over this character; 
then, using the insert key, insert the 
program line: 

10 PRINT " 

just before the note character. Run the 
program and immediately type in 
SAVE "FILENAME", A to save your 
program in ASCII text formal. 

The first line will be messed up and 
will require editing with a text editor. 
Don't type in anything other than the 
Save command or you'll lose your 
program text. Thanks to Mr. Price for 
his valuable technique. 

Showing the Colors 

I love my Tandy 2000 color monitor 
and sometimes spend hours experi- 
menting with the exquisite color com- 
binations available. However, some 
software doesn't do justice to the 
monitor. dBase II, for example, 
doesn't set the entire screen to the 
background color you specify; you get 
splotches of various background/fore- 
ground cotor combinations on an over- 
all black background. 

How about a nice dark yellow back- 
ground for the entire screen with let- 
ters in dark blue and inverse video in 
red? The Debug command sequence 
in the Program Listing establishes 
these colors until you reset the comput- 
er or execute another color sequence. 
The program sets color palettes I and 
2 for foreground and background re- 
spectively, palette 7 for the cursor col- 
or, and palette 5 for the character un- 
der the cursor. 

All you do to make dBase operate 
with these colors is run Colors.COM 
from MS-DOS. Then execute dBase 
and use the dBase command SET 
COLOR TO 2,1 to use palette 1 for 
normal text and palette 2 for high- 
lighted text. This method works well 
with several other applications and lets 
you get the most out of your color 
monitor. 

If you'd like a copy of the Colors 
program, send me a disk in a mailer 
that has your address and the correct 
postage on it. 

1-2-3 and the 2000 

Lotus 1-2-3 has been reviewed many 
times, so I won't belabor old material. 



164-00 Micro, December 1984 



2000 PLUS 



However, as one of the few integrated 
software packages available for the 
Tandy 2000, it merits a brief look. 

Integrated software includes many 
functions bound together within the 
same shell or main program. Lotus 
provides a spreadsheet function, data 
base manager, and business graphics 
package. 1-2-3 was the first major in- 
tegrated software package to gain 
wide acceptance. It's also the only in- 
tegrated software package that Radio 
Shack fully supports. 

As distributed, 1-2-3 for the Model 
2000 comes ready to run. On the 2000, 
the program is exceptionally fast. I've 
used 1-2-3 on an IBM PC/XT and 
find there's no comparison. The high- 
er processor speed of the Model 2000 
allows much faster recalculation of 
spreadsheet data and sorting of data 
items. This implementation also pro- 
duces a nice graphics display com- 
pared to the lower resolution graphics 
of the IBM. The machine really makes 
the difference! 

So what don't I like? First, every- 
thing you do in 1-2-3 uses the spread- 
sheet: the data base manager, macro 
definitions, etc. If you don't liave the 
money to add memory up to tne limits 
of the 2000, you rapidly exhaust 
1-2-3's capabilities. 

Second, the graphics power is limit- 
ed. Lotus provides no three-dimen- 
sional c^jability. You can't adjust the 
colors of the graphs: The program de- 
termines colors and shading patterns. 
Finally, you can't even inspect the 
software in the store. The disks are in 
a sealed envelope to prevent access un- 
til after you've read and agreed to the 
licensing terms. I can't go along with 
this type of marketing. For $495, 1 cer- 
tainly expect to examine what I'm 
buying before I agree to any terms. 

1-2-3 is also a protected system. 
You can copy the files to a hard disk, 
but unless the system disk is in drive 
A, you won't be able to toad and exe- 
cute 1-2-3. I object to proleaion like 
this. Open Access, for $100 more, is a 
more powerful integrated software 
package and it puts no such limita- 
tions on access to the system disks (see 
the review of Open Access, November 
1984, p. 180). ■ 

Contact John B. Harrell III c/o this 
column, 80 Micro, 80 Pine St., Peter- 
borough, NH 03458 or via Compu- 
Serve at 73016,1326. 



MUSI-PRINT 

Publish Your Own Music! 




I hreepnnt styles with multipk- 

strike option. 

Simple editinp 1'eatuies with full 

screen view of music. 

IVints up to 43 consecutively - 

numheied pages of muiic. 

Sinple line, keyboard, voice and 

full score formats. 

All ct«nmon music:»l symK^ls. 

Range three lines hclow staff to 

four lines above. 

Korcomposers. arrangers, teachers 

and students. 

Forctimplete information, write: 
JKM I»u hi I cat ions. l.m. 

P.O. Box 10065 ^?29 

f Irccnsboro. NC 2741M 



Kasy (o program with your Model l/III/IV, 
4Xk Disk and Epson M\ -80 Printer 
with Graftrax. 



Back Issues 




January 1980to .lune 1980 $3.00 

July I980to May 1983 $3.50 

June 1983 to present $4.50 

Add $1 ,00 per magazine for shipping. 
10 or more magazines add $7.50 per 
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micro 



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PERIPHERALS 



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2* 1131 
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26- 1 26« COP 220 Cow "» Jer P™i-e. 594 

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26-1277 >«wt)MP-i3IJ Nr. >Ki' Sc OiHaD PwiK 7S5 
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Continued Jrom p. *0 

on a Model 4 can only be described as 
incredible. 

Z has a complete repertoire of com- 
mands that are more than adequate 
for text editing; it lets you specify mul- 
tiple files on the command line, sup- 
ports macro execution, locates text by 
pattern matching, and uses a yank 
buffer for cut-and-paste operations. 
However, I preferred the VED editor 
because it was so easy to use, you 
could tailor it to suit your needs, and it 
was faster. 

The Compiler System Moduies 

Once you prepare your source code, 
you need several system modules to 
compile it. The first module is the 
compiler itself. The C80 compiler 
reads the C source program and gener- 
ates Assembly-language output. 

Compiler command-line options al- 
low specification of an alternate to the 
compiler's default output file, inser- 
tion of C source code statements into 
the Assembly text as partial documen- 
tation (a valuable aid if you intend to 
hand-modify the resultant Assembly 
code), definition of selected prepro- 
cessor symbols, and manipulation of 
various table sizes. 

The compiler writes 8080 Assem- 
bly-langu£^e output to the file you 
specify. You can manipulate the resul- 
tant text file with any editor. Unfortu- 
nately, the code is in 8080 mnemonics 
and most Radio Shack assemblers 
can't accept it. 

The assembler accepts a subset of 
the Microsoft Macro-80 Assembler 
language and generates relocatable 
output. Unlike Macro-80, it won't ac- 
cept Z80 mnemonics or support mac- 
ro definitions. 

The linker is a fully relocatable link- 
age editor that you use to combine 
your compiled/assembled program 
with the other system library routines 
needed to support execution. The as- 
sembler doesn't have to resolve prop- 
erly defined external references in each 
assembled routine. This allows modu- 
lar program development. The linkage 
editor reads all of these compiled 
modules and resolves external refer- 
ences. Remaining undefmed labels are 
satisfied from the system library. The 
result is a core-image file of the linked 
code. 

The linker supports creation of over- 
lay modules for programs too large to 
fit in memory in one segment. You can 



The linker supports 

creation of 

overlay modules 

for programs too large 

to fit in memory 

in one segment. 



also assign begiiming addresses to 
each of the code and data segments of 
the program. 

The final stage of program prepara- 
tion for execution involves reading the 
core-image output from the linker and 
converting it into a disk operating sys- 
tem load module. The CV utility per- 
forms this task. 

Library Functions 

The compiler system would be 
worthless without a good library of 
software functions. These provide val- 
uable features like string capabilities, 
file manipulation, and access to sys- 
tem functions. 

The function library is divided into 
two areas. First are the system func- 
tions common to all systems Aztec 
C80 supports (and also those Unix 
supports). Second are the system de- 



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pendent functions unique to a specific 
system installation. 

The function library supports un- 
buffered input/output (transferring 
information directly between the sys- 
tem and the device) and standard in- 
put/output. These functions are iden- 
tical to their Unix equivalents and 
support sequential and random input 
and output. 

Aztec C80 supports the three files 
opened automatically in a Unix sys- 
tem: STDIN, STDOUT, and 
STDERR. While you normally associ- 
ate them with the system console (key- 
board and video), you can direct them 
to any logical device using the redirec- 
tion feature (altering the normal de- 
vice assignment by command-line pa- 
rameters). 

These functions are in two libraries: 
C/LIB and M/LIB. They provide the 
majority of functions in the system. In 
addition, ROM/LIB allows the gener- 
ation of ROM-able code, TlNY/LlB 
permits smaller programs and reduces 
program overhead, and C3/LIB al- 
lows the generation of executable code 
for the Model III computer in Model 4 
mode. 

I have one gripe about the library 
functions: You implement GET- 
CHAR( ) by using a macro definition 
and the AGETC(stream) function. 
This is nonstandard Unix and per- 
forms the following additional func- 
tions: translates the end-of-character(s) 
into the C newline ('\n'), removes the 
most significant bit of each character, 
and translates the end-of-file sequence 
into an end-of-file condition. 

This has a very serious effect. If you 
take a simple program to copy files 
from STDIN to STDOUT using I/O 
redirection, copying normal text files 
will work fme. Beware of false securi- 
ty, though, because this doesn't work 
properly on binary files. The function 
call to AGETC(STDIN) wiU terminate 
abruptly whenever it encounters a byte 
containing X'lA'. 

This is a hold-over from CP/M that 
uses this character (control-Z) as the 
"soft" end-of-file marker for text 
files. Normal directory entries do not 
track the location of the end of file as 
does TRSDOS, and this mec:ianism is 
similar to techniques used with Scrip- 
sit and other text processing systems. 
Fortunately, the function call to 
GETC(STDIN) has none of these lim- 
itations. 



168 • 80 Micro, December 1934 



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^ Sm Usi 0/ AOvMlsers on Pag* 192 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 169 



WW HOTpei B Row 
Radu St,ack Tns »C u 
or Tandy Cotp 



I I^gislerert (TadeniQik 




REVIEWS 



TUNE-IN 

TO YOUR 

RADIO 

SHACK 

TRS-80. 

$16.95. 

Here s the indispensable source 
on the choice, care and JeedLng 
oi your TRS-80.' Models III and A 
Everything you'll ever need to 
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InloWorld's Essential Guide to the 
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170 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



The Documentation 

If you think you'll be able to learn C 
from the documentation provided, 
you'll be disappointed. These descrip- 
tions pertain only to the direct features 
and implementation of Manx's com- 
piler. To learn more about C, I highly 
recommend The C Programming 
Language by Brian W . Kemighan and 
Dennis M. Ritchie. It's the only ac- 
ceptable definition of the language 
standard. For a somewhat easier text, 
I recommend Learning to Program in 
C by Thomas Plum. 

There is one minor annoyance in the 
documentation. It is written primarily 
for use with MS-DOS or CP/M. This 
is evident from the file-naming con- 
ventions prevalent throughout the ma- 
terial. While it may only be a minor ir- 
ritant for the experienced user, a 
novice may possibly become confused 
when attempting to use the examples 
from the book. 

Final Comments 

This system requires two disks. 
While it will run from a single disk, I 
don't recommend it due to the physi- 
cal size of the software. I built three 
disks containing the pertinent parts of 
the compiler and Pro systems. These 
still contain no operating system. I use 
the extra 64K of memory as a RAM 
disk and assign the DOS to the Mem- 
DISK. Not only does this speed opera- 
tion, it allows me to structure the three 
disks with the routines that I desire. ■ 



MultiMate: Words 
To the Wise 

by John B. Harrell UI 

The most important function that 
the Tandy Model 2000 will ini- 
tially serve in the business environ- 
ment is word processing. With its 
greater speed, memory capacity, and 
disk storage, this machine has certain 
advantages over its smaller counter- 
parts. And one of its nicest features is 
the advanced software available for it. 
The first Radio Shack package in 
this area is MultiMate Professional 
Word Processing. This software is 
simple enough to use for short busi- 
ness letters and powerful enough for 
even the most complex reports. 



MultiMate provides an entire oper- 
ating system for text processing. You 
never have to exit the program to do 
such jobs as copy, delete, rename, 
and edit files. It also contains a print 
spooler allowing overlapped file 
printing and editing (or other opera- 
tions), and you can queue files for 
printing by time/date in either the 
foreground or background mode. 

What's Inside 

Inside, you'll find program docu- 
mentation, the program disk , and 
special function-key identification la- 
bels. The documentation is logically 
organized into sections that are conve- 
niently tabbed. A quick flip through 
the manual shows that key areas of 
reference are highlighted in color to 
stand out from the remainder of the 
text. 

Most important, the manual con- 
tains a thorough tutorial that includes 
five separate lessons covering basic 
operations through the most complex 
features of the system. 

MultiMate has its own utilities to 
transfer to and from ASCII, recover 
documents, and edit the printer ac- 
tion and sheet-feeder action tables. 
These are documented in the second 
section of the manual. 

The reference section is thorough 
and contains 177 pages documenting 



MultiMate 

Professional Word 

Processing 



Software Systems Inc. 
51 Oakland Ave., North 
East Hartford, CT 06108 
Available through Expre^is Order 
(Cat. # 26-5330) 
Tandy 2000, 256K 
MS-DOS 2.x 
$249.95 



Easy to use? 


• •••V-r 


Good docs? 


••••• 


Bug free? 


••••■^ 


Does the job? 


• •••• 



REVIEWS 



the numerous features of the system. 

The remaining sections of the man- 
ual are the appendix, glossary, and 
index. The appendix provides instruc- 
tions for properly installing the key- 
board labels, troubleshooting prob- 
lems with your printer, and using the 
expanded character set with Multi- 
Mate and your printer. 

The system disk directory provides 
printer action tables (PAT) for all of 
the Radio Shack printers and two gen- 
eric printer action tables. In most cases, 
one of these two generic PATs will al- 
low you to experiment until you gain 
sufficient farr^arily to install your 
own favorite printer PAT. It took me 
a whole five minutes to completely in- 
stall my Okldata Microline 92 printer. 

The special characters in the Tandy 
2000 character set that specify special 
functions are embedded in the text 
(printer pitch change, etc.). This is a 
nice deviation from the use of control 
characters (appearing as AS) on the 
screen. On-screen underlining is a nice 
feature; MuItiMate's implementation 
is particularly good on the Tandy 2000 
considering that the hardware-gener- 
ated underlining runs into the bottom 
of the characters. 

The disk has only I14.6K of free 
space remaining, because it is an MS- 
DOS system disk with everything but 
the Basic interpreter. After removing 
the nonessential files, 1 had a respect- 
able 350K, or 140 pages for text storage. 

Having worked with other Model 
2000 word processing systems, I ini- 
tially couldn't understand why Multi- 
Mate requires 256K of RAM when the 
others do not. I then noticed that Mul- 
tLMate responds instantly to requests 
for help and to commands: the entire 
system is in the computer's memory. 
If you have ever used a word processor 
that requires command and help over- 
lays (WordStar, for example), you 
quickly learn the benefit of keeping all 
of the code in memory; systems that 
use overlays are slowed down by con- 
tinual disk accesses. 

Exploring MuhiMate 

The opening menu appears in Fig. 
4. These nine functions access all 
pertinent MultiMale features. Several 
are evident and require no further 
comment. Others Til cover when I dis- 
cuss those particular aspects of the 
system. 

The most frequent uses of the sys- 



tem are selected by the first two op- 
tions, edit an old document or create a 
new document. When you create a 
new document, MuItiMate prompts 
you for a document name, which can 
be up to 20 alphanumeric characters. 
The first eight characters must be a 
valid MS-DOS file name. 

The next screen presents the docu- 
ment summary, which you can use to 
identify the fUe by operator, author, 
addressee, key words, and comments. 
This information is kept with the file 
while it resides on disk and can be 
helpful, particularly if more than one 
person has access to the computer. 

You are next ^ven the option to 
modify some of the document de- 
faults. You can choose widows and 
orphans, automatic page breaks, deci- 
mal lab character, and number of lines 
per page for each document. 

MuItiMate's commands are divided 
into five major categories: cursor posi- 
tioning (24 commands), editing func- 
tions (27 commands), format line con- 
trol (seven commands), print attribute 
controls (17 commands), and miscella- 
neous functions (12 commands). You 
enter a command by pressing one of 
the function keys (F1-F12) or the di- 
rection keys and other keys surround- 
ing the numeric keypad. Each com- 
mand uses one of these keys (again see 
Fig. 4) either unshifted or in conjunc- 
tion with the shift, control, or ALT 
keys. 

With all of these commands, Multi- 
Mate sounds impossible to learn. But 
the documentation is logically ori- 
ented to train you from the easiest 
commands through the most difficult. 
And the on-screen help facility is so 
powerful that you almost don't need 
the reference manual. 

Special Print Effects 

If you've ever used a word proces- 
sor (other than Radio Shack's), you 
may have experienced the dreaded 



1) Edit an old document 


2) Create a new document 


3} Print documenl utility 


4} Printer control utilities 


5) Merge print utility 


6) Documenl handling utility 


7) Other utilities 


8) Spelling check a document 


9) Return to [)OS 


Figure 4. MulliXfale command menu. 




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80 Micro, Decemberl 984 • 171 

Scanned by Ira Goldklang - www.trs-80.com 



REVIEWS 



"printer syndrome": "How do I 
make it print all those neat features in 
the manual?" This is generally not 
easy. For example, while WordStar 
supports many printers, the menu to 
select special features does not support 
the newer printer options and there are 
not enou^ user-defined options to let 
you always use all of the features. 
More important, if your printer is not 
supported, installation can be very la- 
borious and time consuming. 

However, the first thing you'll no- 
tice about the MultiMate disk is the 
total support for Radio Shack's line of 
printers. 

Owners of other printers, don't de- 
spair. By using EDITPAT and your 
printer manual, you are rapidly on 
your way. EDITPAT requires that 
you enter the printer commands to 
correspond to the appropriate Multi- 
Mate print editing commands. All you 
do is fill in the blanks. 

In addition, EDITPAT lets you 
specify a sequence of up to 7 bytes to 
create a user-defined "token" — a char- 
acter not normally belonging to the 



The Recovery 

utility tries to 

correct problems 

relating to lost data, 

missing format lines, 

or other errors. 



computer's character set. You can re- 
define any of the characters (except 
the special characters MultiMate uses) 
in a translation table. 

Other Utilities 

The distribution disk also contains a 
routine similar to EDITPAT for build- 
ing sheet action tables. EDITSAT uses 
a similar fill-in-the-blanks technique 
to quickly and easily define the control 
codes necessary to operate a multi-bin 
sheet paper feeder. 

FILECONV is another stand-alone 
utility that converts files to and from 



the MultiMate format. HLECONV 
supports conversion of ASCII or DIP 
(data interchange format used by Visi- 
Calc) files to MultiMate documents. It 
will also convert MultiMate format 
files into ASCII text files. 

The Recovery utility tries to correct 
problems in a document relating to 
lost data, missing format lines, or 
other errors. These errors are typically 
caused by removing the data disk 
while MultiMate has a file open on it. 

Conclusion 

MultiMate was more powerful than 
I had anticipated. And yet, it was 
quick and easy to learn. 

The single biggest disappointment is 
the lack of a spelling checker and edit- 
ing functions. A disclaimer in the front 
of the manual stated that the original 
release did not contain these functions 
because Radio Shack wanted Multi- 
Mate to be released as quickly as pos- 
sible. The updated version with the 
full funaions will be released as an up- 
grade and registered owners wall be 
notified by letter. ■ 



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172 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



REVIEWS 



Disk Doctor 

by Mark D. Goodwin 

Back-Track is a powerful disk util- 
ity that lets you analyze, modify, 
repair, and copy all single-, double-, 
and mixed-density 5W-inch disks. 
You can also use it with most double- 
sided and 8-inch disks. 

Back-Track is DOS-independent 
and comes on a self-booting double- 
density disk. Unlike most other self- 
booting disks, the system disk isn't 
protected and you can back it up by 
following the simple instructions in 
the manual. In addition, the manual 
presents full instructions for saving 
Back-Track as a command file on an 
LDOS, DOSPLUS, or NEWDOS80 
system disk. 

The Back-Track System 

Back-Track is easy to use. Because 
it's self-booting, you just put the 
system disk in drive zero and press the 
reset button. After displaying a cute 
little logo screen, Back-Track displays 
the main menu (see Fig. 5). From the 



menu, you can select any one of its 
many operations: reading, writing, 
copying, and editing disk sectors; read- 
ing and writing tracks; duplicating 
damaged, unprotected, and protected 



Back-Track 



**** 



Ridge-Tec, Inc. 
740 Roberl5viUe Road 
Oak Rklge. T> 37a30 
Modds m and 4. 48K RAM 
One Disk Dme 



Easy to use? 


••••■;.' 


Good docs? 


•••wtV 


Bug free? 


•••v^n'V 


Does the job? 


• •••v: 



disks; formatting disks; erasing disks; 
and passing control to an external 
machine-language monitor. 

While all of the features are useful, 
the most powerful and valuable Back- 
Track operation is the Duplicate Disk 
feature. With this, you can copy most 
disks regardless of density or incorrect 
CRCs. This makes it possible for you to 
back up damaged and protected disks. 

Documentation and Bugs 

Since Back-Track provides help 
screens for all its operations, the 
manual seems almost unnecessary, but 
it's well-written and clearly explains all 
of Back-Track's many features. The 
manual isn't condescending to the 
novice and more advanced program- 
mers will find it informative. 

While 1 was testing the program, 1 
discovered what I consider to be a ma- 
jor bug. Back-Track hangs up indefi- 
nitely if you try to access a nonexistent 
drive or a drive without a disk. And 
once it does hang up, you have to re- 
boot the system. While this bug 
doesn't erase any data, it wastes time. 



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80 Micro, December 1984 • 173 



REVIEWS 



Frankly, I don't think this should 
occur. 

Conclusioiis 

With its many help screens and am- 
ple text, Back-Track scores high in 
user-friendliness. While novice pro- 
grammers could find many uses for its 
duplication feature, the remainder of 
the features are more suited for ad- 
vanced programmers knowledgeable 
about disk structures and operating 



systems. If your only interest in pur- 
chasing Back-Track is to produce le- 
gitimate copies of protected disks, you 
may be better off buying a specific 
disk utility for that function. Howev- 
er, advanced programmers who like to 
PEEK and POKE around on disks 
should seriously consider making 
Back-Track a part of their program 
library. It is loaded with features and 
could be of great assistance in repair- 
ing and modifying disks. ■ 



(1) Read Sectors 


(7) Read Track 


(D) Toggle Density 


(2) Go To Monitor 


(8) Copy Sectors 


(E) Erase Disk 


(3) Duplicate Disk 


(9) Special Format 


(F) Go To DOS 


(4) Write Sectors 


(A) Analyze Disk 


(G) Configure 


(5) Format Disk 


(B) Toggle Side 


(H) Display Buffer 


(6) Read Address 


(C) Write Track 


(Break) Menu 


(@)Help 






Density-DDEN 


Disk Size-5 Disk Side-0 
Function Desired-? 

Figures. Main menu of Bix:k-Track. 


Printer-PAR 



Warriors and Wariocks: 
Dismal and Dreary 

by Thomas L. Quindry 

Warriors and Warlocks is a role- 
playing fantasy game in the 
mold of Dungeons and Dragons. Like 
D&D, it has provisions for saving sce- 
narios and characters for extended 
playing. While intended to keep the 
avid D&D player occupied for 6-12 
months, I doubt that it actually will. It 
didn't keep the D&D aficionados in 
my house interested. 

Is it challenging? Yes. And that's 
where the problem lies. It's too chal- 
lenging to get past the first hurdle, 
even if you're a practiced D&D player, 
as were some of the people with whom 
I played. And if you can't get into the 
game, why would you want to con- 
tinue to play? My family certainly 
didn't. 

Game Bases 

Warriors and Warlocks has all the 
makings of a good D&D-type game. 




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Charleston, SC 29402 

■VISA-M/C Accepted. 





INCREASE 

KEYBOARD 

SPEED! 

Tandy gave HyperTyper® a 

* • • • rating for both 
TRS-80 and Tandy 2000 

for only $29.95 

* Hyperiyper® is a 
complete software 
program designed to 
help you make the 
most of your computerA 

* Hyperiyper® is under 
your control — you go 
at yourown speed; not at the 
program's demand. 

* HyperTyper® uses real words, 
sentences and paragraphs, not 
nonsense syllables. 

* Although the text is light-hearted 
and fun, HyperTyper® is not a game, 
but a serious, powerful teaching 
tool. 

* This is a flexible, easy-to-learn and 
easy-to-use program that can aid 
everyone from novices to advanced 

typists. 

SEE YOUR DEALER NOW 
STANDARD SOFTWARE 

Suite 1600—121 S.W. Salmon St 
Portland, Oregon 97204 
(503)227-0008 "" 

TRS-80 a Tandy 2000 registered trademarks of Tandy, 





Computer Assisted Drafting for Moaels 
III/4/4P with hi-res graphics. Draw, save, 
edit, zoom, scale exact technical plans. 
Plotter hardcopy upto24"x36". Extended 
professional version has overlays, text 
labels, block copy, rotate, re-scale, clip, 
merge, more. Developed and supported 
by established design firm. Nuts and bolts 
of CAD for architects, manufacturers, 
drafters, students, engineers. 




Software 



CB Microdex 
1212 N.Sawtelle 
Tucson AZ 85716 
(602) 326-3502 -299 



174 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



REVIEWS 



You can endow characters with a vari- 
ety of attributes, and you can buy, 
sell, and trade equipment. 

The different areas to explore in- 
clude the Warrior's Inn, the armory, 
the village square, the monastery, the 
castle, and the camp, or you can take a 
break. 

You enter each area to achieve a 
certain goal. You can band together 
with other characters to explore the 
castle to gain experience points and 
find treasure. At the monastery, you 
regain your health or resurrect charac- 
ters who have died. The village square 
plays host to excursion parties and is a 
central point for entering the castle or 
visiting the monastery. 

Graphics are limited to the time 
spent in the castle. A not-so-great spa- 
cial picture of the castle is presented 
that supposedly shows the view while 
you travel down a hallway, past corri- 
dors, or into other rooms. It's easy to 
get lost in here. Spells are somewhat 
limited, and you can carry only one at 
a time. 

When you create characters, the 
program randomly assignsattributes 
and hit points. You then choose the 
type of character that best suits the at- 
tributes for each profession: fighter, 
warrior, sorcerer, necromancer, war- 
lock, and so on. 



Warriors and 
Wariocks 



A Division of 408614 Ontario Lid. 

56 Ecdeston Drive 

Suite 311 

Toronto, Ontario 

Canada, M4A 1K9 

Models I and m, 48K RAM 

One Disk Drive 

S39.95US 

$49.95 Canada 



Good graphics? 


•*t?^^ 


Good docs? 


*i^T^i^^ 


Fast? 


•^'^1^1^ 


ChaBenpn%? 


••••• 



Most characters were 

killed during the first 

series of an encounter. 



Drawbacks 

Although it has all the makings of 
an interesting game. Warriors and 
Wariocks fails to deliver. 

First of all, it's not easy to learn 
how to play. If you have had no expe- 
rience with fantasy adventure games, 
you may be frustrated just trying to 
learn it. 

Second, you can't proceed far 
enough to become experienced. No- 
body in my house advanced to a point 
where they could successfully win an 
encounter. Because the hit point levels 
you start with are too low, you can't 
rack up enough experience points to 
vanquish formidable opponents. Most 
characters were killed during the first 
series of an encounter. Considering 
the time needed to generate a series of 
characters, this was very discouraging. 

Warriors and Warlocks accommo- 
dates up to 22 characters. You can de- 
lete killed characters and create new 
ones any time you're at the Warrior's 
Inn. 

Conf^ring the Game 

One of the game's biggest draw- 
backs is the amount of time needed to 
configure the program from the distri- 
bution disk. This was an adventure 
game in itself. The program is distrib- 
uted on two Model I single-density 
disks. Instructions to configure the 
program are vague. The documenta- 
tion comes in three pieces: a rather 
nice 25-page illustrated booklet ex- 
plaining game play, a six-page pam- 
phlet, and two cards describing how to 
transfer the programs. 

Warriors and Warlocks supports 
only Model I TRSDOS and NEW- 
DOS80 2.0 for the Model Will; 
TRSDOS for the Model 111 is not sup- 
ported. You need three disks for Model 
1 single-density systems and two for 
double-density. You might as well 
break out a new box of disks if you're 
using TRSDOS 2.3 — the instructions 
say that TRSIX)S requires three more 
disks to back up the scenario. 

Transferring the programs is unnec- 



essarily difficult. A simple conversion 
from one disk to another won't work. 
You need a program on the distribu- 
tion disk to configure the game disks. 

Instructions tell you to purge all 
files except certain listed system files. 
You then run a program called 
ABEDOS/BAS to transfer the game 
program. As it chums away for an 
hour or more, don't think, "My com- 
puter is doing all the work." Stay 
nearby because you occiisionally have 
to respond to certain instructions. 

Conclusion 

Warriors and Warlocks just wasn't 
much fun. The D&D players in this 
household didn't enjoy the game, and 
the beginners found it even more frus- 
trating. Play was slow due to the many 
disk accesses. And the relatively short 
life span of the characters made every- 
one lose interest quickly. Sometimes a 
discovery period is needed for you to 
become acquainted with this type of 
game. But after our experience with it, 
we gave up. ■ 



TCDC 

Preparers 

TaxStar 



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• Will do schedules I0d0 A B, C D 
t. SE. G. W. 6251 

• Tax calculations - tables rates 
income averaging 

• Uses IRS prescribed computer 
generated printouts or overlays 
User friendly 

• Automatically calculates excess 
PICA earned income credit, alter- 
nate minimum tax 

• Change one figure, progrom re- 
calculates en'ire tax return in 12 
seconds 

*279.95 with user manual 

Professional Tax Software. Inc. 
26 Lark Lone 

Croton On Hudson, NY. 10520 
(914)-271-4723 ^.,. 



S9» Ust of Advertisers on Page 192 



eo Micro, December 1984 • 175 



NEW PRODUCTS / edited by Robert MitcheU 



Leave the Data to Us 

Radio Shack's DT-100 
data terminal ($795) and 
9,600 baud serial -to-parallel 
convener (S99) offer com- 
patibility with the DEC 
VT-100 and Radio Shack 
parallel printers. 

The DT-100 features a 
14-inch screen, a high-reso- 
lution character set, and 16 
programmable function 
keys. The terminal supports 
the 128-character ASCII set 
and single embedded video 
attribute (underline, re- 
verse, or dim). 

It also includes a TRS- 
XENIX disk for compati- 
bility with the Radio Shack 
Model 16 and a serial print- 
er port with a programma- 
ble baud rate. 

The serial-io-paralle! 
converter lets the DT-100 
access parallel printers 
through the serial printer 
port. For more information 
contact Tandy Corp. /Radio 
Shack, 1800 One Tandy 
Center, Fort Worth. TX 
76102. 

Reader Service y^ 552 



Finding Software 
Freebies 

Thousands of public do- 
main programs are avail- 
able free if you know where 
to look for them, //ow to 
Get Free Software, by 
Alfred Glossbrenner 
($14.95) tells you where and 
how to find public domain 
software for every comput- 
er (ind operating system. 

Programs listed include 
word processors, spread- 
sheets, communications 




The DT-100 data terminal features a built-in serial port with programma- 
ble baud rale. 



programs, data base man- 
agers, and filing programs. 
Also listed are music, 
graphics, and education 
programs, as well as games, 
utilities, and a TRS-80 data 
base program. 

How to Get Free Soft- 
ware tells you how to access 
software libraries of user's 
groups and bulletin boards, 
and how to spot good pro- 
grams from thousands in a 
software library. 

Other subjects include 
downloading, using the 
XMODEM file transfer 
protocol, and converting 
hex files on CompuServe to 
programs you can run. The 
book contains a list of 
clubs, a glossary, and an 
index. 

An excerpt appears on 
CompuServe and The 
Source. For more informa- 
tion contact St. Manin's 



Press Inc., 175 Fifth Ave.. 
New York, NY 10010, 
212-674-5151. 

Reader Service »^ 566 



Stock Market Hustler 

The STOCKERl stock 
and commodity technical 
analysis program forecasts 
market turning points 20 
days in advance so you can 
time your transactions for 
profits. 

You enter stock data at 
the prompts. STOCKERl 
stores it chronologically for 
easy updating and editing 
and prints out plots of 
historical and forecasted 
values. 

A forecast appraisal sub- 
system compares forecasted 
and actual stock values so 
you can test your model and 
reports the greatest percent- 



age change. You then inter- 
pret this information to 
determine market trends. 

An optional Electronic 
Forecast information ser- 
vice gives forecasts for ma- 
jor indexes, stocks, and 
commodities. STOCKERl 
runs on the Models III. 4, 
II, 12. and 16. It's $300, in- 
cluding a manual, demon- 
stration disk, and one hour 
on Electronic Forecast. 

For more information 
contact Engineering Man- 
agement Consultant at P.O. 
Box 312, Fairfax, VA 
22030, 703-425-1296. 

Reader Service i^ 563 



House-A-Matic 

You get up in the morn- 
ing and your TRS-80 auto- 
matically raises the room 
temperature. As you leave 
the house for work, it turns 
on and monitors your bur- 
glar alarm, then turns on 
the lights at dusk. 

Sound like science fic- 
tion? It's all possible with 
Sensatrol, an eight-channel, 
4'/z-digit precision ac/dc 
voltmeter that turns your 
computer into an instru- 
ment for software-con- 
trolled measurement and 
control. 

You write the control 
program and connect Sen- 
satrol's eight binary outputs 
to your computer's RS- 
232C port and to a sensing 
device. 

Sensatrol communicates 
with your computer in 
ASCII, and provides eight 
lines for voltage measure- 
ment and eight lines for 
control. 



1 76 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



Scanned by Ira Goldklang - www.trs-80.com 



o 





Selling 80 Mi- 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ey for you. Consider the 

^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

^^ ^^^m Fact #1: Selling 80 Micro in- 

^^^^^^ creases store traffic— our dealers 

1^^^^ tell us that 80 Micro is the hottest- 

^^^ selling computer magazine on the news- 

stands. 
Fact #2: There is a direct correlation between 
store traffic and sales — increase the number of people 
coming through your door and you'll increase sales. 
Fact #3: Fact #1 + Fact #2 ^ INCREASED $ALE$, 
which means more money for you. And that's a fact. 

For information on selling 80 Micro, call 800-343-0728 
and speak with our direct sales manager. Or write to 
80 Micro, 80 Pine St., Peterborough, NH 03458. 



micro 



BO Pirw stmt PatartxKough, NH 034S8 

800-343-0726 




micro' 



inr '"MgtiiBr lor TftS M' i 



Reader 
Service 



16 RECEIVE MORE INFORMATION ON THE PRODUaS AND 
Wm ADVERTISED IN TUB BSUE. PIEASE TURN TO 
READER SERVia CARD. 




ATTENTION 

SUBSCRIBERS 



We ocx-'asionally make our mailing li.»it available to 
other companits or organizatioas with products or 
services which we feel might be of interest to you. If 
vou prefer that your name be deleted from .such a list. 
please fill out the coupon below or affix a eopy "f your 
mailing label and mail it to: 

CW COMMUNKATKmS/PETERBOIIOUGH 

80 Micro 

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Please delete my name from mailing lists sent to other 
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Let us know 8 weeks in advance so that you won't 
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80 Micro. December 1934 ■ 177 



NEW PRODUCTS 



Sensatrol's 100- micro volt 
sensitivity lets you hook up 
many sensors directly. 
Some sensors described in 
the applications manual are 
available separately. 

The package includes an 
applications and program- 
ming manual for $385. For 
more information contact 
Data World Products, 
Box 33, Francestown, NH 
03043. 

Reader Service ^ 556 



Christmas 
Novelty Dept. 

The Inside (he Personal 
Computer pop-up book 
from Abbeville Press gives 
beginning computerists a 
three-dimensional tour 
through a personal com- 
puter. 

Open the book and a 




Inade the Personal Computer is a rhree-dimensiond book of computer 
basics. 



computer pops up. Page by 
page, six illustrations pop 
up to guide you from input 
to output in a personal com- 
puter. You can press a key 
on the pop-up keyboard or 
look behind the screen to 
see how the computer dis- 
plays words on the monitor. 



Subjects include disk 
drives, chips, printers, bits 
and bytes, RAM and ROM. 
Illustrations and diagrams 
complement the pop-up dis- 
plays to show how a com- 
puter thinks, remembers, 
and communicates. 

Inside the Personal Com- 



puter is recommended for 
all ages. It measures 12 by 
18 inches, and sells for 
519.95. For more details, 
contact Abbeville Press. 505 
Park Ave., New York, NY 
10022. 212-888-1969. 
Reader Service *^ 567 



Teacher's Tester 

MAKETEST (S50) lets 
teachers create, edit, and 
store test files on Model III 
disk systems, and adminis- 
ters tests on screen or on 
printouts. 

The package includes five 
programs for creating and 
maintaining test files. The 
MAKETEST module cre- 
ates and stores matching, 
multiple-choice, true/false, 
and fill-in-the-blank test 
questions. It stores up to 20 
questions in each category. 



4b OMNTITK COMPUTERS INTEINAT10NAU MC A 

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178 " SC Mycfo, December 1984 




DISKETTES ^^ 

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STAT21 

CASINO BLACKJACK CARD 

COUNTING STRATEGY SIMULATION 

AND ANALYSIS PROGRAM 

STAT21 IS NOT A CAME. IT ALLOWS YOU TO DETERMINE THE 
EFFECTIVENESS OF YOUR CASINO BLACKJACK CARD 
COUNTING STRATEGY AND/OR COMPARE STRATEGIES. 

• Fast, 100/ Machine Language Simulates 100+ hands per 
second 

• Rexible. Virtually any casino blackjack card counting 
strategy can be simulated You enter the strategy. 

• User friendly. Completely table driven, 

• up to 9,999,999 hands can be simulated. 

• Ability to store simulations to disk. 

• Simulation results include: 

Total Action High & Low Stakes 

Total Stake Betting Analysis 

Stake/Action Insurance Analysis 

• includes Comprehensive User's ManuaL 

48K 2 Disk Model HI or Model 4 required. Provided on 
•TRSDOS 1.3 Formatted Disk. 

f 'Trademark of Tandy Corporationi y* i9 

S59 Ptus $3.00 Shipping & Handling. California 
Residents add 6 / . To order or for further Information 
write: Walksoft Programming, P.O. Box 1878, 
Ridgecrest, CA 93555. 



^E^- 



TRS-80 COMPUTERS 

MODEL IV MODEL 2000 $2060.00 

64K $959.00 w/HD 3360.00 

2 DISKS RS 232 COLOR COMPUTER 

MODEL IV P 850.00 64K 170.00 

M0DEL12 2999.00 MODEL1008K 350.00 

ONE DISK 2339.00 MODEL 100 24K 500.00 

DISK DRIVES 

15MEGHD $2099.00 

COLOR DISK 275.00 

COLOR DISK 1 229.00 

PRINTERS 

ALL OKIDATA CALL 

GEMINI 10X 270.00 

GEMINI 15X 380.00 

$ 379.00 

699.00 
1596.00 

459.00 
3135.00 

Langley St. Clair Green and Amber Screen $89.00 

BODEX CORP. 

224 E. MAIN ST. 

MARLBORO, MASS. 01752 

Phone (61 7) 485-51 1 5 or 481 -1 029 

TRS-80 T/ademafV ot Tandy Corp. 



DMP-110 


$ 299.00 


DMP-120 


DMP-105 


159.00 


DMP-430 


DMP-500 


1064.00 


DMP-2100 


DMP-420 


680.00 


DWP-210 


DWP-510 


1149.00 


CMP-2150 



^361 




Why E-C DATA claims to 
manufacture the best TRS-80 
Kits in the World... 

We know how. As Tandy importers to Denmark, we have wor- 
ked with TRS-80s for over tour years, developing national key- 
boards and character sets, disk kits and DOS es The Scandi- 
navian Model 3s came with 80 track drives and 80 track TRS 
DOS right trom the beginning. Even Model I was supplied with 
77 track disk systems - manufactured by E-C DATA. 
Weget product inlormation early and precisely as Authorised 
Tandy Dealers 

We use One-Year-Old Technology. Old enough lo be reliable 
but not obsolete - thai s ■'One-Year-Old Technology" WD- 
2793 Controller Chip, 8k CMOS RAM in Flat-Pack versions 
State-of-the-Art ? Certainly ' And reliable 
We purchase no odd lots of componenls to make a Fast Buck 
We buy on long-term contracts from leading manufacturers 
such as Texas Instruments, Western Digital, Shugart and Hita- 
chi, assuring a steady and constantly high product quality 

We burn in and test everything, before it is shipped - under 
realistic operating conditions in TRS-80 Computers 

We help you by providing detailed installation and repair ma- 
nuals If you get stuck anyway, chances are thai you gel to talk 
with the Graduate Engineer who actually designed your kit, it 
you phone us for help ' 



FREE SHIPPING 
WORLD WIDE ! 

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P.O.B. 116 - DK-3460 Birkered - Denmark 



FOR MODEL 3 AND 4: 

Complete Disk Kit w/ 64k M4 RAM w/o Drives' 
Complete Disk Kit w/ 32k M3 RAM w/o Drives' 
Complete Disk Kit M3/4 w/o RAM w/o Drives- 
Floppy Disk Controller {3' 2 . 5' 4, 8' ) M3/4 
Real-Time Clock/Calendar Option Add 
8 Drive Option, Add . .. 

Disk Installation Hardware w/Power Supply w,o Controller 
2 to 4 Internal Drives Expansion Power Supply 
RS-232 (V 24] Communication Interface Kit M3'4 
First 64k M4 RAM Expansion Kit 
64k - 128k M4 RAM Expansion Kit w,' PAL U72 . 

M4 PAL U72 alone, 

TRSDOS 6 2 for M4-- 

Disk Drive Shugart SA-455 '? Hight, DS, 40 Tracks 
Disk Drive Shugart SA-465 ' 2 Hight DS 80 Tracks 

FOR MODEL 100: 

8k Internal RAM Expansion, Low Power CMOS 

32k Battery Backed Plug-in Extra RAM Bank (32-64k) 

Bell 103 to CCITT Internal Modem Conversion Kit 

■ Specily whethP' you nipnd (o .JSP Ihp Kil w.(h Full or Hall Hic^ht Dr vf, ' 

■■Only with PuFCIidSe ol Disk Kir Spftily 40 or 80 Trdc DiSKelte ' 

TRS-BO .ind TRSDOS S'fTr.iflt'Mark>0tT.(navr,O'i)n'Sliin FoMWcri l^«.js 

ORDERING: 

USA (New York): 1 - 212 - 678 0064 
Denmark: 45 - 2 - 818191 Tlx 37825 ec dk 

Use whichever is convenient m your time zone - or write us ' 

All Products except Disk Drives and DOS Made in Denmark 

Dealer Inqulhes Welcome ! 



Payment by Cheque, Money Order or Credit Card. We ship to 
all Countries, where Hi-Tech Sales are Legal by US Law 
All Prices In US Currency. Local Duty or Taxes not Included. 



-- S*e List ot Advertisers or: Page 192 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 179 



NEW PRODUCTS 



GIVETEST administers 
the tests and writes each stu- 
dent's performance to disk. 
It contains antitampering 
features to prevent student 
cheating. 

REVTEST lets you ex- 
amine and edit test files 
stored on disk. PRNTTEST 
reads a selected test file and 
prints it in 80-column for- 
mat. READGRAD prints 
out or display's a file of stu- 
dent scores. 

The MAKETEST pro- 
grams are Network 3 com- 
patible, and each station 
can load a different lest file. 
Contact Software by 
Teachers Inc., P.O. Box 
8479, Alexandria, LA 
71306 for more details. 

Reader Service ►^ 553 



Sports on the Record 

The Sports Stats spread- 
programs 




Sumk-om 's Model 1 120 printer gives you letier-quality priming for under 
S500. 



sheet 



for the 



Models III and 4 ($63) keep 
records for each player on 
your basketball or baseball 
Team and provide immedi- 
ate, up-to-date statistics. 

Sports Stats has 20 input 
categories for basketball 
and 32 categories for 
baseball (16 eacfi in pitching 
and hitting). You can also 
personalize the program to 
suit your needs. 

The spreadsheet is menu- 
driven and includes a back- 



up disk. For more informa- 
tion contact Educational 
Activities Inc., P.O. Box 
392, Freepon, NY 11520, 
516-223^*666. 

Reader Service »^ 569 



Letter Quality for 

Under $500 

The Sumicom 1120 18 
cps daisy-wheel printer 
($495) offers letter-quality 



output, prints at a 60 dB 
noise level, creates up to 
four carbon copies, and ac- 
cepts paper up to 13 inches 
wide. 

It's also lightweight (21.1 
lbs.), and features software- 
selectable bidirectional in- 
cremental printing and bidi- 
rectional logic-seeking 
printing. 

The unit includes a 
120-day warranty and Cen- 
tronics interface. An RS- 
232 interface, forms trac* 
tor, and cut sheet feeder arc 
also available. 

Contact Sumicom Inc. at 
17862 E. 17th St., Tustin, 
CA 92680, 714-730-6061 for 
more details. 

Reader Service ►^ 570 

Better Betting 

STAT21 is a card-count- 
ing strategy simulation/ 
analysis program that deter- 




ilicate Most Protected 
Edit (Zap) Sectors 
Powerful Disk Tormater 



rrvenu driven with help command for the novict! 

shod cuts lor tite experienced user 

sel' buoting, doe« not requite DOS 

simultaneous Hex and ASCII display 

reads SO, DO oi MiKcd Density with auto density delect 

reads single or doutile sided. ^ V6" or 8" diilis 

YOU CAN NOW 



Read, edii, miiH- sn<) ilop IMou^ terloii 

•iihI IraL-icslincludiiii) inloimatiun between wctorj] 
Oupl<cBte moil CP/M" dulis loi olhi-r P.C.'i 
Duplirile slandaid loirnal, ipcoal loimat t <tola dliks 
Identity piotectlcn wct«l) and create yout own icheme\ 
Read lisck arMicni tue uclual Hack and secloi numbeit 
Repair CRC eifoti 
Cicrtonqe data addir» maiki 
roimat 126, 2^6. ^17 or 101b t>ylt tectals 
inlrilace with Monlar/DiMitse'nblcr 
Analyje uoknoon IX)S lytlenn 
Wlile Jpocial trsckM make |>roCected ditki 
Print vidcQ AiplaT tntom^ RS212 0( parallel port 
AriO MOIU 

$38.95 Plus $1.50 s&H 

(or unprotected disk and Il-page mantjal 

Tcnrvessee residents include ii.^Si sales ta» 
For personal checks allow 2 weeks 
Specify TRS-BO* model I, 111, Ot 4 111 



1^-266 



(61^W82-2007 
RIOGE-IEC, INC 
740 RobeiUvllle Road 
Oak Ridge, TN 37B30 



'TRS-SO trademark Tandy Coit>- 



•CP/M liademsik Digits 




For a FRE£brochur»m^ '^'^^^^^ 

call (212) 582-2006 W 

or write (o CVC Online 

801 Second Ara, N.Y., N.V. 10017 



180 • 80 Micro. December 1984 



NEW PRODUCTS 



mines the effectiveness of 
different card-counting 
strate^pes. 

Enter your strategy and 
specify the house rules. 
STAT21 simulates 100 
hands per second, up to one 
billion hands, and stores 
simulations and analysis da- 
ta to disk. 

Results include total ac- 
tion, total stake, stake/ac- 
tion, high and low stakes, 
betting analysis, and insur- 
ance analysis. 

STAT21 requires a Mod- 
el III or 4 with 48K RAM 
and two drives. It includes a 
user's manual and sells for 
$59 phis S3 shipping from 
Walksoft Programming, 
P.O. Box 1878, Ridgecrest, 
CA 93555. 

Reader Service *^ 564 

Byte-Protected 

The Byte Guard 5 'Z* -inch 
disk drive head cleaning 




Byie Guard cleaning disks keep drive heads clean withoul messy fluids. 



disk from Precision Com- 
puter Products removes 
dirt, dust, and oxide depos- 
its from drive read/write 
heads, preventing disk er- 
rors and data losses. 

Byte Guard polishes 
drive heads as it cleans to re- 
duce scratches from debris 
and loose oxide particles. 
It's safe for daily use, and 
requires no alcohols or 
fluids. 

Each disk is $39.95 and 
carries a guarantee for 260 
cleanings or one year. Eig^t-, 
V/i-y and 3 W -inch cleaning 
disks are also available. 
Contact Precision Comput- 
er Products, 770 Welch 
Road, Palo Alto, CA 
94304, 800-321-2804 for 
more information. 
Reader Service t^ 568 

Conversion Basics 

You want to buy a Model 
2000 or Model 4, but you've 



TRs*. TOURNAMENT CHESS ""-^l 



A NEW GENERATION 
OF SOFTWARE 

Every feature improvedl 

Slurp, hi-res graphics 
playing board. 

Faster response time. 

Opening book contains 
over 2i)00 moves. 

Superior middle and 
endgame strategy. 

Piays aiternate starting 

positions, odds games, 

soives punles. 

Comes with a complete 
instruction Manual. 



Uus Ridio Stuck Cit. Z6-11Z6 hires graphics. 
Tourniment Chess Is ilso available tor TRS-80 
Models I. Ill, 4. 4P In low-res graphics versions. 

For mon Inlormition abtwt Tournimant Chess 
and other fulMeatured strategy games, write to: 




FULL-FEATURED 
GAME CONTROLS 

40"^ execution optionsi 

Enter moves with arrow 
Iceys or joystick. 

lOsklil ieveis pius Postal. 

Rapid Transit Mate- 
Finder and Tournament. 

Dispiay game history. 

Dump hires screen to 
graphics printer. 

Swap sides, take back 

moves, save/ retrieve 

games to disk, 

and much more. 




14358 Dyer Street, Sylmar, California 91342 



,• Sm Ual of Atmrttaara on Page 192 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 181 



NEW PRODUCTS 



already invested heavily in 
software for your Model 
III. No problem. Two con- 
version utilities from Edu- 
cational Micro Systems Inc. 
(P.O. Box 471, Chester, NJ 
07930, 800-922-0786) con- 
vert Model 111 Basic pro- 
grams to run on the Model 4 
or 2000. 

CONV3T04 ($49.95) and 
CONV3TO2000 ($139.95) 
are menu-driven and trans- 
late 95 percent of all Basic 
programs. The utilities auto- 
matically insert required 
spaces between keywords, 
recalculate PRINT® ad- 
dresses, adjust tab addresses 
and exponentiation sym- 
bols, and remove down ar- 
rows. 

The programs also flag 
and list unresolved program 
lines and optionally remove 
remark statements. Both 
programs include a disk 
formatter, file transfer 




The 45 cps DTC 450Z daisy- wheel primer doesn't leave your office in an 
uproar. 



program, and a user's man- 
ual (available separately 
for $5). 

Reader Service »^ 557 



Basic Vivace! 

Vivace!, WittSoft's new 
Basic compiler, turns Mod- 
el III or 4 Basic programs 
into command files. Pro- 



grams compiled with Vi- 
vace! run up to twice as fast 
and are more secure than 
conventional programs, 
since you can't list or disas- 
semble them. 

The compiler features 
full error-trapping, com- 
piles any Basic program, 
and requires no program- 
ming knowledge. 



The Model III version re- 
quires 48K RAM and two 
drives. It runs under TRS- 
DOS 1.3. The Model 4 ver- 
sion requires 64K RAM 
with two drives, and runs 
under TRSDOS 6.X or 
DOSPLUS IV. 

Vivace! sells for $49.95 
(plus $5 shipping) from 
WittSoft, 1302 41st St., 
Orlando, FL 32809, 305- 
423-5683. 

Reader Service i^ 558 

Integrated Software 

For the Model 2000 

T/Maker Co.'s Inte- 
grated Software package 
for the Model 2000 and 
Models II, 4, and 4P with 
CP/M puts a relational da- 
ta base, word processor, 
55,000-word spelling check- 
er, spreadsheet, list proces- 
sor, and bar-chart graphics 
program in one package. 



"WORKTOOLS 80" - AN 

INTEGRATED SOFTWARE 

FOR THE TRS-80 "* 

"WORKTOOLS 80" is the ■Kernel" tor a Small Business Software System 
with 3 fully file compatible programs in an "Integraled Command Environ- 
ment" Worksheet 80". a Spreadsheet Program, ' Worktexl 80", a Word- 
processor Program and "Workfile 80". a Data Base 

WORKSHEET 80 Spreadsheets have up to 64 columns and 66 rows 
witM programmable column, row number, indnridual column width and 
decimal place number Any cell, row or column of cells can be defined by 
formulas including all arithmetical operators or by special functions such 
as TOTAL AVERAGE. lylAXIWUM. MINIMUM and PERCENT 

"WORKTEXT 80" tealures fully programmabte format, indentation, 
centefing, hyphenation, headers, footers, auto page numbering and 
printef control. The MERGE Function allows for Form Letters merging 
with flies made by "WORKFILE 80" and the Inclusion of ■WORKTEXT 
80" Spreadsheets into documents. 

WORKFILE 80 features fully programmable record format and size 
and will work on Lists. Reports, Spreadsheets, or Ledgers, either created 
by It or by the other Programs in the System Has powerful Data Base 
commands such as SEARCH and VIEW UPDATE 

Besides their own Special Functions and Commands all Programs 
share Powertul System Commands such as: OPEN FORMAT, DELETE, 
INSERT, COPY, MOVE, FIND/REPLACE, LOAD and SAVE. 

TTw soon to be tvaHaUe "WORKPROOF 80"— a Proof-Reactor and 
Dictionary Program will complefnanl this flrat Module of the "WORK- 
TOOLS 80" Software System for only $39.99. 

NOW AVAILABLE FOR TRS-80 MODELS III, IV, MOD.100 32K DISK 
AND COCO 32K DISK FOR ONLY $99.99 (California residents add 6 5% 
tax)' So send check, money order or VISA/MC/AMX number and expira- 
tion date to: 

DIAZ ENTERPRISES 

P.O. BOX 4609 

MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94040 



'183 



■TRS-80 IS a tiademark o' Tandy Cotp 



HANDY HOME COMPUTER 
FOOTBALL SYSTEM t. 

USER FRIENDLY - MENU DRIVEN 
DESIGNED BY COMPUTER PROFESSIONALS 

Evaluate learns at all levels. PEE WEE to NFL Define the teams, 
their ratrngs and schedules Weei^ly ente' the scores and statistics 
wilh no redundancy Individual items can be corrected 

The mam menu follows 

1 . UPDATE TEAMS I Define names ratings Y-T-D Stals) 

2. CREATE/UPDATE SCHEDULES 

3. STATS ENTRY i Enter newspaper results) 

4. POST RESULTS ilJodate team with results) 

5. FORECAST GAMES < Predict game scores) 

6. RPT WRITER (Define and pnnt'drsplay reports! 

To save the initial entry of the teams, ratings, statistics, and 
especially their schedules, also purchase the current data files 

Follow College and NFl. football with no data entry purchase the 
Evaluation Subscnptionisl These Monday mailings include predic- 
tions and updated statistics The latest edition is included with each 
system to provide up-to-date team data 

For the TRS-80 l/tll/lV/1 00. APPLE ll/lll. IBM PC, KAYPRO II, and 
Commodore 64 BASIC listings also available to program other 
computers Specify computer, tape or disk. 

S39 95 for the BASIC system. $6 1 95 with College data, $57 95 
with NFL data S78 95 with both Add S3 S&H Evaluation Subscrip- 
tion College or NFL is S29 95. both for S39.95. 

VISA or MASTERCARD welcome 

HANDY AND ASSOCIATES 

15775N Hillcrest. Suite 508 Dept 307. 
DALLAS. TX 75248/214-492-3670 



182 • 00 Micro, December 1984 



NEW PRODUCTS 



All functions operate 
from the word processor 
program— no windowing 
or mode-shifting is neces- 
sar>' to integrate applica- 
tions. The word processor 
features header and footer 
capability and automatic 
footnote placement. 

The spreadsheet program 
operates within the word 
processor to reduce setup 
time. The data base man- 
ager links data bases to gen- 
erate reports or create a new 
data base. 

The spelling checker 
works on all files, including 
spreadsheets and data 
bases. The package also 
features an on-line help file. 
Integrated Software is S450 
from T/Maker Co., 2115 
Lansing Drive, Mountain 
View, CA 94043. 415-962- 
0195. 

Reader Service ►^ 565 




Si'iko 's DPU-40 thermal primer sells for SI 24.95. 



Hot Off the Press 

The newest printer from 
Seiko Instruments leaves 
you with more than just a 
good impression. The 
DPU-40 thermal printer 
($124.95) is small {8'/4 by 
4'/: inches), lightweight (14 
ounces), and prints 40 col- 
umns. 

ft accepts three-inch ther- 
mal paper and prints .6 of a 
page per second in 5 by 7 
dot-matrix format. 

A built-in character gen- 
erator converts host com- 
puter data into 5 by 7 for- 
mat and produces the 
96<haracler ASCII set. 

The DPU^ uses a paral- 
lel port and an ac adapter 
power supply. For more in- 
formation contact Seiko In- 
struments LISA Inc. at 2990 
W. Lomita Blvd., Tonance. 
CA 90505, 213-530-8777. 

Reader Service *^ 551 



T80-FS1 



Simulator 




See your dealer! 



Available for Model I or Model III. $25.00 
on cassette or $33.50 on disk (with 
enhancements) All versions require 16K. 



H you order direct, please tpecify whether you have Model I or 
Model III (the media art different) and whether you want disk or 
caaeette. Include SI .50 and Indicate UPS or first dass mall, Illinois 
resklenti add S% sales tax. Visa and Mastercard accepted. 
tf you don't yet own a disk, don't fret. You can upgrade anytime. 
Cassette users may send t>sck their cassette {but not the manual) 
along with $10 (first class shipping Included) and receive the disk 
version. 



.OQfeLOGIC 

Conimunications Corp. 
713 Edgebrook Drive 
Champaign, I L 61820 
(217)359-8482 ^' 
Telex: 206995 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 163 



NEW PRODUCTS 



PROGRAMMING TOOLS 
FOR YOUR TRS-80 " 



INSTANT ASSEMBLER 

The INSTANT ASSEMBLER a a powerful machine laiiijudge dtvekjpmeni system for Ihe 
TRS-HII Onf ptngram roniains the editor assembler, dnd debut|m:r It allows you la 
assembie diieLtly lo meiiHjTv and immediately dttnjy your programs with the buiH in single 
iteppiny debuggei QuicWy switch from assembler to debugger and batk ayam *i!houf 
losing ihe source code This (eatuit makes INSTA.NT ASSEMBLER an excellent learning 
tool tor the l>eijtnnei and a super iasi devetopmenl system for the experienced priKjtammer 
INSTANTASSLMHI.t'R has many olhet unique features ll detects syntax errors as source is 
entered and stores its source in a cjmpressed format that uses only 40% as much memory as 
olhei assembleis it ii> inciedllily fast and «nll assembie 1I>K of object code m |usl B seconds It 
wi1] also create relocatable ccxle modules That can be sai^ on disk or tape and bnked 
tc)t(elher for i«'ry large or modular assemblies INSTANT ASSt.MRI TR comes wrlh a 
comprehensive 6f> paqe inslructlon manual and is available in several versKins for tiltferenl 
machines The ("PM version does nol run on all machines so Lnquire before ordering 

TAPt INTASM 2 1 for Mod»l 1 and 3 139,95 

DLSK INTA3M Z.l for Model 1 and 3 $49.95 

DISK INTASM 3 for Model 4 $69.95 

MSK INTASM 3.0 lor CPM $69 95 

INSIDE LEVEL II 

This booh is a comprehensrue reference guide to Ihe Model 1 and Model 3 ROMs which 
alloM^s the machir>e language pr'K|rammei to easily utilise the sophisticated routines they 
contain Concisely explains set ups. calhng sequences and vanable passage tor number 
conveision. anthmetic operations, and malhemoOcal functions, as weU as keyt>oard. lapt 
and uide<i rooBnes In addition, the 18 chapters mtlude a large t>ody of firher mtormanon 
useful lo (he programmer ftfl Micro said 'The book has no flaws, it is a perfect gem ' Byte 
Magaane said 'I recommend this bctok to senous machine lartguage programmers " 
INSIDE LEVEL II $15.95 

DEMON DEBUGGER 

DEMON Kor DFbugger and MONitorl is a sophrsncaled lool with which you can explore and 
debug machine language programs The STEP mode has 14 ciftereni commands and will 
step through machine language programs one instruction al a hme. showing you the address, 
hexadecimal value, Zikig mnemonic, regeler contents and step count (oi each instruction 
Ttie MONITOR mode has Zb diHerenl commands including a labeBng disassembler 
DEMf^N IS available on tape or disk and includes a comprehensive 40 page manual with 
many examples 

DEMON LO tor Model 1 and 3 $39 95 

DEMON 2-0 (or Model 4 $39 95 

DISK INDEX 

DISK INDEX 1*411 assemble an alphabetlicd index o( every disk in your collection Simply put 
each disk in the computer one after another, and DISK INDEX will guickly read the program 
names and tree space left It w(B recognce any DOS and disk density (except CP Ml and 
catalog disks (or (he Model 1. H and 4 The whole index or any selected part may be 
displayed on tfw screen or pnnled on paper in several diHerenl formats Display modes 
include programs grouped by disk r«me. by program name, disks in older o( decreasing free 
space and by prciyam showing thie number of backup copies of each one The index itself 
may be stored on disk for future access and update A 4SK machine will hold up to 255 disks 
or over 2000 programs in each tile, and you can create as many files as you need DISK 
INDFX comes with a comprehensive 28 page instruction manual 
DISK INDEX 3 2 for Model L 3. or 4 $39.95 



TELCOM 



Mumlord Mlcm oHers two telecommunications programs TELCOM I has most of the 
features needed to communicate 'Anlh bulletin boards, time share systems or for file transfers 
between two disk tiased mk-rosovcr riHxiems or direct wire It is rT>enLjdnven and extremely 
simple to use TELCOM I] is an enhanced version o( this program which also supports the 
LYNC protocol whyrh will automatically delect and correct errors in transmission Files can be 
sent lo or fetched from an unattended computet The instruction manuals for both programs 
are available separately for Jrilo help you decide whic h program is best suited lo your needs 

TELCOM I for Model 1. 3, or 4 $39 95 

TELCOM II for Model 1 or 3 $69 95 

MODEL I SPEED UP 

The SK.2 s a hardware modification for the Model 1 that allows CPU speeds to be increased 
by 501. or 1001. Speeds maybe chor>9ed with a log^ switch [not included I or on software 
command It can also be configured to return to normal speed any time a disk is acOvc li 
mounts inside (tie keyboard unit with only 4 necessary connections and is easily remc*«d if 
the computet ever needs service The SK-2 has been field proven by 3 years of use. and 
comes fully assembled with socketed IC's 
SK 2 $29.95 



I IKDI HIN(, I,ndrtv m..-,,-^ I>a,k.!uai.inl.'v Inr ludr S2 iOI'.r [i..,r.i.,. .ird hrtndliii^i 
( ,ilif.>irii,> TtsiiJ<n(s .iild b'. srtU'~ im. \'is,> Masi.'X ,iril ^nil I I 111 .,rit. i> ^m .'p(. <I 
M'H IFN M(tt)ll M MHf K (>. ^I^r inqurn.'s iri.ti. d 

MUMFORD MICRO SYSTEMS 

Kmn .100-1 Siiriiiiu'iUnid, i .liifoiiu.i 'i'M)b7 |80,t) '»()')- l.'t't? 




Disk filers fmm Micron Systems are available in nine colors. 



Files with Style 

Micron Systems Corp. 
(100 McNab St., Amprior, 
Ontario, Canada K7S 2C7, 
613-623-7931) offers five 
colorful ways to store and 
protect your disks. 

Files are constructed of 
injection-molded antistatic 
ABS plastic for durability, 
and are available in royal 
blue, red, green, orange, 
ivory, smoke, yellow, brown, 
and powder blue. 

The Floppy Filer ($37.60) 
holds 60 5 W -inch disks and 
features a spring-loaded 
locking cover, molded car- 
rying handle, and three in- 
dex tabs. A 12a<lisk Floppy 
Filer ($61.95) with six index 
tabs is also available. 

The Flex Filer is a desk- 
top filing system con- 
structed of interlocking out- 
er modules with sliding 
drawer containers. It's 
available for 5 '/i -inch disks 
for $7.95 per module. 

The Boomerang disk 
rack ($12.95) keeps 10 
5 '4 -inch disks ordered on a 
tiered stand while you're 
working with data. 

Transit Filer is a book- 
style protective case for 
shipping or storing up to 
four disks. It's available for 
5'/4-inch ($8.95), 8-inch 
($9.95), and B'/z-inch disks 
($14.95). 



Page Filer ($1) is an anti- 
static protective envelope 
with two pockets for 8-inch 
disks or four pockets for 
5 Vi -inch disks. Each filer 
fits into a standard three- 
ring binder. 

Reader Service *^ 571 



Heavy-Duty 
Daisy Wheel 

The Model 450Z bidirec- 
tional daisy-wheel printer 
from Data Terminals & 
Communications (590 Divi- 
sion St., Campbell, CA 
95008, 408-378-1112) is 
built for continuous use. 

It prints 30 word-process- 
ing and 28 data-processing 
type styles at 45 characters 
per second, yet is quiet 
enough to let you carry on 
conversations while it prints 
al full speed. 

Word processing features 
include automatic underlin- 
ing, double-strike, shadow 
printing, subscripts, and su- 
perscripts. The printer uses 
an RS-232 or parallel port 
and provides out-of-paper 
and out-of-ribbon signals. 

The 450Z is $1,595. Inter- 
changeable print wheels, 
multistrike film or ribbons, 
sheet feeders, and a bidirec- 
tional forms tractor are also 
available. 

Reader Service i^ 559 



184 • SO Micro. December 1984 



NEW PRODUCTS 



Pacific Softwrf 



RRMRGEDDON 



In Armageddon you defeat other players through diplomacy and military 

action. 



The Nuclear 
Solution? 

Continent by continent, 
the world has succumbed to 
revolution. As the leader of 
one continent in a post-rev- 
olutionary world, your sur- 
vival depends on defeating 
up to five other countries. 

Armageddon 1998 is a 
world politics/nuclear war 
game that pits you against 
one to five other players to 
determine who will be the 
next world leader. 

You start by building up 
your country's economic 
and military might. You 
can form alliances, build 
hospitals, build antiballistic 
missile systems and ICBMs, 
and send secret messages to 
your allies. 

In addition to military 
strength, you must invest in 
farming to feed the popula- 
tion and generate propa- 
ganda to keep your coun- 
trymen from revolting. 
Eventually, combat or 
nuclear strikes are necessary 
to eliminate opponents. 

To win you must crush all 
opponents, keep the econo- 
my in good shape, prevent 
revolution, and gather taxes 
to pay for defense. 

Armageddon 1998 re- 
quires a 48K Model I, III, or 
4 and is available on disk 
for $19.95 plus $2 postage. 



For more information con- 
tact Pacific Software, P.O. 
Box 1295, La Canada, CA 
91011, 818-795-2178. 
Reader Service t^ 554 

Model 4 TASMON 

Got a program that 
won't run on your Model 4 
or 4P? TASMON4, from 
The Alternate Source (704 
North Pennsylvania, Lan- 
sing, MI 48906, 517^2- 
8270), generates Z80 As- 
sembly-language source code 
that you can edit with any 
Z80 editor. 

This TRSDOS 6.X pro- 
gram examines and modi- 
fies memory, executes ma- 
chine-language programs in 
real time, single-stepped, or 
in slow motion, and dis- 
plays memory in hexadeci- 
mal or ASCII format. 

You can trace memory at 
variable speeds or by single- 
stepping, and the program 
is relocatable so you can 
keep it away from programs 
you're debugging. 

TASM0N4 also features 
a View Disk File command 
that displays program 
beginning and ending ad- 
dresses. 

The package includes a 
50-page user's manual and 
disk for $29.95. Source 
code is also available. 
Reader Service t^ 561 



70 INCOME TAX PROGRAMS 

(For Filing by ApriMS, 1985) 
TRS-80' Models I, II, III, 4, 12 & 16 



FEATURES: - 

I. Menu Driven 

2 "Save on Disk" 

3 BASIC Unlocked, bslable 

4 \ameSS No f-S earned 
over 

5. Inputs on screen before 
printing 

6. I.R S approved REl/PROC 
lormat prinling 

7 Prints entire Form Schdule 

8. Calculates Tax etc 

9. For Mod. 1114. CONVERT 

10 For Mod. 12 16. use 2.0b 

11 Use GRFFNBAR in triplicate 
— don'l ctiange paper all 
season! 

12 Our 6th Year in Tax 
Programming 

13. We BACK-UP our programs' 



^ ^ ■ 


^mA 







For the Tax Preparer. C PA , Lawyer and 
IndMdual 70 Tax Programs on12-51 4", 
Format disks, or on 3-8" Formal disks 
Order only the disks you'll use 

Programmed for easy-use Follow the 
Form or Scfiedule closely Ctieck-points 
along the way Results on screen betore 
printing 

70 TAX PROGRAMS include Forms 1D40. 
1040A. 1120. I120S. 1065 and 1041 
Schedules A. B, C. 0. E, R G, R SE and 
W Formsllie. 2555.2106. 2119.2210, 
2440. 2441 3468. 3800 3903. 4136. 
4137. 4255. 4562. 4634. 4972. 4797. 
5695 5884. 6251. 5252 and 6765 
Also we have TAX PREPARER HELPER: 
includes 12 PROGRAMS such as IN- 
COME STATEMENT RENTAL STATE- 
MENT SUPPORTING STATEMENT IRA 
ACRS. 1040'ES. ADDW-2S. PRINT W-2s 
and others 

5 1 r disks at S24 75 8' disks at S99 
Postpaid Tryout disks available 



Write:— 
GOOTH TAX PROGRAMS .85 

931 So. Bemiston • St. Louis, Mo. 63105 

•T.M. fl«g. by Tandy Corp. Ft. Worth. Tn 



DISK-N-DATA 

EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE AND DISKS 



CYMPnMBULK DISKETTE 

O I I N V^VX I VI ERROR FH£E rOO=oCfR7/F 



LIFETIME 

■ifiED WARRANTY 

SYNCOM diskettes ^\\h a lifetime warranty High quality 
packed in polybages of 10 with TYVEC envelopes, Labels 
and hiubnng, 100 "-a errorfree with a Lustrum Finish, a new 
process that enhances electrical performance. High 
PiayBack signal, low noise, syncom has a increasing media 
life, a Quality Disk 



I 

1 



85 



SSDDea-^-i39DSDDea-^ 
5V4Qty20l 5V4Qty20 

MICROPHS A name in Educational Software dedicated to education 
Microptis Program designed for use on Apple Mile. IBM PC Radio Shack 
TRS-80. Commodore 64. PET.'CBM. VIC 20 

Physics • Chemistry • Calculus • Probability • Scholastic 

Aptitude Test Analogies, Mathematics. Vocabulary • Physical 

Science • Spelling m Jr.&Sr. High Mathematics • School 

Attendance System • Exam Analysis • Exam Generating 

System • Library Management System • Polladex System fAail 

List I Telephone Directory • Recreational Word Games 

EDUCATIONAL CATALOG S1. 00 Free wtU Order 



Flexible Disk Tray 

5V, *ith Key Locking Lid 
40 Disks capacity $22.55— $4.00 Shipping 
90 Disks capacity $37.80— $5.00 shipping 
Almond Color base with clear lop. 
Plastic Dividers which snap lock in. 
Eacli rile tray has a key locking lid. 



DISKSNDATA 
153 Kings Highway 
Brooklyn NY 11223 
Educational Software 
and Disks 



Vinyl Storage Sleeves 

tor triree ring notebook 
5' = 2-Disks per page 
Catalog Cards included 
Minimum order 20 pages 
Ea 59' ' $1 50ShiDDina 



Shippiny b • Oishelle Arid $3 00 per 100 ii 
Fewei Diskeile^ C O O nideri, Adri JJ 00 
New York Lu&IDmei. Add 8'< '. T^n 



Nationwide: 1-800-842-5400 
In New York: 1-212-837-7563 



^ Stf« UsI of Advertisers on Page 192 



80 Micro. December 1984 • 185 



NEW PRODUCTS 



College nght college. It requires a 

Considerations ^^^' "»• ^^ ""'f,"^^^ ^^ 

RAM and one disk dnve. 
College Selector is a six- Students answer a series 
disk software package that of questions describing de- 
helps students choose the sired school characteristics 



DIFFERENT TRACK 




Executive Disk Tote protects your disks in style. 

For the Computerist Who Has Everything 

The Executive Disk Tote from Microcomputer Ac- 
cessories Inc. is a classy gift for yourself or your favorite 
hacker. 

Constructed from cordovan leather, this burgundy 
tote has a lined pouch and velcro fastener to protect up 
to 12 disks. It also features a wrist strap for carrying and 
a leather disk insignia that's bound to turn the heads of 
preppies everywhere. 

Executive Disk Tote is $49.95 from Microcomputer 
Accessories Inc., 5721 Buckingham Parkway, P.O. Box 
3725, Culver City, CA 90231, 213-641-1800. 

Reader Service t^ 562 



and the computer searches a 
data base for institutions 
matching the description. 

Selection criteria include 
tuition limits, fields of study, 
student/faculty ratio, men/ 
women ratio, public/pri- 
vate/religious institution, 
room and board availabili- 
ty, and competitiveness. 

Program modules by geo- 



graphic region are $30. The 
regions are Pacific Moun- 
tain, West Central, East 
Central, New En^and, mid- 
Atlantic, and South Atlantic. 
The complete package is 
$150 from Sienna Software, 
2745 W. Hilts Road, Route 
4, Gladwin, MI 48624, 
517^26-1451. 

Reader Service i^ 555 





New Product Index 




Reader Service 




Number 


Company 


Pi^ 


567 


Abbeville Press 


178 


561 


The Aheraate Source 


185 


559 


Dala Terminals & Communicalions 


184 


556 


Data Worid ProdiKls 


176 


569 


Educational Activities Inc. 


180 


563 


Engineering Management Consultant 


176 


557 


Micro Systems ItK. 


181 


562 


Microcomputer Accessories Inc. 


186 


571 


Micron Systems Corp. 


184 


554 


Pacific Software 


185 


568 


Precision Computer Products 


181 


566 


Si. Martin's Press Inc. 


176 


551 


Seiko Instruments USA Inc. 


183 


555 


Sienna Software 


186 


553 


Software by Teachers Inc. 


178 


570 


Sumicom Inc. 


180 


552 


Tandy Corp. /Radio Shack 


176 


565 


T/Maker Co. 


182 


564 


Walksoft Programming 


180 


558 


WiltSofl 


182 


New Products listings are based on informalion supplied 


in manu- 


facturen' press releases. 80 Micro /las /lo/ tested or reviewed these prod- | 


ucts and cannot guarantee any claims. 






'^m 



ISODViLL 
DIET 
PROGRAM 



$69.95 



"TAKE A BYTE V 

MAINTAIN LOSE on GAIN WEIGHT 
Witri lh« NOOVILl DIET PROGRAM Tjk« I Byli 
ind 3 TRS-IO O D Out M I III t (H P-C Cofnpalibl 



Calcutvt* CMJctric lid nuLrihv* taa- . P"f'k« 
Ev ■*»•!• nulrttiwv watu* al ^Dur tlivr 
Compar* Oa-ly dirl ID inoividuil HDA C flail 
CrsHl« p«*90nalijed daily mvaii and menui 
Ptafi vaf>rd datly mcnui baa#d on lour^d nun 
Sav* rHordi Dl daily mvali and m^nLji for li 




Print I 



1 CflJ'll 



nfl grocery htli 



I Woaular >AS<C PrcBtain 



MAIN PrUQrirr WriT^ 
1 1 ) Hecommenaed Da:l, l>iffar, Ailnrincr ■ BOA; CHART 
121733 EmumUDIiiHamHimAccnt FOOD LIST □•» File 
l3l2(Nu>n1icvul Mf Al LIST Dala FiW Ei.niiMn, 
IJ) r BalancMI [May WFNLJ LIST Dala Fiia [lamplat 
iSKinOCEFIT LISTPR^^nnMoOM 
(GJ n Pa«> USER S MANUAL induaixg Cham and Tamai 



To QrO.1 Vx 1 LhHl m nomi »i»i lo. \\1 \\ pl^i 13 IX IS t r.\ Id 
I - - - NOOVtLL 5D<l»ari ^^^ 

fc-^-j 3« Hod Row) JA 

Uk| RiOgahlld Conn OMH 



M 



IEEE-488 TO TRS-BO- INTERFACE 

Everything needed to add powerful 
BASIC GPie-488 conlfoller capability to 
TRS8C Model 1, 3 or 4, Level 2 or DOS 
with a minimum of 16K 



Ii 



*aa»oc 

for M«{f«l 3 or 4 
Opti»lion 4M-S06 

for MoatI 1 
Op«r«fiort 



w 



{eL 



Model 44e-aOB ot 486-800 Prtc«: $425 

•■ Shipping .nsu/ar-ie S Id- 
WHEN ORDERING SPECIFY DISK OR TtPE 

SCIENTIFIC ENGINEERING 
LABORATORIES 

n Neil Drive • Oia Belhpage Nv 11804 
Telephone (Si6| 694-3370 

'Tracfema'h ol Tandy Coifi 
!t>ete 'S no atiiiialiof Deiween Scientific 
Engtnee'ing LaDoraiofies ana Tanay Corp or 
Raaio SngcM 



203 



NEW! Lower Prices!! 

wabash 

six-year warranteed 

DISKETTES! 
$11.90/box (10) 

5 • " smgl« -side, aingle-dansitv, double-density 
add S2/ box Add S3 p«r order shipping in Illinois 
add 7% salts Ian 

Library Case-$1 .50 <witri disk purchase) 

Immediate shipmeni on VISA, MasterCard or 
Money order, add M days for personal checks. 

CALL TOLL FREE ^ 
(800)222-1248 ^^ 
In Illinois Call (312) 882-8315 

DEALERSI SCHOOLS! USER GROUPS! 

Call for our volume discount PfiCBS'__,267 



DIGITAL IMAGES 

1185 Tower. Schaumburg IL 60195 



186 • flO Micro, December 1984 



PLOTTER KIT 



'259 



OO ShippM Prepaid 
Cont. U.S-A. 

X. V PEN PLOTTER WITH 
PROFESSIONAL FEATURES 



• 16" I 11 PLOT AREA 

• 0D5 RESGLUTION 

• SOFTWARE LISTING 



' 17" iSQ' MEOIA 
■2 IPS 
OtSKEHE OPTIONAL 



Interfaces with any Z-80 BASED com- 
puter with accessible I'O port such as 
TRS 80' MODELS I, III, IV. LOBO'S' 
MAX 80 and LNWV All nnechanical 
and electronic components supplied. 
Full documentation and assembly in- 
structions. No machining, simple hand 
tools to assemble Electronics avail- 
able assembled and tested Full ASCII 
library of 91 alpha numerics, lines and 
centered symbols in variable height 

and rotation. 

wnte or call for 
** j£ lull information 



MODEL 

SPL-1200 



JUSTIN, INC. 

2613 LEE ST.. SO. EL MONTE. CA 91733 
(811) 444-4516 

- Htgnlersd tndtnurt ol TANDY Corp . LOBO ind LNW 




DRV80 



• Allows Model lit programs to 

use 80 X 24 mode on a Model IV 

• Modifies PRINT @. TAB, SET, 
etc to access entire 80 x 24 
screen 

• Pefmits PEEK and POKE to all 
1920 screen locations 

• Adds SOUND and 10 other BASIC 
enhancements 

• Integrates into any DOS 

• Functions with both BASKi; and 
machine longuoge programs 

• Allows intermixing of 80x24 
and 64 X 1 6 modes 

ONLY S 39.95 



Call about Model III 80x24 
upgrade 

The Logical Place 

Dealers PO Box 308 

Invited Keyser, WV 26726 

(301) 786^13 



DISCOUNTS 

on all 

TRS-80® 
COMPUTERS 

with 
Manufacturers Guarantee 

Call or Write For 
Free Catalog and Price List 

HARMON 
Hdw.& Supply 

307 N. Main 

Denver City, Tx 79323 

806-592-2472 




# (^(^^^(^m s 



NOW YOU CAN DUPLICATE VIRTUALLY ALL OF YOUR TRS-KO DISKETTES 

COPYCAT 3 will allow you to make an exact duplicate of virtually all of your disk- 
ettes even if they arc protected. And this includes your games and utilities. COPY- 
CAT 3 automatically analyzes, formats, copies and verifies each track of the diskette 
you are duplicating. The entire process is amazingly fast, typically less than 70 seconds 
and even less with verify turned off. 

COPYCAT 3 is intended for your personal use only, in making backup copies of your 
protected software. 
COPYCAT 3 will run on the TRS-80 Model 3, 4 or 4P computers. 

COPYCAT 3 $49.95 

Piease add $2.00 for pmtage and handling. CA residents add O'^/o sales tax. 
All orders are norrnaily \hij^ped the next huMnea day via first class mail. 

2170 W. Broadway, #501 A 
-jT^ Anaheim, CA 92804 

, CP| (714)772-5000 

Dealer inquiries on your letterhead are welcomed. 




SM List of AOVf'V 



Page 192 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 187 



DISPLAYED VIDEO IS DRIVING DOWN 
PRICES ON DISKS! 



FREE SHIPPING! 





TEC'S NEW HALF-HIGH 40 TRACK DISK DRIVE W/CASE 



,^^ & POWER SUPPLY AT AN INCREDIBLE LOW PRICE! 



TANDON 40 TRACK TM-100-1 W/CASE & POWER SUPPLY $199.00 "^ 



\^lc^ 



"YOU CAN BUY THE REST BUT WHY NOT BUY ONE OF THE BEST!" 

TEAC's NEW SLIMLINE 40 TRACK W/CASE & POWER SUPPLY $205.00 

TEAC NEW SLIMLINE DOUBLE SIDED 40 TRACK W/CASE & POWER SUPPLY $240.00 

TEAC NEW SLIMLINE DOUBLE SIDED 80 TRACK W/CASE & POWER SUPPLY $285.00 

DUAL VERTICAL CASE & POWER SUPPLY TO ACCOMMODATE TWO SLIMLINE DRIVES. 

$10.00 ADDITIONAL WriH SINGLE DRIVE PURCHASE 

DVS COLOR COMPUTER 1st DRIVE ONLY $329.00 

TWO DRIVE S'A" CABLE (FOR MOST COMPUTERS) $23.99 WITH GOLD PLATED CONNECTORS 

MODEL 1 DOUBLE DENSITY BOARD $85.00 

SANYO COMPUTERS 

MBC550-128K. 16BIT, ONE 160K DRIVE $779.00 MBC555 • 128K, 16BrT. TWO 160K DRIVES $999.00 

MBC550-128K. 16817. ONE 320K DRIVE $849.00 MBC555 - 128K. 16BIT. TWO 320K DRIVES $1299.0* 

550 SYSTEMS - INCLUDE: MSDOS. WORDSTAR. CALCSTAR. & EASY WRITER SOFTWARE PACKAGES 
555 SYSTEMS - INCLUDE: MSDOS, WORDSTAR. CALCSTAR. EASYWRITER, SPELLSTAR. MAILMERGE. & 

INFOSTAR SOFTWARE PACKAGES 

COMREX AMBER MONITOR 9 $89.00 

HAYES SMART MODEM 300 BAUD $210.00 1200 BAUD $485.00 

ONE YEAR WARRANTY ON TEAC DRIVES/ 180 DAYS ON TEC & TANDON 



PRINTER PRICES 



WE'RE NOT GOING TO MAKE YOU CALL FOR PRICES - HERE THEY ARE IN BLACK AND WHITE!!! 



EPSON 

RX80 W/GRARHTRAX PLUS $275.00 

RX80 FT W/GRAPHTRAX PLUS $349.00 

RXlOO W/GRAPHTRAX PLUS $495.00 

FX80 W/GRAPHTRAX PLUS $495.00 

FXlOO W/GRAPHTRAX PLUS $699.00 

LQ1500 200 CPS COMING SOON 
YEAR WARRANTY ON EPSON PRINTERS 



PR5000 DAISVWHEEL 15 CPS $395.00 

PR5500 DAISVWHEEL 20 CPS $595.00 

GEMINI lOX $275.00 

GEMINI 15X $395.00 

CITOH PROWRITER 8510 $355.00 

DWP210 $559.00 

DAISVWHEEL II $1149.00 



PRINTER CABLE 10 LONG W/GOLD PLATED CONNECTORS STARTING AT$25.99 



WE CARRY TRS80 & SANYO COMPUTERS 




DISPLAYED 

7deo 




IMMEDIATE DELIVERY 

180 Days Parts and Labor Warranty 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



Visit our two 
retail locations at: 

886 Ecorse Road 

Ypsilanti. MI 48197 

(313) 426-5086/(313)482-4424 

or 

111 Marshall Street jq oRDER: Call (313) 426-5086 or (313) 482-4424 or (517) 542-3280 

Litchfield. MI 49252 (517) 542-3939 (517) 542-3947 

(517) 542-3280 OR WRITE: DISPLAYED VIDEO 111 MARSHALL ST., LITCHFIELD. MI 49252 

(51 /) a4Z-OyOy AUTHORIZED SANYO DISTRIBUTOR -TRS-gOl.. lT»il«n«rl. ol Ihe Tandy Corporation 

(Ol/) 54^-074 / ^62 Price* A Spec lltta lion* aublcct to change without rKrticc 



DISPLAYED VIDEO IS DRIVING DOWN PRICES ON DISKS! 



■^ 



4 

D 

R 

I 

V 

E 

S 




- S 




NO YOURE NOT SEEING THINGS THATS 

FOUR INTERNAL DRIVES IN A MODEL 4!!! MODEL 4 PURE 26 1069 

THE STORAGE CAPACITY YOUVE ALWAYS 64K, RS232, 2 4(1 TRACK DRIVES 

WANTED, AT INCREDIBLY LOW PRICES!!' $1049.00 

$1449.00/128K $1529.00 90 DAY WARRANTY 

QUALITY BACKED BY DV S YOU CANT 
LOSE WARRANTY! 

DISPLAYED VIDEO HAS DONE IT AGAIN! 

DiSPlAYED VIDEO is offering TRS-80 MODEL 4 disk drive systems for INCREDIBLY low pnces. qualily barked up by DVs six 
month you can't lose warranty 

DVi MODEL 4 with 64K, four internal 40 track double density disk drives, sound board with TRS[X)S b 

PLUGfTINANDGO . . .$1449.00/128K . . .$1529.00 

DVs MODFI. 4 y-iih h4K four jntemnl 40 4() track double densin,\ double sided disk drives, sound board with TRSIXOS b 

PLUG IT IN AND GO . . .$1649.00/ 128K . . .$1729.00 

DVs MODEL 4 with 64K four internal 80 SO track double density, double sided disk dnves. sound board with THS[X)S 6 

PLUG IT IN AND GO . . .$1799.00/128K . . .$1879.00 

DVs MODEL 4 witli MK two intenial 40 40 track double denalv. double sided disk drives, sound board with IKSiXJS h 

PLUGITINANDGO . . .$1299.00/ 128K . . .$1379.00 

DVs MODEL 4 v.'Mh MK two Jnti-mal SO SO track double density', double sided disk dnves, sound board w.-ith TR.SIK)S (."> 

PLUG IT IN AND GO . . .$1499.00/ 128K . . .$1579.00 

Displayed Video systems have a six month you can't lose warranty 

NEWMODEL4P(Ponable}20 1080PureW 24CTrackDrives $1049.00 

DVs MODFX4P (Portable) with 40 40 Double Sided ask Drives!. $1349.00/128K $1419.00 

The answer to the IBM P.C.Nev,' Tandy 20(X) $2049.00 

MODEL m '4 Internal Twft Drive Kit: Includes controller board, dual drive mounting bracket, dual power supply, all hardware 

cables and connectors (gold plated) & TEC Drive $369.00 4 DRIVE KIT MINUS DRIVE $349.00 

SANYO 550 $779.00 SANYO 550-2 $849.00 

SANYO 555 $999.00 SANYO 555-2 $1299.00 

MODEL 100 8K .. . . . $525.00) 24K .... :$695.00 DVS MODEL I DOUBLE DENSITY BOARDS . . . $85.00 



Visit our retail location at: 

111 Marshall Street 

Litchfield, MI 49252 

(313) 426-5086 

(313)482-4424 

(517)542-3280 

(517)542-3939 

(517)542-3947 




WE CARRY TRS8(1 & SANYO COMPUTERS 
AUTHORIZED SANYO DISTRIBUTOR 



D ISPLAYED 
IDEO 




IMMEDIATE DELIVERY 



Authorized Dealership at: 
111 Marshall Street. Litchfield. Michigan 49252 P142 

To Order Call (Jl J) 4ii6 508fa, iJl.J) 'W^ 4-1:^4. (f»17) .04;^ 3280 
(5171 542 3939, (.517) ?A2 3947 
OR WRfTt 
Displayed Video. 1 1 1 Marshall St . Ulchheld. Ml 49252 'BM i. . t..d.-m»k o( i.i.TNtioNl BikImm M.chiMa 

'TRS80 n a Vadpmark <jl llv Tanih C'-irpurniH-iii i'n.e', sub|»:i in iturH^ wilhuil iuIil* 



> 



REMSOFT, INC 



THE LIVING TRS-80 

For Those Who MUST Know More! 

Finally, HEMsott fias responded to Ihose 
who have asked for a beginning Itvel tutorial. 
This course was designed by J. Thomas 
Evans, Jr . tor the person who is just starting 
to explore ihe wonderful world lo TRS-80 
computing. The learning ot})ectives the 
course was designed to provide: 

• Skills in the use ol BASIC and its editing 
capabilities, 

• A fundamental understanding o! the 
operation of the Z80 processor within the 
TRS-80 

• An entry-level knowledge of assembly 
language with some skill in the use of 
an editor-assembler, 

• An understanding of the choices 
available in the selection ot hardware 
and software as well as an appreciation 
for the methods of applying the 
computer to specific tasks. 

• A good understanding of the types and 
availability ot other resources which can 
provide greater levels ot knowledge and 
skill. 

Requires 32K and one disk drive. Available 
tor Model III and Model A [in Model ill mode), 

LIVING TRS (disk) $79.95 



Let Your TRS-80® 

Teach You 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 

Tired of buying book after book on assembly 
language programming and still not knowing 
your POP from your PUSH"? 

REMSOFT proudly announces a more 
efficient way, using your own TRS-SO' to 
learn Ihe fundamentals ot assembly lanouage 
programming, , at YOUR pace and YOUR 
convenience. 

Our unique package, INTRODUCTION TO 
TRS-Sr ASSEMBLY PflOGRAMMING. will 
provide you with the following: 

• Ten 40 minute lessons on audio 
cassettes 

• A driver program to make your TRS-80~' 
video monitor serve as a blackboard for 
the instructor, 

• A display program for each lesson to 
provide illustration and remlorcement for 
what you are hearing. 

• Step-by-step dissection of complete and 
useful routines to test memory and to 
gain direct control over the keyboard, 
video monitor, and printer. 

• How to access and use powerful routines 
in your Level II or Model III Basic ROM 



AVAILABLE FOR), III and 4 

REMASSEM (tapa) 
REMASSEM(dlik) 



(in MOD III Mode) 
S74.95 
$79.95 



This course was Oeveiopefl anO recorOea Dy Joseoh E Willis 
iffl dre Gased on ihe sutcesstui series ot courses fie has 
lauyti! di Meia Tecfinoiogies Co'po'aiior, ifie RaOio Shack 
comouler Cenier aiC olfiet locations in Nonlierr Ohio 

REMsOFT. INC. ^129 

671 E 185 St, 
Euclid. Ohio 44119 

(216) 531-1338 

SHIPPING CHARGES 

17 SO WITHIN UNITED STATES 

S5 00 CANADA AND MEXICO 

OTHER FOREIGN ORDtRS ADO 20% 

OHIO RESIDENTS ADD 6V,=/n SAl ES TAX 



TRS- 



IS A TRADEMARK Of TANDY CORP 



LOAD 

SO 
HMOEX 



JANUARY 

Article 

Touch or Sound Typw 

Dot Talk 

The Taxman Cometh 

Tape It Easy 



Synthetically Speaking- 
Part t 
The Bucks Start Here 

FEBRUARY 

Article 

The Play"8 the Thing 

Stepping Through 
Basic 

Ground Control to 
Major John 

Grar>d Opining 

Latter Perfect 

Borderline Case 

Synthetically Speaking- 
Part II 



Page Program 

SB TOSTYPEFUBAS 
9* BRAILLE/BAS 
100 TAXMAN/BAS 
112 DATAPE/BAS 
TAPE16/BAS 
TAPE32/BAS 
TAPE48/BAS 
142 USTI/BAS 

160 BUCKS/BAS 



Annotatiori 

Typing for the handicapped 

Produce braille text 

Organize tax records 

Handle machine-language tapes Wke Basic tapes 



Build a speech board 



Tax-refur)d Investments 



Page Program Annotation 

52 PLAYBYTEA;MD Create plays on your TRS-80 

SAMPLE 
56 SINSTEP/CMD A tnacMnft4ani}uao« subroutine to edit Basic 

programs 
62 ADVENTWBAS Space game 



Project BO 



MARCH 

Article 



84 MICROTAB/BAS 
96 WORDCHKFVBAS 
158 MAROUEE/CMD 
126 VOTRAX/BAS 
TTSPRGffiMD 

table«;mo 

200 PROJECTZffiMO 
PR0jeCT4«;M0 



Page Program 



Tabulate optnlon poll results 

Spelling checker 

Write background routines 

Applications sottware for hor^buill board 



Main processor board 



Annotation 



TRS-Nuke 


so 


NUKE/BAS 


simulate a nuclear power plant 


Etugs from Outer 


82 


MAIN1/SRC 


Machine- language arcade game 


Space— Part 1 




TEXTl/SRC 




Ttw Return ol Hlnrlchs' 


1W 


WORD/BAS 


Updated word processor 


Word Processor 








Parallel Driving 


126 


STNORD/BAS 


Use SuperScripsit with any printer 


A Piece ot the Pie 


142 


pieplt/bas 


Draw pie charts 


Sneak a PEEK, 


1S2 


util/bas 


Speed up PfllNTa graphics 


Invoke a POKE 








Character Sketching 


156 


formgn/sas 


Graphics lor the MX-80 


The Forgotten 


166 


PARIOI/BAS 


Voltage devices through the Ill's parallel I/O bus 


Interface 




PARI02/BAS 
PARI03/BAS 
PARI04/SRC 
PARI04A;MD 




APRH. 








Article 


Page 


Program 


Annotation 


Everything from A to Z 


S3 


THREACWBAS 


Threaded lists 


Brick t>y Brick 


58 


EXEC«RC 

exec/cmo 


Automatic command execution 



190 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



Article 

A;kiI Spool 

Bogs from Outer Space- 
Part II 
FMaxad Syntax 



Dump Site 

The Sound ot M us Ikon 



Page Program 

77 SPOOL/SBC 

SPOOUCMD 

82 TEXJ2AJSPC 

TEXT2BSRC 

120 MSG/BAS 

KWORD'BAS 
SDATA/BAS 
FNDX/BAS 
FBIEND/BAS 
164 SCREEN/BAS 
138 MUSIKON/BAS 



Annotation 

Printer spooler 

Add anii-inseci fire power 

Data Dase management 



VIdeo-to-prinlet dump 

Compose, edit, and p-tay back music 



MAY 



Article 


Page 


Program 


Annotation 


Smart Talk 


50 


MPM/SBC 
MPHCMD 


A smart terminal program 


Shorter Sorts 


62 


VCSORTEfVBAS 


Sortit>g in VisiCalc 


Plotting Along 


68 


EOUAPLOT/BAS 


Calculale and graph equations 


Basically Belter 


104 


DEMO/BAS 


Fasi Basic graphics 


Graphics 








Bugs 'rom Outer 


108 


TEXT3AJSRC 


Finish Part It's laser bSM 


Space— Pan III 




TEXT3B/SRC 
TEXT3C«RC 





JUNE 
Article 

Command Performance 
Monitoring Financial 

Health 
Designer Screens 

Bugs I rom Outer 
Space— Pan IV 

Double Vision 



Tt>e {Single) Key To 
Scripsit and TRSDOS 
Commands 

Of Limited Values 



Urnrommon 

Oeoominatora 
Project 80 



Page Program 

63 MAKEDO/BAS 
7Q REPOHT/BAS 

82 SOOOT/SRC 

SQUOT/CMD 

101 TEXT4A«RC 

TEXT4B/SRC 

113 WRTSCR«RC 
WRTSCR/CMD 
TSTDRvrSHC 

tstdrvk;md 
126 scr1pal/bas 



Annotation 

Versatile Model 4 JCL files 
Stock investment advice 

Design patterns oo-screen 

Add an explosion routine 

Split screen routines 



Enhance Scripsit 3.2 



134 EXAMPLE/BAS Limit input fields 

BALSHEET/BAS 

CHECKING/BAS 

AMUSINOyBAS 
139 FRACT10N(BAS Calculating with fractions 



170 BARCODEjSRC 



JULY 






Article 


Page 


Program 


Drawing Boards 


64 


DRAW/SBC 


In the Marketplace 


82 


TRAOER/BAS 


Bugs from Outer 


103 


TEXT5A«RC 


Space— Part V 




TEXT5B/SRC 


Tfie Stripper 


115 


STRIP/CMD 


Project 80 


142 


CLOCK1/SRC 
CLOCK2/BAS 
CLOCK3/SRC 


The Next Step 


170 


LISTING 1«BC 
USTlNG2yBAS 
UST1NG3/BAS 


B8S Express 


152 


USTIISRC 
LJST2«RC 


Rettevelopment 


- 


CONVRTlCMD 


Program (Special) 






Reload 80 {Special) 





LBOTORaBAS 



Build a bar code reader 



Annotation 

Design PC boards on-screen 
Practice commodities trading 
The bugs fi(^l back 

Strip machine-larfguage comments 
Build a real-time clock 



Use SVCs for Model 4 vltJeo control 

Programmtng the communications ntodute 
Convert Model III Elasic programs lo the 4 



Convert Apparat source (lies to Radio Shack 

formal 

Conlmued on p. 194 



NCIIJ 

Geneologv 

Program 

(fof AflK Model III/4 Tmo Disit Si,»tems) 
HOLDS 350 RCCORDS PCR RL€ 

* Records filed by name key 

* Unlimited records ijuitfi multiple Files 

* fllloius changes in spelling of surnomes 

* Shipped on premium didtette 

G>mpf«henaw [>ocunn«ntotion 

flw Reports Full RIphQ PrintoU:, 

Family Tree. Poternol Une. Moterrxal 

line. Descenbent Une 

Send Qicch or Money Order Co 

MIMAR, INC. 

116 Bovutood Drtws : Bikni, MS 39532 

Free Shipping for US OtcJers 

Mississipp F^sidents odd 6% Soies Tox 

Foreign Otdcrs odd $5 Shipping ond HorxJIing 



CONVERT UR 

TO F-L.XI>I>V^ 





Uh 2 iMm of H 

Apple IBM, Osborne, Kaypro. TRS BO and other 
owners can convert their smgle-Sidefl 5Vr of 8' 
disks lo Oouble-sided disks with FLiP-IT, i new 
paterrt-pending convener superior to any cheap 
imrlaiions on the marVel So ilmpka to use, even a 
child can malte the conversion m less than 30 
seconds No measuring or alignments required So 
ecofwmlcal. one FLfP-IT can convert countless 
disks, doubling your memory each time 
ORDER YOURS TODAY 

5'*." FLIP-IT (TRS BO I. III. iV. « ill) $24.95 

B" FLIP-IT Kit (TRS SO II & S" dr.) 29.95 

Labels (100 aa.. self sllcfclr)g) 300 

Write Protect Tabs (100 ea.) 2.6S 

Hut)-R«lnforc«r Kit (tool to pos. rings) 10.99 

Hul>- Rein forcer Rlr>gi (50 rir>gs aa.) S.8S 

[Mak Sleeve s (10 ea., Unt tree) 2.55 



Slr«1 

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^ See UsI ot AOvtrtisen on Pag* 193 



BO Micro, Decemtjer 1984 • 191 



RMtMr Sftrvic* Numb«r 



Pag* 



342 A.E.C 95 

82 Aefocomp Inc 142. 143 

215 Alcor Systems 108 

136 Allen Gelder Software 107 

140 Allied Systems Co 199 

476 Alpha Bit Comm., Inc 13, 150 

17 Alpha Products Co 14,15,17 

74 Alps 110 

303 Alternate Choice 204 

U1 Anitek Software Products 23 

191 Anthropomofphic Systems 110 

390 Applied Microsystems Inc 34 

3 Argonaut Systems 159 

102 Armstrong Genealogical Systems 201 

363 Astro-Star Enterprises 194 

16 Autospec .165 

300 BT Enterprises 169 

60 Bank of America 137 

152 BCCOMPCO 173 

■ Beck-Mfg 106 

482 Blueprint Sottwaf 8 52,53 

381 BodexGofp 179 

299 CBMicrodex 174 

35 CVC Online 180 

86 Compulogtc 62 

1 19 Compgtenls 125 

1 39 Computer Case Co - 196 

133 Computer Discount of Arrwrica 171 

357 Computer Friends 117 

18 Computer Plus , 157 

223 Crest Software 194 

239 D&ABesearch 110 

539 Deseft Sound 150 

27 Design Software 19T 

282 DFWComputefCsntei 93,121 

183 Diaz Enterprises 182 

367 Digital Images 80 

48 Disks-N-Data 185 

204 Diskcount Data 154, 155 

• Diskette Connection 206 

62 Displayed Video 188. 189 

125 E-C Data 179 

216 EAR Co 159 

85 Educational Micro Systems 82 

* 80 Micro 

Back Issues 165 

Christmas Subscriptions 64 

Dealer Sell 177 

80 Micro Subscriptions 32 

Load 80 96 

MailingUst 177 

Moving 177 

Reader Service 177 

Subscription problems 203 

University Micro 199 

45 Electric Webster 65 

73 Foils Computing 201 

214 Foft Worth Computers 30,111 

496 Good Software Co<p 161 



Rvadw S«nlc« Numtwr 



103 Good Software Corp 159 

185 Gooth Software 185 

9 H&ECompulronics 0111,75.77,79 

355 HDP 197 

120 Handy S Associates 182 

455 Hard Drive Specialists 134, 135 

61 Harmon Hardware i Supply 187 

170 Harper A Bow 170 

153^ Holmes Engineering Inc 153 

• Hot CoCo Subscriptions 89 

175 Howe Software 37 

321 Humphrey Instruments 65 

46 Hypersoft 195 

284 Infocom 7 

148 Intelligent TechnologiBsCo 161 

101 J i M Systems 81 

126 J M G Software Infl 41 

229 JRM Publications 165 

177 J Soft 199 

52 J Star Enterprises 203 

534 Jameco Electronics 99 

244 Jaste Enterprises Inc 203 

112 JoeLynnComputerServlce 131 

420 Justin Inc 187 

331 KSott 83 

462 Langley-St. Clair, Inc CIV 

161 LogicalPlace/KiSComp.Ser 187 

251 Logical Systems Inc 2,3 

115 Lynn Computer Service 196 

527 Magicomp 1*0 

21B Magnetics 178 

250 Marymac 204 

184 MCTel 193 

165 MCTel 133 

111 McSystems 201 

149 Micro Architect Inc 199 

• Micro DataSupplies 25.26,27.28 

526 MicroSoltware Systems 31 

157 Micro-Images 149 

464 Micro-Labs Inc 139 

137 Miller MicrocompulerSefvices 151 

317 Mimarinc '91 

107 Misosys 95 

411 Montezuma Micro 112,113 

416 Montezuma Micro 166, 167 

■ Mumford Micro Systems 184 

379 Nautilus Computers Inc 206 

• New Classics Soil ware .109 

232 Nocona Electronics 115 

54 Nodvill Software 201 

541 Northern Info. Technology Corp 99 

95 Northwest Computer Algorithms 153 

127 Notev^orthySoftwareCons 203 

36 Omnisott Research 187 

195 Omnitek Computers Infl 178 

151 Orion Instruments 205 

207 Pacific Exchanges 80.199 

324 Peirrek 50 

124 Perry GompulBrs 163 



RM<t*c SwvhM Number 



Pag* 



143 Perry Computers 145 

176 Personal Computer Products 80 

290 Pickles* Trout 119 

306 Powersoft 20,116 

260 Pro/Am Software 99 

76 Producer, The 70,71 

449 Pro! Jones/Frogg House 51 

174 Professional Tax Software 175 

248 Programmer & Associates, Inc 108 

91 Prosoft 9 

30 Prosoft 10,11 

1 Prosoft 100 

2 Prosoft 101 

51 Prosoft 201 

69 Protectall Corp. 203 

194 Quant Systems 174 

117 Quick Labels Systems 199 

75 RadioShack Cll.l 

234 Rapidynamic Software Inc -181 

129 RemsoftInc 190 

265 Ridge-Tech Inc 180 

83 Robert Nicolai 203 

512 RockwareDataCofp 33 

343 Rogo Computer Products 201 

53 Rose Electronics 199 

■ RUN Subscriptions 127 

368 Saf eware 83 

203 Scientific Engineering Labs 201 

252 Smart Data Inc 80 

256 Smart Data Inc 65 

262 Smart Data Inc 165 

1 16 Softronics Comp, Systems 108 

104 Software Factory, The 201 

360 Software Products Int'l .42,43 

* Sod ware Support 84,85 

64 Southworth Company, The 203 

213 Standard Software 174 

43 Star Software Co, , 65 

442 Stevens Computer Discount 141 

71 Subloglc Communications Corp 183 

285 Sun Research Inc 207 

89 Sun Software 199 

456 Sunlock Systems 95 

266 T/Maker 47 

32 TVG Systems 125 

189 TabSales 153 

347 Tal ley Communications 132 

257 Technologies Entiancement _ 191 

81 Total Access ' 102 

227 Trisoft 172 

169 Unicorn Software 125 

■ Vespa Computer Outlet 4 

19 Walk Sott Programming 179 

41 Warriors SWarlocks 203 

87 Welsh Systems 1*1 

37 Wiley Inc 1*1 

123 Wilson Technical Services 203 

279 Zygotron 199 



For lurthar Inlormatlon from our advenisers, please use the Reader Service card. 
'This adveniser prefers to be contacted directly. 



~ Jvertising Sales (603) 924-7138 
or (800) 441-4403 



West Coast Sales (415) 328-3470 



IS* • 80 Micro, December 1984 



NOW YOUR PC 
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P/C Privacy protects any file on J 
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Continued from p. 191 

AUGUST 

Article 

Model 4 EDTASM 

For Free 
Bombs Away! 

Alien! ion Shoppers! 
Wall Games 
Catacomb Conquest 

Bugs tfofn Outer 
Space— Pari VI 



For Sales 
BBS Express 



SEPTEMBER 

Article 

Keeping Time 



Taking Slock 
The Direct Approach 
BBS Express 
The Next Step 



OCTOBER 

Article 
Testing 1-2-3 



Time Keeper 
Sound Software 

USR Friendly 

The Missing 
Disassembler 

Fill-ins 



Project 80 
The Next Step 

NOVEMBER 

Article 

Basic Plus 
Basic Changes 



Hybrid Vigor 
Finding the Righl 

Address 
Quit Stalling 



Tape Me, I'm Yours 



Let There Be Create 
Easy Input 



Page Program 

42 MOD4EA/CUD 

74 BOMBEFVSHC 
BOMBER/CMD 

75 XMART^BAS 

76 NOCOUT/CMD 
78 MAZE/BAS 

CATACOMB/BAS 

88 TEXT6A«RC 

TEXT6B«RC 

TEXT6C/SRC 

TEXT6D/SBC 

142 SALES(BAS 

149 UST2A«RC 



Page Program 

72 TIME3A/SRC 
TIMER3/CM0 
TIME4B/SRC 
TIMER4/CM0 

86 STOCKVAUBAS 

96 SAMPLE/BAS 
122 LIST4/BAS 

144 MACRO/BAS 
MACROS RC 



Page Program 

70 LESSON/BAS 
GRAPHICS/BAS 
MAKER/BAS 
STUDENT/BAS 
84 PROJMIND/BAS 

100 SPEECH/SRC 
SPEECH/CMD 

104 BUFFIND'BAS 
SCRNFILUBAS 

106 DISASSEM/BAS 

126 PAINTUSR/BAS 
PAINT/SRC 
PAINT/CMD 

146 PRTBUF/SRC 
PRTBUF/CMO 

172 INTRUP/SHC 
INTRUP«RC 



Page Program 

44 ONE 

TWO 

(cassette only) 
56 FINDER/SRC 

FINDIOO/BAS 

FINDfBAS 
72 EDIT(CMD 
80 MAD/CMD 



Anriotation 

Modify Model III EDTASM for the 4 
Machine-languaoe arcade game 

Adventure in a department store 

Use a paddle lo defend a bricl( wall 
Graphics adventure game 

Add a scoreboard to complete the game 



Sales report generator 
Add the receiver module 



Annotation 

Time Model III/4 drives 



Tracit stoci< investments 

Access the Model 4 screen ar>d keytmard 

File management modules 

Add macros to source code 



Annotation 

Write computer-based lessons 



Track employees' lime and projects 

Digital speech synthesis 

Load USR data with disk I/O buffers 

Model 4 disassembler 

Fill In shapes drawn on-screen 

Printer buffer control program 
Create an Interrupt timer 



Annotation 

Add 14 commands to Casselle Basic 
Manipulate Basle strings 



Model III text editor 
Machine-language load addresses 



86 GARBDEM1/BAS EiimltMle garbage collection 

GARB0EM2yBAS 

GARBDEM3/BAS 

GAHBDEM4/BAS 
92 TPECHK 

(cassette only) 
98 CREATE/BAS 
109 INPUT«RC 



Verify tape-saved EDTASM source files 

Model l/'ll input screens 
Deflr>e Model I/Ill user input 



194 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



Article 


Page Program 


Annotatior] 






INPUT/CMO 








DEMOBAS 




Tape Transfw 


125 LMOFF/SFIC 


NEWDOSBO EDTASM loads tape source files 


From EOAS to 


134 EDTEDAS/CMD 


Load an EDAS file wilti Radio Shack EDTASM 


EOTASM and Back 








BBS Express 


152 LlSTireAS 


Write and read BBS messagfts 






UST/BAS 




Th« Naxt Step 


188 FILTEFVSRC 


Using Model 4 function keys 


DECEMBER 








Article 


Page Program 


Annotatior} 


Little Wonder 


72 EASY DAT A/BAS 


Data Base manager 


Belles Lettres 


86 STANOARD/BAS 


Custom character sets 






STANO(SBC 








DOUBLeBAS 








DOUBLDSfiC 




Touchdown 


103 FOOTBALUBAS 


Tivo-player football simulation 


Fractals 


114 FRACTALS/BAS 


Unique graphics 


A Chill Wind Blows 


120 CHILLY/BAS 


Calculate the wind chilli factor 


BBS Express 


136 LIST1/SRC 


Creating a message index 






LIST2/SRC 




Basic Takes 


144 P1XELS/BAS 


Pixel graphics 


Ttw Next Step 


156 SETKEY/SRC 


Set and reassign functiofi keys 






/ 


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(• — •) 






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CP/M includes most well known single and dou- 
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^ See List at Advertisers on Page 192 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 1»5 



Computer 



Tutor 




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Brother Compact ronic 60 
DMP-1 10 Printer 
DMP-120 Printer 
DMP-240 Printer 
DWP-210 Printer 
Juki 6100 
Think Jet Printer 



Manufacturer 


lssue:Page 


Programmed Press 


5:216 


Prentice-Hall 


6:218 


Howard W. Sams 4 Co. Inc. 


3:246 


Breeze/QSD 


2-^46 


Howard W. Sams A Co. Inc. 


3:247 


CompuSott Publishing 


9:174 


Tar>dy/Radio Shack 


1:53 


Pren lice-Hall 


11:193 


Howard W. Sams & Co. Inc. 


1:54 


Lynn Computer Service 


1:62 


Sybex 


2:249 


Manufacturer 


Issue.Page 


Indiana Software Group 


3:198 


Dynacomp 


8:168 


Tandy/Radio Shack 


a;iee 


Tandy/Radio Shack 


11:192 


Lap Video Entertainment 


9:172 


408614 Ontario Lid. 


12:174 


Manufacturer 


lssue:Page 


Tandy/Radio Stuck 


10:35 


J.E.S. Graphics 


4530 


Tandy/Radio Shack 


10:165 


Microcorp 


3:46 


Micro Projects Er>gineering Inc. 


9:36 


Tandy/Radio Shack 


3:42 


Tandy/Radio Shack 


5:80 


Alpfia Products Co. 


6:36 


Holmes Engineering 


6:206 


Dysan Corp. 


7:44 


Nanos Systems Cofp. 


8:187 


Anchor Automation 


10:190 


Alpha Products Co, 


12:35 


Manufacturer 


IssueiPage 


Tandy'Badio Shack 


9:33 


Academic Computer Center 


2:248 


James W, Burgrrwier 


2:244 


Manufacturer 


lssue:Page 


Brottier lnterr^alional Corp. 


3:240 


Tandy/Radio Shack 


11:36 


Tandy/Radio Shack 


11:38 


Tandy/Radio Shack 


11:38 


TandyfRadio Shack 


1:53 


Juki Industries of An'wrica 


2;43 


Hewlett-Packard 


7:38 



196 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



SOFTWARt 






Product 


Manufacturer 


Issue: Page 


ABSee 


Compulenis itK. 


8:34 


Allwfilc 


Prosoft 


113S 


Arrdngc II 


TriplfrO Software 


1:45 


Cjreer Direclions 


Jetfefson Software 


4238 


Coll(?gc Diieclions 


Jefferson Software 


6 212 


CP.'M Plus 


Tandy/ Radio Slack 


8:31 


Crayon Delui 2 


Pioneer Sotl*are 


6 31 


dalaCLre2 6 


Colorado Online 


4:40 


Datagtaph witti Pie CnafI Option 


Micro Software Systems 


1*4 


DiskOlSK 


Logical Systems Inc 


7194 


Disk Orrve Analysis Syslem 


JiM Systems Ltd. 


4:37 


Tilemale II 


Datatile Systems 


2239 


Investment Analysis 


Tandy'Radio Shack 


5210 


LpStript 


Anitek Software Products 


433 


M^qicBmd 


Computer EdiType Syslems 


7 192 


MAP 1 3 


Softshell 


6:37 


Matti-AnalyierPak.s 


International Communication 


348 


MicroEditw 11 


Alpha ware IrK. 


2 46 


Micfo-Lmk II 


Bi-Tech Enterprises Inc, 


10 18fl 


Model 4 Scnpsil 


Tandy.' Pad 10 Snack 


5,a3 


Model 4 SupetScripsit 


Tar>dy'Radio Sliack 


a 164 


MuiIiMate 


Tandyfladio Stiack 


12:170 


Multiplan 


Tandy;Raa>o S^ack 


6«S 


NICf 


XVZT Corr-culer Dimensions Inc 


10:39 


tiif-fi Access 


Software Products International 


n 160 


Personal Finance 


Tandy/Radio Stiack 


a 191 


PowprMail Plus 


Powersoft 


5:204 


Scribe 


Cfiatlariooga Systems Associates 


2:246 


6 Plus 


Micro-Syslems Software Inc 


2 44 


SolPak 


Softronics Computer Systems 


7,198 


Speciaculato' 


Tandy'Radio Sfiack 


10:38 


Spfinler 


Scenic Computer Systems inc 


534 


Slock Tracker 


H & H Trading Co 


4-234 


Superlog 


KSofl 


6:2(J6 


SupetScripsit Dictionary 


Tandyffladio Sriach 


8:186 


The Talking Program 


Ron Mutcfiinson 


1,44 


Taigel PlannerCalc 


Tandy/Radio Snack 


4:38 


Tele-Slock 


Telesoft Inc 


4:223 


Ttend Analysis Progtam 


Harloy D WilDur 


3234 


TBS-80 WVordSlar ,3(1 


Logical Systems Inc, 


538 


UCSD p-Syslcm 


PCD Systems Inc 


5,34 


UnivefSal Subioulme Systpm 


Ramona Enterprises 


8 193 


VFOir 1 )5e 


Compuview Products 


1 58 


Videofe" Plus 


Tandy.'Radio Snack 


9:168 


VisiCalC Business Forecasting Model 


Tandy Radio Snack 


1:48 


WlBasic 


WiltSoft Inc. 


7:186 


The Word Macnine 


Pel-Tek 


2,48 


WordStar Professional 


MicroPro 


1 loe 


UTILITIES 






Product 


Manufacturer 


Issue: Page 


Alcor C Compiler 


Alcor Syslems 


11 185 


Ttie Analyst 


Modular Software Associates 


5206 


Assembly Language Oevelopmeni Sysieiti 


Tandy /Radio Sfiack 


9.38 


Aztec C Compiler 


Manx Software Syslems 


1240 


BackTrack 


Ridge-Tec inc 


12173 


Basrum 


Wiley Inc 


11 190 


Oonem 


GibDerman Enterprises 


7204 


The Collector 


Modular Software Associates 


5208 


CONV3T04 


Educational Micro Syslems Inc, 


640 


Dos lamer 


CDC 


4:229 


Pro-Cfeate 


Misosys 


10.190 


SuptT Utilily4y4P 


Powersofl 


9:166 


Toolbelt 


Power sofi 


5.200 


Toolkil 


Stewart Software 


5214 


Transfer 


The Small Computer Company 


3 47 


Transfer 


MicfiTfon Inc 


7:42 


TRSDUM 


CR8 Microtools 


3:244 


TurtKi Pascal 


Borland Internationa' 


12:38 


Vis/Bridge/RPT 


Solutions Inc. 


1:48 


Vis/Bridge^Sort 


Scriutions )r>c. 


1:48 


Vis a Con 


Abacus Associates 


146 



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6. Custom Orders 




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See List of Advertisers on Page 192 



80 Micro. December 1984 • 197 



1384 
ARTICLE INDEX 


BUSINESS 












Author 


Title 


Issue: Page 


Debug 


Model 


Arrnotation 


Bazzell 


Taking Stock 


9:86 




1,111 


Organize your stock portfolio 


Earp 


In the Marketplace 


7:82 




1,111 


Horw your inveslrrwnl skills 


Hickenbottom 


Account for Yourself 


3:iar 




100 


Generate expense account reports 


Jansen 


Shorter Sorts 


5*2 




III 


Sort VisiCalc files using the data Interchange formal 


Kurtz 


Amortiflad 


5(90 




III 


A spreadsheet template that calculates your loan 
payments 


Uarcoulides 


Growing Pains 


M* 




III 


Increase VisiCalc's capacity by storing data in the data 
Interchange format 


Ramella 


Getting Personal 


6:161 




100 


Prints personalized form letters 


Robb 


Calling Wall Street 


4:t78 




100 


Calling the Dow Jones News/Retrieval Service 


Sparks 


For Sales 


«:142 




1,11) 


Calculates sales commissions and provides a sales 
tiistory 


van Beverhoudl 


Time Keeper 


10M 




1, II, 111,4,2000 


Organize business projects with a time dislnbution program 


Williams, D.A. 


Formula Secret 


5.-66 




III 


Save and print only the formula in a VisiCalc file 


Williams, A-S. 


Screening for Help 


5:58 




III 


Add a Help screen to VisiCalc 


C^NOTES 












Author 


Title 


lssue:Page 


Debug 


Model 


Annotation 


Balonis 


too Disks 


1:171 




100 


Transfer Model 1/111 files and add manual disk storage to 
ttfe Model 100 


Balonis 


Write Now 


2:1«1 




100 


A Model 100 word processor 


Balonis 


Pin Pals 


2:1M 




100 


Transfer Basic and texl files between two Model 100s 


Balonis 


A New Pairof Shoea 


3:194 




100 


Craps game lor Ihe Model 100 


Balonis 


Sort Order 


7:126 




100 


Alphabetize your data files 


Cadmus 


Fast Backwards 


3:184 




100 


Using reverse Polish notation to do math calculations 


Carmody 


Graphic Results 


4:188 




100 


Graphics for the Model 100 


Comma n 


A Real Sketch 


5:198 




100 


A sketchpad graphics program 


Comma n 


Form-mailers 


6:196 




100 


Converts Model 100 text files to Model III Scripsit 


Cornman 


Portable Scrlpsit 


7:124 




100 


Translates Model III Scrlpsit tapes to Model 100 formal 


Deinlnger 


Seven 100 Percent Solutions 


2:186 




100 


Alternative ways to power your Model 100 


DUon 


Thanks for the Memory 


3:185 




100 


Install 8K memory ctilps In your Model 100 


Firshein 


From Soup to Nuts 


5:169 




100 


A command menu thai drives your Model 100 programs 


Harlow 


Rooting Out the Problem 


1:176 




100 


Plots data and determines the value of roots in equations 


Harris 


North by Northwest 


4:186 


9:30 


100 


Determine the distance tietween any two locations on earth 
and gel a compass t^earing 


Hicken bottom 


Account for Yourself 


3:187 




100 


Generate expense accouni reports 


Jones 


The Great Escape 


1:174 




100 


Explains Model 100 escape codes 


Leipper 


Backing Up the Model 100 


2:189 




100 


Provides automatic tape back-up for Model 100 flies 


Oppedahl 


The Searcher 


8:157 




100 


Search Model 100 DO files for specific words and phrases 


Perry 


Eton- A -Screen 


7:131 




100 


Free-draw graphics program 


Ramella 


Autolirwr 


1:178 




100 


Automatically numtjers Basic program lines 


Ramella 


The Shadow Knows 


2:187 




100 


Encode Model 100 files you want kept secret 


Ramella 


Getting Personal 


6:161 




100 


Prints personalized form letters 


Robb 


Wipe Out 


3:192 




100 


A file deletion program that simplifies kllljr>g 


Robb 


Galling Wall Street 


4:178 




100 


Calling the Oow Jones News/Retrieval Service 


Robinson 


Mnemonic Powers 


1:170 




100 


A table of the Model 100's command mnemonics 


COMMUNICATIONS 










Author 


Title 


lssue:Page 


Debug 


Model 


Annotation 


Fischer 


Smart Talk 


5:50 




1. Ill 


A smart terminal program 


DATA BASE MANAGERS 










Author 


Title 


lssue:Page 


Debug 


Model 


Annotation 


Clrkovlc 


Uttle Wonder 


12:72 




1, Ml 


A fast 200-record data base manager 


Tonkin 


The Creator is Back 


2:68 




1,111 


An enhanced version of the original Creator data base 
manager 



108 • ao Micro, December 1984 



PERIPHERAL SWITCH 



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EPSON* OWNERS 

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It's probably safe to say that ouf lists 
ore dittefent from most of the others in 
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are informotive 

The lists are "slanted" toward the 
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interest to the owner of most any 
microcomputer printer 

Send us your name and address 
and we'll send you a rather fat 
envelope filled with computer 
oriented offers 



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P.O. Box 27 



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USA England 






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Sffe List of Advertisers on Page 192 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 199 



EDUCATION 










Author 


Title 


Issue: Page 


Debug 


Model 


Annotation 


EngelhardI 


Synthetically Speaking— 
Parlir 


2:126 




1,111 


Educational software tor the synthetic speech board in Part 1 
(see Hardware) 


Savard 


Testing 1-2-3 


10:70 




1, III 


A test-oer>eratlng program 


FILE-HANDLING 










Author 


Title 


lssue:Page 


Debug 


Model 


Annotation 


Baker 


Using Data Files— Part 11 


3:148 




1, II, III 


Creatlr)g and using rarKlom-access data tiles 


Balonis 


Pin Pals 


2:194 




100 


Transfer Basic and text files t>etween two Model 100s 


Balonis 


Son Order 


7:126 




100 


Alphabetize your data files 


Goss 


Phantom Disk 


1:158 




4 


Make fast randon'i-access searches with Men^tsk 


Jansen 


Shorter Sorts 


5:62 




III 


Sort VIslCalc data using the data interchange format 


Leipper 


Backing Up the 100 


2:189 




100 


Provides automatic tape back-up for Model 100 files 


Oppedahl 


The Searcher 


6:157 




100 


Search Model 100 .DO tiles for specltic words and phrases 


Ramella 


The Shadow Knows 


2:1B7 




100 


Encoding Model 100 files you want kept secret 


Wilson 


Command Performar>ce 


6:62 




4 


Edit JCL tiles and automatically execute TRSDOS 
commands 


FINANCE 












Author 


Title 


IssueiPage 


Debug 


Model 


Annotation 


Athanasiou 


The Taxman Cometh 


1:100 




UN 


Organize your financial records 


Bazzell 


Taking Stock 


9:86 




1,111 


Organize your stock portfolio 


Earp 


In the Marketplace 


7:82 




1,111 


Hone your investment skills 


Leslie 


Monitoring Financial Health 


6:70 




1,11,111,100 


Analyze the health of a corporation by its annual report 


Parrish 


The Bucks Start Here 


1:160 




1,111, 100 


How to invest your income-tax refund 


Robb 


Calling Wall Street 


4:178 




100 


Calling the Dow Jones News/Retrieval Service 


GAME 












Author 


Title 


Issue: Page 


Debug 


Model 


Annotation 


Barln3tein 


Attention Shoppers! 


8:75 




1,111 


Find 12 items in a department store and chack out 


Blair 


Touchdown! 


12:103 




III 


Guide your football team to the lop of the heap 


Devore 


Catacomb Conquest 


8:7B 




1,111 


Collecl the treasure hidden in the catacombs 


Kennedy 


Ground Control to Major John 


2:62 




1,111 


Famous astronaut has many adventures on his way back to 
earth 


Pelletier 


Bombs Away 


8:74 




1,111 


Bomb the enemy's military Inslallatton 


Rolh 


The Play's Ihelhtng 


2:52 




III 


Stage plays on your computer screen 


Shoemaker & 


Wall Games 


8:76 




1. Ill 


KrKx:k the bricks out of the wall with this Breakout clone 


Gleckner 












Smilh 


Bugs from Outer Space— Pari 1 


3:82 




1,111 


A tutorial on writing Assembly- language games 


Smilh 


Bogs Irom Outer Space— Part II 


4:82 




1. Ill 


Part II of the tutorial on writing Assembly-language garT>es 


Smith 


Bugs (rom Outer Space— Part 111 


5:108 




1,111 


Part III ot the tutorial on writing Assembly-language games 


Smith 


Bugs from Outer Space— Pari IV 


6:101 




1,111 


Part [V ol the tutorial on writing Assembly-language games 


Smith 


Bugs from Outer Space— Part V 


7:103 




1,111 


Part V of the tutorial on writing Assembly-language games 


Smilh 


Bugs from Outer Space— Part VI 


8:86 




1,111 


The last installment of a six-part tutorial on writing 
AssembI y-languagega mes 


GENERAL 












Author 


Title 


lssue:Page 


Debug 


Model 


Annotation 


Andtesen 


Grand Opining 


2:64 




1,111 


Tabulates the results of opinion polls 


Camefon 


Making the Upgrade 


5:126 




III 


A description of what a Model il1-to-4 upgrade Includes 


Goodwin 


In One Port and Out the Other 


3:122 




4 


A reference table tor Model 4 port assignn^nts 


Kepner 


Bill of Fair Repair 


1:164 




1,111, PC, 12, 100 


A cost breakdown ot Radio Shack repairs 


Kepner & 


. . . and Personal 


5:91 






An interview with Ed Juge 


Robinson 












Maloney 


Tar>dy Makes It Move 


1:70 




2000 


Introduction to the Model ^UUU 


Maloney 


The Tandy 1000: A Truo-Blue 
Compatible 


12:44 




1000 


Introduction to the Model 1000 


Rigtby 


Dot Talk 


1:94 




1, III 


Produce braille text with either a letter-quality or daisy- 
wheel printer 


Woodbury 


Marking 7\me 


536 




2000 


Ber>chrnark tests on 10 mtoros, Including Ifte Model 2000 



GRAPfflCS 



Author 


Title 


Carmody 


Graphic Results 


Corn man 


A Real Sketch 


Goodwin 


Restored Art 



Hal e an Basically Better Graphics 

\MA* FilMns 

Meike Designer Screens 



Issue.Page Debug Model Annotation 

4:188 100 Graphics for the 100 

5:158 100 A sketchpad graphics program 

4:157 4 Access the graphics commands Set, Reset, and Point on 

the Model 4 
5:104 I, III Run graphics programs eight times (aster using the LSET 

and Reset commands 
10:126 I, III Draw pictures on the screen ar>d till them in with a single 

keystroke 
6:82 I, III Design up to 6,000 patterns on your screen 



200 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



IEEE-488 TO TRS-80' INTERFACE 

Everything needed to add powerful 
BASIC GPlB-488 conlroller capabilily to 
TRS80 Model 1, 3 Of 4, Level 2 or DOS 
wilh a minimum of 16K. 



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SEND AND RECEIVE 

MORSE CODE 

•TRIPLE SPLIT SCREEN 
•SPEED: 1-200 WPM 



This 4.5k assembly language program runs 
on your TRS-80"'Model I. Ill, or 4 The 
decoded Morse Code Is displayed on the 
screen and may be printed. The keyboard 
buffer Is active while either sending or 
receiving. The outpul is either tone or keyed. 
I/O Is via the cassette interface. The pro- 
gram runs from tape or disk (TRSD OS 2.3 or 
1.3). Useit'on-lhe-air" or lor code practice. 

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4752 DeBeers Drive 
El Paso, Texas 79924 



,^343 




80 Micro does not keep subscription 
records on the premises, therefore 
calling us only adds time and doesn't 
solve the problem 

Please send a description of the prob- 
lem and your most recent address 
label to: 

QQ. .-iir-n * 
Subscription Depl. 
PO Box 981 
Farmingdale, NY 11737 



Thank you and enjoy your subscnplion 



^- 



•Where is that 
'AV Movie?' 

FIOEO TkPE 




Control the Model 100 Directory 
Use 

* * * * UTILTY * * * * 

Rename files 

Relocate file position m directory 

Make files invisible 

Display individual file size or all 

files at once 
Reset Maxrain, Maxfiles, 

protected memory and function 

keys 
Make application programs 

invisible 
Kill files 

Send S29 95 (check or money order] lor 

cassette and mstruclions lo 

FoltS Compuling 

4598 Deercreek Lane 

Concord. CA 94521 

(415)676-1120 



S*e Liil ol AdverUien on Page '92 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 201 



Parkinson 


Character Sketching 


3;156 






III 


Use your Model Ill's special character set In documents 


Pecry 


Etch-A-Screen 


7:131 






100 


Free-draw graphics program 


Tuck 


A Piece of the Pie 


3:142 






I.III 


Display statistical data In a pie graph 


HARDWARE 












Author 


Title 


issue 


Page 


Debug 


Model 


Anrjotation 


AKord 


Moving Up to 16 BKs 


6:43 






2000 


A description of the 80186 chip and its 16-b(t relatives 


Calmettes 


The Forflotten Interface 


3:166 






Ui 


Use the I/O bus as an analog-to-dl glial converter 


Clark 


Drawing Boards 


7:64 






1, ill, 4 


Design a printed circuit board on the screen and print out a 
template of it 


Deininger 


Seven 100 Percent Solutions 


2:186 






100 


Alternative ways to power your Model 100 


Dixon 


Thanks for the Memory 


3:185 






100 


Install 8K memory chips in your Model 100 


Engelhardt 


Synlhellcally SpeaklrtQ— Part 1 


1:142 






I.III 


Build a board that gives your computer speech capabliily 


Engelhardt 


Synthetically Speaking— Part II 


2:126 






1,111 


Educational software for the synthetic speech board In 
Part 1 (see Education) 


Kepner & 


Up Close. . . 


ftSO 






2000 


Model 2000 review 


Robinson 














Meyer 


Drive Ways 


9:42 






III 


Repairing and maintaining disk drives 


Snider 


Getting Loaded 


3:180 






III 


Automatically load a 2K program into your cassette-based 
Model ill with this add-on t>oard 


Wright 


TRS-Nuke 


3:90 






' 


Make your Model 1 simulate a nuclear power plant 


HOME/HOBBY 












Author 


Title 


Issue 


Page 


Debug 


Model 


Annotation 


Athanasiou 


T^e Taxman Corrwth 


1:100 






1,111 


Organize your linaiKial records 


Cirkovic 


Little Wonder 


12:72 






1,111 


A fast 200-record data t)ase manager 


Davis 


The Sound of Muslkon 


4:138 






1,111 


Write and play compositions on the computer 


Harris 


North by Nofthwesl 


4:186 




9:30 


100 


Determine Ihe distance twtween any two locations on earth 
and get a compass bearing 


Parrlsh 


The Bucks Start Here 


1:160 






1,111, 100 


How to invest your income-tax refund 


INPUT/OUTPUT 












Author 


Title 


Issue 


Page 


Debug 


Model 


Annotation 


Calmettes 


The Forgotten interface 


3:166 






ill 


Use the l/O bus as an analoo-lo-digital converter 


Glorvigen 


Of Limited Values 


6:134 






I.III 


Define the limits of data Input with an Assembly-language 
subroutine 


Goodwin 


in One Port and Out the Other 


3:122 






4 


A reference table for Model 4 port assignments 


Qoss 


Phantom Disk 


1:158 






4 


Make fast random-access searches with Memdisk 


Kershner 


Sneak a PEEK, Invoke a POKE 


3:152 




9:30 




Improve your game programming with PEEK and POKE 
slalemenis 


INTERFACE 












Author 


Title 


Issue: Page 


Debug 


Model 


Annotation 


Balonis 


100 Disks 


i:T7i 






100 


Transfer Model l/lli files and add manual disk storage to 
the Model 100 


Balonis 


Pin Pais 


2:194 






100 


Transfer Basic and text files between two Model 100s 


Calmettes 


The Forgotten Interface 


3:166 






III 


Use the I/O bus as an analog-to-digital converter 


Corn man 


Portable Scripsit 


7:124 






100 


Translates Model ill Scripsit tapes to Model 100 format 


OPERATING SYSTEMS 












Author 


Title 


lssue:Page 


Debug 


Model 


Annotation 


Harretl 


The DOS Dilemma 


7:48 






1, ill, 4 


A look at Radio Shack and TRS-80-compatible disk 
operating systems 


Held 


MS-DOS Overview 


1M 






2000 


Examines the major features of MS-DOS for Ihe Model 
2000 


Held 


MS-DOS 


3:74 






2000 


Describes the Model 2O0O's MS-DOS operating system 


SCIENCE 














Author 


Title 


Issue 


■Page 


Debug 


Model 


Annotation 


Andrea sen 


Uncommon Denominators 


6:139 






1, 11,111, 12,16 


A Basic program that accepts fractions as Input and 

displays them as output 


Cadmus 


Fast Backwards 


3:184 






100 


Using reverse Polish notation to do math calculations 


DeJarnette 


A Chili Wind Blows 


12:120 








Calculates wind chill using air temperature and wind speed 


Harlow 


Rooting Out the Problem 


1:176 






100 


Plots data and determines the value of roots In equations 


Husch 


Relaxed Syntax 


4:120 






1, ill 


Interactive software that Introduces you to artificial 
Intel 11 gerK:e 


Lewis 


New Math-Old Order 


4:116 






1, ill 


Converting reverse Pollsf) notation equations to traditional 
algebraic format 


O'Reilly 


The Whole Earth Computer 


3:118 








A gravity-powered computer that uses dominoes as bits 



202 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



GRAMARCY™ 
The Word Game 

For the Tandy 2000™ _ $29.95 

H you iih« playing Ihe wofd flame in yout Oa'ly 
newspaper you will love Gramafcy in this gams, 
irie compule* will picK a wofd o( seven lo eleven 
lelteta tw you to solve While you are entering 
your solution the program will compute Ihe cot 
rect answet You will t>e scoteo on the words you 
form from the letters tn if>e given word. When you 
Uniah your list will be scored H high enough, you' 
scote will be saved on a permanent list (or Ihai 
wofd length 

The program Includes a rooline which will print an 
words of lour or mote letters contained in ary 
word you enter Anoiher routine lo not only add 
artd delete words but also to display any word and 
all lis anagrams is irfciuded Write For more inlor 
malion and program re<juiremenls. 



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4038 N. Ninth Street 
SI Louis. MO S3147 

*Rec Trade MarK 



PRSSUORDS 
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PLAY CHESS WITH THE MASTERS! 

INTRODUCING 

CHESS CLASSICS 



Entertaining, educational chess software 
to Improve your chess game. 

Each disk contains 64 games played by 

masters from Morphy to Fischer 

and Karpov. 

Use CHESS CLASSICS to look at a great 

game and see if you can guess the 

winner's move. 

Built-in scoring system gives you an 

approx. US Chess Federation rating for 
your success in picking the right move. 

Available forTRS-BO Model I, III and IV 

KING PAWN DISK $59.95 

QUEEN PAWN DISK $59.95 

BOTH DISKS $100.00 

(CT Residents add 7Vi % sales tax) 
Send check or money order to: 

Noteworthy Software Inc. ^ '■' 
12 Noteworthy Dr.. Danbury. CT 06810 



LNW SERVICE 

QUALITY REPAIRS ON ALL 

LNW FACTORY ASSEMBLED 

PRODUCTS INCLUDING: 

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• LNDOUBLER AND LNDOUBLER 5/8 

• INW DISK Dr^iVES 

COMPUTER UPGRADES: 

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• HAf?DWARE 80 x24 

• MODEL 4 UPGRADE 

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OTHER PRODUCTS AVAILABLE: 

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• LNW SOnWARE 

Editor Note 

This space open lor specials' 

WILSON TECHNICAL SERVICE ""' 

8 00 w - 'J 00 ■"■•.' I'" ■) "^'H^ '_■ 00 -.■(■-"i 

VOICE l?^4] 847 3722 DATA (71d) 847 3722 

""OO'T'OO Ba,.D 




80 Micro does not keep subscription 
records on the premises, therefore 
calling us only adds time and doesn't 
solve the problem. 



Please send a description ot the prob- 
lem and your most recent address 
label to: 

aOrnirrn * 
Subscription Dept. 
PO Box 981 
Farmlngdate, NY 11737 



Thank you and enjoy youi subscnplion 



Need a stocking staffer? 



COMPU-FIRE"' 

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See Lii! of AOvtrUsari on Fage J92 



80 Micro. December 1984 • 203 



O'Reilly 


The Perlect wave 


10:130 




1, 111 


Measuring distances with sound waves 


van tte Panne 


Fractals: New Dimensions in 
Geometry 


12:114 




1, III 


Ualr»g fractals tor unique Model I/Ill graphics 


SERIES 












Author 


Title 


Issue: Page 


Debug 


Model 


Annotation 


Baker 


Using Data Files— Part II 


3:148 




1,11,111 


Creating and using random-access data files 


Brothers 


Assembly Language Made 
Simple— Part 1 


1128 




1,111 


Part 1 of an Assembly-language tutorial 


Brothers 


Assembly Language Made 
Simple— Part 11 


2:108 




1,111 


Part II of an Assmnbly-langusge tutorial 


Engelhardl 


Synlhellcally Speaking— Part 1 


1:U2 


5:31 


I, III 


Build a board that gives your computer speech capability 


Engelhardl 


Synthetically Speaking— Part II 


2:126 




1. Ill 


Educational software for the synthetic speech tx>ard in Part 1 
(see Hardware) 


Smith 


Bogs from Outer Space— Part 1 


382 




1, ill 


A tutorial on writing Assembly-language games 


Smith 


Bugs from Outer Space- Part II 


4:82 




1,111 


Pan 11 of the tutorial on writing Assembly- language games 


Smith 


Bugs from Outer Space— Part III 


5:108 




1,111 


Part ill of the tutorial on writing Assembly-language games 


Smith 


Bugs from Outer Space— Part IV 


6:101 




i.iii 


Part IV of the tutorial on writing Assembly-language games 


Smith 


Bugs fnam Outer Space— Part V 


7:103 




1,111 


Part V of the tutorial on writing Assembly-language games 


Smith 


Bugs from Outer Space— Part VI 


6:88 




1, ill 


The last installment ot a six-part tutorial on writing 
Assembly-language games 


TECHNIQUE 










Author 


Title 


Issue: Page 


Debug 


Model 


Annotation 


Con we II 


Warnier Diagrams 


10:134 




!, Ill 


An alternate to flowcharts 


Col tie 


Double Vision 


6:113 




1,111 


Create a split-screen display 


Covington 


Hooting Out ROM Routines 


10:120 




1)1 


Accessing the Model Ill's ROM subroutines 


Diamenl 


Sound Software 


10:100 




III 


Digital speech synthesis 


Harlo* 


Rooting Out the Problem 


1:176 




100 


Plots data and determines the value of roots in equations 


Husch 


Relaxed Syntax 


4:120 




1,111 


Interactive software thai introduces you to artificial 
Intelligence 


Keen 4 Diachert 


Borderline Case 


2 158 




1,111 


Create customized screen t>orders 


Kershner 


Sneak a PEEK, Invoke a POKE 


3:152 


9:30 


m 


Improve your game programming with PEEK and POKE 
statements 



""i^ 



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800-231-3680 

Radio Shack TRS-80't 
EPSON PRINTERS 

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COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE 

MODEM — 80 

TRS-BO Model l/IM or TRS-80 Model 4 

FEATURES 

• File Transiers *ilh remole opuralior of TRS-BO Mrxlel I or M Iroma TsrminaJ or anothei TRS 60 «ia moOem 
— iTflnafer Mes Irom or to an L/nanended compuier 

•Errorfrefihlfltrars^rsivlth anothpr TRS-SO or a computafusjng1h*CP/MproQrAm"I^O[>£M', used widefyon 
computer buH«1in boards (CP'M jser Group Ouh #25) 

' Configured tor lisewith MicroNet Ihe Source. Forum 80 Redetirke paramelers, charades set, coriTrol charac- 
ters lo friertace wlt^ Dow Jones WestLa* and other BBS Elecln^nic maA capabilities 

■ Wniier massamble' '^ode lor speed arid mm'mufn memory requirements 1 10 io9600bpsBaud Rate. Function 
Key Template, Novice ar>d AOvarKvd LAvnl Oocumentation, trxJex and Glossary 

BENEFITS 

'Handfesfilesol unlimited length, even in a 3£K5ySTBmar>(Jl OisC drive With the KMODEM/CMDunlity, files 
may be Eranalerred with a 16K computer 

' Prepare tile ott line with wO'd processor, or included program SAVE'CMD" If tirsi transmission attempt tails, 
data IS stHI salely on disc arid available for a second Fry 

■ Open Tranamil/ Receive fT/R) tiles belore going online ToggleT/R tiles On/Off independenTfy In speciatued 
application. T^R diflerent tiles simultaneously Control codes lor remote operations 

■ Transmit single lines from a file, aMo*ing transmission to be inlermi^oO with keyboard input providing more 
flQiib^e response to prompts trom the remore Permits File transfer to a sysfem thai cannot accept Ml spe«d 
transmissjon or does not use control codes to atan/stop tile transmission 

■ DOS commands anO programs which execute m [Tie lower 16Kmay be executed while maintaining position in 
T/R files Previous screen contents restored at completion of DOS command 

- Ovei 2000 satisfied users since 1981 

NEW ENHANCED Model 4 Version - 

Has all I/Ill features PLUS: 

' Menu-prompted Contiguration and Save To Dis*' tor 1J Format options and/or Terminal Settings 2] Code 
Translation Tables tor Transmit, Recerve, Video, A Prmter, 3) Control Code TaDio; 4) Toggle On ' 01 options o\ 
LiriB Feed [accept /drop). Send Slowly & Receive DisH-BuHer 5} Timed Character and /or Line Delay setting, 6) 
Set Prompt Character 

• Specific Transmit/Receive commands lor CP'M or MSDOS text files 

• Lhilize optional 64K RAM as Receive Sutler • System Status Lines 

BENEFITS: 

■ Configurations sasily defined tiom meru Load from disk individually or as a set for specific Host protocol, 
eimer from wilhin program or on bootup 

■ Permfts cOmpfl1«bi^ity with a vast array of computer networks and provides a high level ol cuslomiiation, 
including use ot ^ur own sncrypled codes 

■ Download larger files from Bulletin Boards witfiout losing data 

■ MODEM M \t 1 00% Radio ShMk comfMtMM trta I* IuIIt ttiOporlM by ttM MrttbOf LmH* UHieHi. 



MODEM aO Model l/ltl sells lor only $39.95^ S?OOS«H 
MODEM aC/MAJf (LobO) S«lls lor only 149 95 - S2 00 S&H 
MODEM BQ Model 4 sells for only $79 95 ' $2 00 S&H 



A\ 



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ALTERNATE CHOICE 

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204 > 80 Micro, December 1984 



Phelps 


USR Friendly 


10:100 


1. Ill 


An easy way to load USR roulmes with Basic programs 


Powell 


Plotting Along 


5:68 


1, III 


Calculates artd simultaneously graphs up to tour equations 


TUTORIAL 










Author 


Title 


IssueiPage 


Debug Model 


Annotation 


Baker 


Using Data Files — Part II 


3:14fl 


1.11,111 


Creating ar>d using random-access data files 


Bfolhe's 


Assembly Language Made 
Simple— Part 1 


1.128 


i.iii 


Part 1 o' an Assembly-language lulo'ial 


Brolhefs 


Assembly Language Uabe 
Simple — Part II 


2:108 


1, III 


Part II ot an Assembly-language tutorial 


Goss 


PhanlOfTi Disk 


1:15a 


A 


Make fast random-access searches with Memdisk 


Jones 


The Great Escape 


1:174 


100 


Explains Model 100 escape codes 


Kmg 


Routine Access 


4:168 


I.III 


Access up to 10 USR routmes in Level II Cassette Basic 


Levy 


Everything from A to Z 


4:53 


All Models 


AiphatMtize your arrays 


O'Reilly 


The Whole Earth Computer 


3:118 




A gravity powered computer that uses dominoes as bits 


Smilh 


Bugs from Oulei Spac«— Part 1 


3:82 


1. Ill 


A tulorial on writing Assembty -language gdrr>es 


Smith 


Bugs from Outer Space — Part II 


4:82 


1. Ill 


Part II ol Ihe tutorial on writing Assembly -language games 


Smit^ 


Riigs from Oulw Space— Part III 


5:106 


1. Ill 


Part III ol the tutorial on writing AsserriDly -language games 


Smilh 


Raigs from Oulet Space— Part IV 


6:101 


1, III 


Pari IV of the tutorial on writing Assembly language games 


Smilh 


Bugs (rom Outer Spar*'— Part V 


7:103 


1. Ill 


Part V of the tutorial on wnlmg Assembly language games 


Smith 


Biigi from Outer Space— Pan VI 


8.86 


1. Ill 


Ttw lasi installment of a sii-part series on writing 
Assembly language games 


Springe' 


Character Cache 


4.118 


1. Ill 


Access some lesser-known Scripsit cha/acters 


Stedeford 


Enter Here 


4:107 


1. Ill 


A machine-language program that eliminates delays in 
entering string data 


Sullivan 


Random Though Is 


10:56 


1. 111.4 


A tutorial on random number generators 


Williams 


Print Statements 


12 118 


4 


Solving printer and printer buffer problems 


UTILITY 










Author 


Title 


IssueiPage 


Debug Model 


Annotation 


Alexartder 


The Dating Game 


10:114 


4 


Record the correct dates for CP'M Plus programs 



CONVERT YOUR TRS-80 MODEL I, III. OR 4 INTO A 

DEVELOPMENT 
SYSTEM 




Now you can develop Z-80 based, 
stand-alone devices such as games, 
robots, instruments and peripheral 
controllers by using your THS-80 as a 
development system The DEVELOP- 
MATE plugs into Itie expansion con- 
nector of your TRS-80 and adds 
PROM PROGRAMMING and IN- 
CIRCUIT-EMULATION capabilities to 
your system (with or without expan- 
sion interface) 



Complete instructions and sample 
schematics are included lo help you 
design your own simple stand-alone 
microcomputer systems THESE 
SYSTEMS CAN BE AS SIMPLE AS 
FOUR ICs one TTL circuit tor cloci< 
and reset, a Z-80, an EPROM and one 
peripheral interface chip 

When the tn-Circuit-Emulalion 
cable IS plugged mlo Ihe Z-80 socket 
of your stand-alone system, the sys- 
tem becomes a part of your TRS-80 
You can use the full power of your 
editor assemblers debug and trace 
program lo check out both ihe hard- 
ware and the software Simple test 
loops can be used to check out the 
hardware, then the system program 
can be run to debug Ihc logic of your 
sland-alone device 

Since Ihe program is kepi in TRS-80 
RAM, changes can be made quickly 
and easily When your stand-alone 
device works as desired, you use the 
Developmates PROM PROGRAMMER 
to copy the program into a PROM 
Wiltn this PROM and a Z-80 in place of 
the emulation cable your stand-alone 
device will work by itself 



The DEVELOPMATE is extremely 
compacl Both the PHOM programmer 
and the In-Cifcuit-Emulalor are m one 
small plastic box only 3 2 x 5 4 A 
line-plug mounted power supply is 
included The PROM programmer has 
a "personality module" which defines 
Ihe vollages and connections of the 
PROM so that fuUire devices can be 
accommodated However Ihe system 
comes wilh a universal personality 
module which handles 2758 2508 (8K) 
2716 2516 (16K) 253? i32K) as well 
as Ihe new electrically alterable 2816 
and 48016 [16K EEPROMsl 

The COMPLETE DEVELOPMATE 
81. for Model I with software power 
supply emulation cable, TRS-80 
cable and ' universal" personality 
module S329 

DEVELOPMATE 83, Model IIIM version, 

same as above $329 

PM2 PERSONALITY MODULE for 

2732A EPROM $15 

PM3 PERSONALITY MODULE for 
2764EPROM $15 



Instruments -'5' 

172 Otis Avenue Dept M Woodside 

CA 94062 

(415) B51-1172 

tulsste' Charge anrt Visa phont- orders accepica 
CalitOTnia rpsidcriK plpa^r add 6 °t ■iaif". 'a> 



Sm List ol A(tv9ftls»rs on Page 192 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 205 



Allan 


Proper Arrangements 


6:96 


HI 


Order your string arrays 


Allen 


The (Single) Key lo ScripsH 
ar>d TRSDOS Commands 


&126 


HI 


Singte-key access lo Scrlpsit and TRSDOS commands 


Andrea sen 


Ur>common Denominalors 


B139 


1. II. III. 12. 16 


A Basic program that accepts tractions as input and 
displays them as output 


Barnaid Jr. & 


Toucti Of Sot;rKl Typing 


1:B8 


1. Ill 


Tooch or sound lyping (or ih« harxlicapped 


Barnard 










Blommefs 


Pafallel Dnving 


3:126 


1, III 


A universal printer driver for SuperSciipSit 


Boggs 


Basic Char>oes 


use 


l.lll 


Eleven commands lo maintain Basic programs 


Cominio 


Apnl Spool 


4:77 


1,111 


A software printer spooler 


Ciaf1 


Stepping TTirouo'^ Basic 


2« 


M 


Go thfough your Basic programs lirw by lir>e to make 
changes 


Diamer^t 


Hybfid Vigof 


11r72 


1. Ill 


A Model I'lll editor that combines Ihe features of a line and 
a full-screen editor 


Eggarter 


Quit Stallir>g 


11:68 


III 


Eliminate garbage-cotlection delays 


Fink 


One- Liners 


8:50 


1, 11.111. 100 


One-line Basic programs and routines you can use to 
enhance other programs 


Firshein 


From Soup lo Nuts 


5:169 


100 


A command menu lo drive your Model 100 programs 


Friedman 


Thou Shalt Not Kill 


11:138 


1,111 


Change your system's KIM commarK) 


Gaudreau 


Belles Lettres 


12:86 




Create your own print fonts 


Glorvigen 


Of Limited Values 


6:134 


1. Ill 


Define the limits of data inpul with an Assembly-language 
subroutine 


Goben 


Data Grabber 


11:128 


1, III 


Reassign the data pointer lo selectively access data blocks 


Goodwin 


Redevelopment Program 


4fl6 


4 


Convert Model III Basic programs to Model 4 format 


Goodwin 


Keeping Time 


9:72 


1, III. 4 


Time your drives lo help prevent disk I/O errors 


Hainson & 


Scfipsit Extras 


868 


III 


A palch that gives you 11 extra Scripsil characters 


VanSiyck 










Kissel 


Tape Transfer 


11:125 


m 


Transfers NEWDO580 source files from tape to disk with an 
LMOFFSET patch 


Leipper 


Backing Up the 100 


2:189 


100 


Provides automatic tape back-up (or Model 100 files 


Uilazzo 


Basic Plus 


11:44 


III 


Fourteen new Basic commands 


MiMer 


Trie Screen Writer 


11:98 




Develop your own data-inpui screens 


Monger 


The Direct Approacri 


9-96 


4 


Program routirws that let you access the keyboard and tfte 
screen 


Payne 


Brick by Brick 


4:S6 


IH 


Edit the command file, stack commands on or>e line, 
specify cor>ditional execution, and more 



N.C.I, 
proudly introduces 

FORESIGHT I 

The multi-divisional 
FINANCIAL SYSTEM 

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• Transaction Journals 

• Printed Customer Statements 

• All One One Programme Diskette 

• Run^i on Newdos 80 MOD 111 & 4 

• On Mod 2000 and IBM compatibles soon 

• >our first Balance Sheet Guaranteed 

FORESIGHT I will do all of this and much more: 

FASV to read — tASY to set up — RUNS on single or double sided 
drives 

Until now, FORESIGHT I was available only to a select group of 
businesses and accountants for $990.IX) It can now be yours for: 

AN INCREDIBLE INTRODUCTORY PRICE 
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To tdki' lidvitntdRf o( this offer, order yours today, or (.all or write for more in- 
formation 
Send cpnitMHi i hf-que or mone\ order in U S turds to 

NAUTILUS COMPUTERS INC. 

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206 • 80 Micro. December 1984 



Payne 


Model * EDTASM for Free 


8:42 


4 


Modify Radio Shack's McxJel III EDTASM to run on your 
Model 4 


Ramella 


Autoliner 


1:178 


100 


Automatically numbers Basic program lines 


Batilaff 


Finding tr>e Right Address 


11:80 


4 


Find where Model 4 machine-language programs load m 
memory 


Robb 


Wipe Out 


3:192 


100 


A file-delei'On program that simplifies killing 


Robinson 


Mnemonic Powers 


1:170 


100 


A table of the Mode) 100'S commarK) mnemonics 


Robinsor 


Copy Right 


6:50 


1,111 


SuperCop II lets you transfer Model I'OI files t>elwe«n 
magnetic rnsdia and converts 500-Oaud tapes to 1,500 

Oaud 


Robinson 


The Stripper 


8:115 


1, ttl 


Remove Assembly-language p'ogram remarks 


Smith 


Easy Input 


11:10B 




Define an input prompt and call it from Basic when needed 


Sprott 


The Missing Disassemblei 


10:108 


4 


A disassembler for the Model 4 


Tho'nion 


Fine Lines 


10:44 


III 


A Code 128 and Tandycode bar code generator 


Trapasso 


Tape It Easy 


1:112 


1. Ill 


Edit. list, and back up system tapes 


van B«vefhoudt 


Time Keeper 


10:84 


1. It, 111,4. 2000 


Organize business pfojects with a tin>e distribution program 


Walton 


Tape Me, I'm Yours 


1132 


III 


Verifies source code saved from EDTASM to tape 


Wesssman 


Dump Site 


4:164 


1,111 


Store jp to three screens of data in video memory arx) 
dump Ihem to the printer 


Wilson 


Command Performance 


6:62 


4 


Edit JCL files and automatically execute TRSCX)S 
comma r>ds 


Zevchak 


From EDAS to EDTASM 
and Back 


11:134 


III 


Converts EDAS to EDTASM files and vice versa 


WORD PROCESSING 








Author 


Title 


lssue:Page Debug Model 


Annotation 


Allen 


The (Single) Key to Scripsit 
and TBSDOS Commands 


6:126 


til 


Single-key access to Scripsit and TRSDOS commands 


Baionis 


Wrile Now 


2:191 


100 


A Model 100 word processor 


Corntnan 


Form-matters 


6:156 


100 


Converts Model 100 teit tiles to Model III Scnpgit 


Cornman 


Portable Scripsit 


7:124 


100 


Translates Model III Scripsit tapes to Model 100 format 


Hinricfis 


Trie Return o( Hinricfis' Word 
Processor 


3:100 


1, III 


Insert graphics, names, and aOdresses into form letters 


Spfolt 


Letter Perfect 


298 


1,111 


A spelling checkef 



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Eliminate costly downtime and lost data caused by 
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'/'f'V New Durham, N.H 03855 



^285 




f- See List ot Advertisers on page 97 



80 Micro, December 1984 • 207 



ASK TANDY 



Express Order Software and 
Model 4 Queries 



Send your questions about Tandy 
products and services to Ask Tandy, 
80 Micro, 80 Pine St., Peterborough, 
NH 03458. 

\jl If I buy a software package from 
Tandy/Radio Shack, do I get support 
from Radio Shack or from the manu- 
facturer? 

A I Radio Shack sells two kinds of 
software: Radio Shack products and 
Express Order Software (EOS). If you 
buy a Radio Shack (stock number 
26-X XXX) software product, the sup- 
port comes from Radio Shack. If you 
buy an EOS (stock number 90-XXXX) 
product, support comes from the 
manufacturer. For more about EOS, 
see the next question. 

\^I What is Radio Shack's Express 
Order Software (EOS) service, and 
how does it work? 

AC It's a method of marketing 
third-party-vendor software through 
Radio Shack outlets. EOS gives soft- 
ware makers a ready-made distribu- 
tion chain and makes more high-qual- 
ity, brand-name software available to 
our customers. 

After our Outside Software Sup- 
port Group analyzes a third-party 
product, we stock the software at Tan- 
dy's main Fort Worth warehouse. Ra- 
dio Shack store personnel and custom- 
ers are made aware of a product's 
availability through in-store product 
descriptions, known as the Directory 
of Reviewed Software, which is fre- 
quently updated. We highlight some 
EOS products in the regular Radio 
Shack Computer Center catalog; na- 
tional advertising also helps spread the 
word. 

Software analysis consists of mak- 
ing sure the package runs on the target 
computer and lives up to its documen- 
tation 's claims. We also consider the 
quality of customer support. Wedon't 
make judgements about what features 
belong in a program; if a program is 
popular, we figure customers must 
want it the way it is. 



You can place EOS orders at any 
Radio Shack Computer Center, Radio 
Shack store, or participatmg dealer. 
Orders are sent to Fort Worth the 
same day, and the product is usually 
shipped within 24 hours. 

\^l Is the Model I still made in 
Europe? 

A t The Model I is no longer being 
produced anywhere. 

Q: Has the Tandy 2000 hurt sales of 
the Model 12? 

A! While we know that some cus- 
tomers who would have bought a 
Model 12 are buying Tandy 2000s in- 
stead, the introduction of the 2000 
hasn't hurt the overall sales of the 
Model 12. The Model 12/Tandy 2000 
combination lets us meet the needs of 
a wider range of customers than we 
could with the Model 12 alone. The 
net effect is increased overall sales and 
more satisfied customers. 

\2l Why did you change the key- 
board on the Model 4? 

A I As an enhancement to the Model 
4 product line, cursor control keys are 
clustered on newer machines. This 
makes the computer easier to use for 
word processing, spreadsheets, and 
other applications. We also include 
green screens on all new Model 4's. 

Q: Why was CP/M Plus for the 
Model 4 so late? 

A \ It simply took longer to get the 
banked and unbanked versions run- 
ning than anyone had projected. Had 
we gone for a less capable version of 
CP/M, we probably could have had it 
out much sooner, but we felt the Plus 
enhancements and banking were worth 
waiting for. 

\^l Rumor has it that the Model 4 
was originally designed to accept the 
Z800 8/16-bit microprocessor. Is this 
true? Has Radio Shack ever consid- 
ered the Z800? 



A t The Model 4 was designed to ac- 
cept a Z800 adapter board for expand- 
ability. Due to development problems, 
Zilog has never produced the part. If 
the Z800 is ever produced, we'll con- 
sider an expansion board for an up- 
grade. 

\^l Is there a future for 8-bit ma- 
chines? 

A I Yes. Most users don 't really care 
what microprocessor is running as 
long as the computer does what they 
want. The Model 4 is one of the best- 
selling products in our computer fam- 
ily. Our introduction of the Model 4P 
and Apple's introduction of the lie 
prove that both companies expect the 
8-bit market to remain healthy. The 
best feature any computer can offer is 
a large software base. The Model 4 
and Color Computers offer just that. 

\^l Why did Tandy discontinue the 
Model III hi-res graphics board? 

At The Model III graphics board 
hasn't been discontinued. In fact, 
we've promoted the Model III graph- 
ics board twice recently to stimulate 
sales. Being a retailer, our primary 
goal is to sell products. Consumer 
feedback has taught us that the Model 
III graphics board was too expensive. 
Thanks to new custom circuitry, we 
were able to bring down the cost of the 
Model 4 graphics board. 

\^ I Why did Radio Shack cancel the 
Tandy 2000's TV/Joystick interface? 

A I Analysis of the typical Tandy 
2000 customer showed us that there 
wasn 't enough demand to justify pro- 
ducing the board. The Tandy 2000's 
primary use is for business applica- 
tions where the higher resolution of a 
monitor is needed. ■ 



TRSSO and Tandy are registered irademarki of Tandy Cor- 
poration. 

CP/M is a irademaik iif Digiial Risearh. 
ZSOO D a Irademark of Zilog Corporation 
Apple is a regislered Irademark of Apple Computer. 



208 • 80 Micro, December 1984 



Introducing the Most Powerful 
Business Software Ever! 

TRS-80 " (Model I. II. Ill, or 16) • APPLE "• IBM" • OSBORNE" • CP/M"« KAYPRO" 



TIrvtl rf *""■ 







leV 



The versaBusiness" Series 



Each VersaBusINESS module can be purchased and used independently, 
or can be linked in any combination to form a complete, coordinated business system. 



VERSARECEIVABLES'- $99.95 

VLKSARtttivABihS" IS a complete menu driviTi aicrmiits teceivabte. invoicina. and 
nvKiiWy 5Mle men I -generating syslem. !i keeps track of all iniormaiion related lo whta 
owes you or your company rnoney. and ran provide auionialit billing tor past due ac- 
counts. VF-BSAlttCEivABLES^ pnnts all necessary staicincnts. invoices, arid summary 
reports and can be linked unth WrsaLedgfh 11'" and VERSA blVENTORY'". 

VERSAPAYABLES- $99.95 

Vt.KiiAPfli MH i b- (s dt-siiined lo keep track ol currpnl and aged payables, keeping you 
in touch with all information regarding how much money your company owes, and to 
whom. VtRSAPAVABLFS" maintains a complete record on each vendor, prints checks. 
check re^siers. vouchers, transactktn reports, aged payables reports, vendor reports, 
and more. With VArsaPayabi ES-, you can even lei yt>ur conwuler automatically setecl 
which vouchers are to be paid. 

VeRSAPaYROLL'" $99.95 

Versa Pa VROti." is a powerful and sf^histicaled, bui easy lo use payroll system that 
keeps track of all governrneni required payroll inlotmation, ConH>lele emi^yee records 
are maintained, find ali necessary payroll cakulalions are performed automatically, with 
totals displayed on screen lor operator approval A ]>ayroll can be run tolally. automati- 
cally, or ihe operator can intervene lo preveni a check (rom being printed, or to tiller 
intormation on il It desired. lolaJs may be posted lo the VfrsaUw.ER ir system. 



VersaLedger ir $149.95 

VersaUuoer li" IS acomplete accounting system that grows as your businew 
grows. V^RSALtDGEH IF" can be used as a simple personal checkooolt register, 
expanded to a small business bookkeeping system or developed into a large 
corporate general ledc^r system without any additional software. 

• VF-RSaLfOGFR fr" gives you almost unlimited storage capacity 

(300 to 10.000 entries per month, depending on ihe system), 

• stores all check and general ledger information forever. 

• prints tractor-feed checks, 

• handles multiple checkbooks and general ledgers. 

• prints 17 customized accounting reports including check registers, 
balance sheets, income slatcinenls. transaction reports, account 
listings, etc. 

VtKSALEDGER IF" comes with a professioriallirwrilten 160 page manual de- 
signed (or lirst-iime users The VhrsaLrdgfr IP* manual will help you become 
quickly familiar with VersaLedger IP", using complete sample data files 
supplied on diskette and more than 50 pages of sample printouts. 



VersaInventory" 



$99.95 



Versa hVFNTORV" is a complete inventory control sysiem thai gives youinstani access 
to data on any item. V^SAlNVENroRT" keeps track ot all information related to what 
Hems are in stock, out of stock, on backordet. etc , siores sales, and pricing data, aierls 
you when an item falls below a preset reorder point, and allows you lo enter and print 
invoicesdirectlyor to link with the VERSAF^CFn'ABiF.s'si.istem Wrsa1n\fntorv- prints 
all needed inventory listings, reports of items bekjw reorder point, inventory value re- 
ports, period and year lo-date sales reports, pnce lists, inventory checklists, etr 



iCQiriPUTHOMlCSi 



N. PASCACK ROAD, SPRING VALLEY, N.Y. 10977 




SATISFACTION GUARANTEED! 



! ■ . r Vl H'-MU iMMSS'"mndiil«is guaranteed H>(iuip«t()rmallo!h€TL-ompifliln.-e4yi[tnii. 
,,nr.ii .i-T ■. ■ ■-.- -.■-".-iirost Hyouarpnoi Mlisfied wilhanv VERSABUSINESS" iii-)duis.s.Oi. 
may rpruri Tt n-ithm W tlays lor a refund Manuablotany VEIi5ABUSINESS''n>odulemav'><' 
piirclviwit fnt S2.S p*"h. ciedilod toward d later pun-hai* ol Ihal module 
Ali CP M tiased Compulers must tw equipptrd w>th Mictoiolt BASIC 
(MBASfC or BASIC 801 



To Order: 
Write or call Toll-free (800) 431-2818 
(N.Y.S. residents call 914-425-1535) 

■ sciri i.l lot shipping m UPS aieas * 

•add$4(mCOD nrnon UPS areas 



add ib 10 CANADA or MEXICO 



DFAI FR INQUIRIES WELCOME 

All fWK-p5 and -ipwrifk-nfiims suhieci lo changp 



Ddiverv ^uhwi.' 'o availabibtv 



TRSai IraAfmark r.indv Coip APPLt ttademaik Apple Cot p IBM PC Irademork IBM Coip OSBORNE liadirmark Oibomt Corp XEROX Iraderrurk Xerox Coip KAYPROtiabemaikNon Linear 

Sy^'emi Im lEiXV'IDEO irademark lel*\i>dco Systems. Inr SANYO Iiadematk Sanyo Cotp NEC trademark NF-C Corp DEC tiademaik Digiinl FqiiiprTwril Corp ZENITH tradrmark Zenith Corp. 

Tl PHOFFSSIOTJAL COMPUTER ii«danaih T««s Inummenis. Inc SUPERBRAIN li«Jcmark Inlertev Corp CP M trademark Digrtal Rewaith EPSTON iiadanaik Epson Cocp 



'THE RESULTS ARE IMPRESSIVE, . ." 

— Dennis Kitsz. 80 Microcomputing; 12/82 

Langley-St. Clair's* Soft-View 

Replacement CRTs 

eliminates the strobe, 
flicker and fatigue 
from TRS-80's: 

Now you can upgrade your monitor with 
the new medium p)ersistence green or 
amber phosphor tube. 

State-of-the-art systems such as IBM"* 
and Apple ill"' do not use the less costly 
"P4" B&W display tube because it is 
actually intended for TV viewing and its 
rapid strobes (60 times per second) 
cause irritating eye fatigue. 

No amount of "green plastic" will solve 
this problem. But the new Soft*View 
CRT display tube from Langley-St. Clair 
will. 



• Available in slow decay Green or medium decay 
"European Amber" (the standard in Europe) 

' Made with Lead/Strontium impregnated glass that 
stops X-ray emission. 

Of high-contrast face glass that also stops most 
CJ.V. radiation. 

Available in frosted glass with extra Anti-Glare 
benefits. 

Easily installed. ..comes with pre-mounted 

hardware. 

Warranted for one full year against manufacturing 
defects or tube failure. 

The finest quality double-dark glass phosphor 
fields to produce dramatic contrast 

Ideal for Word Processing and Programming, yet 
fast enough for Games and Graphics. 



Now available 

for 
Models 4 &16 




LSIS Soft'View "CRTS 

D *GM42 Green Phosphor $79.95 

n *GM42G Green Phosphor w/AntlGlare $89 95 

D *OR34 Amber Phosphor $89.95 

D *OR34G Amber Phosphor w/ Anti-Glare $99.95 

also available: 

D ''R22G Red Phosphor w/AntiGlare $139.95 

D "3220 Blue Phosphor w/Anti-Glare $139.95 

Plus; $7.00 for packing and UPS Shipping 

$ 1 7.00 for Overseas, Parcel Post or UPS Blue Label 
Add Sales Tax where applicable. 
(Inquire about the CRTs we have available for 
many other computer models) 



For MasterCard and Visa Orders only, call 

800/221-7070 ^7^41^76) 



•:•:• Langley-St. Clair Instnjmentation Systems, Inc. 

• 132 West 24th St. New York, M.Y. 10011 











At i tint iinrrinuclicti pliuiu. 
♦World's larecM siipjillrr ii| iipK'"'"*''! rciiljKiriicni ("HTs 
Soll-Vk-w. IBM. Ap|iltHi«lT«SHOiin<lirntt<-niarksoil^lS. IBM. ApplrOm.t)uk'ri.iidTiiti<lvtVirii